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首页 新西兰人权法案

新西兰人权法案.pdf

新西兰人权法案

JUEKYO
2013-02-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《新西兰人权法案pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

新西兰人权法案BillofRightsTheNewZealandBillofRightsAct(sometimesknownbyitsacronym,NZBORAorBORA)isastatuteoftheNewZealandParliamentsettingouttherightsandfundamentalfreedomsofthecitizensofNewZealandasaBillofrightsItispartofNewZealand'suncodifiedconstitutionInaWhitePaperentitled"ABillofRightsforNewZealand",wastabledinParliamentbythethenMinisterofJustice,HonGeoffreyPalmerThepaperproposedanumberofcontroversialfeatures,whichsparkedwidespreaddebate:•TheBillofRightswastobecomeentrenchedlawsothatitcouldnotbeamendedorrepealedwithoutamajorityvoteintheHouseofRepresentativesorasimplemajorityinapublicreferendum•TheBillofRightswastothereforehavestatusassupremelaw,therebycausingsomeerosiontothedoctrineofParliamentarysovereignty•TheTreatyofWaitangiwastobewhollyincorporatedwithintheBillofRightsthuselevatingtheTreaty'sstatustothatofsupremelaw•TheJudiciarywouldhavethepowertoinvalidateanyActofParliament,commonlawruleorofficialactionwhichwascontrarytotheBillofRightsApplicationoftheBillofRightsTheActappliesonlytoactsdonebythethreebranchesofgovernment(thelegislature,executiveandjudiciary)ofNewZealand,oranybodyinthe"performanceofanypublicfunction,power,orduty"createdbythelaw(Section)BillofRightsNZ新西兰年人权法案CivilandPoliticalRights公民权利和政治权利PartIIoftheActcoversabroadrangeofCivilandPoliticalRightsLifeandtheSecurityofthePerson个人的生命和安全Aspartoftherighttolifeandsecurityoftheperson,theActguaranteeseveryone:个人的生命和安全的权利的一部分这个法案保证每个人:*Therightnottobedeprivedoflifeexceptinaccordancewithfundamentaljustice(Section)除了符合最根本的公正不被剥夺生命的权利。*Therightnottobesubjectedtotortureortocruel,degrading,ordisproportionatelyseveretreatmentorpunishment(Section)有权不被别人丢脸不被减低身份不受不相称的严厉酷刑和惩罚。*Therightnottobesubjectedtomedicalorscientificexperimentationwithoutconsent(Section)如果没有本人的同意有权不受医疗和科学实验。*Therighttorefusetoundergoanymedicaltreatment(Section)有权拒绝任何医学实验DemocraticandCivilRights民主和公民权ElectoralRights选举权TheActsetsouttheelectoralrightsofNewZealandersTheActguaranteesthateveryNewZealandcitizenwhoisoforovertheageofyearshas。*TherighttovoteinelectionsofmembersofParliament,whichshallbeheldbyequalsuffrageandbysecretballot(Section(a))*HastherighttobecomeamemberoftheHouseofRepresentatives(Section(b))Furthermore,theActguaranteeseveryone:FreedomofThought,Conscience,andReligion*Therighttofreedomofthought,conscience,religion,andbelief,includingtherighttoadoptandholdopinionswithoutinterference(Section)Freedomofexpression自由表达的权利本文档由禁书网收集整理禁书网禁书禁片禁闻下载阅读基地。*Therighttofreedomofexpression,includingthefreedomtoseek,receive,andimpartinformationandopinionsofanykindinanyform(Section)自由表达的权利包括自由收集接受传播信息的权利表达任何种类观点的自由。ReligionandBelief宗教和信仰*Therighttomanifestthatperson'sreligionorbeliefinworship,observance,practice,orteaching,eitherindividuallyorincommunitywithothers,andeitherinpublicorinprivate(Section)Assembly有以个体名义或某个社团名义在公共场合或私人场合下表达个人宗教或信仰崇拜遵守某种礼仪练习和教授的权利。*Therightofpeacefulassembly(Section)和平集会的权利Association社团*Therighttofreedomofassociation(Section)结社的权利Movement运动*TherighttofreedomofmovementandresidenceinNewZealand(Section())有权在新西兰自由迁移和居住的权利TheActguaranteestoeveryNewZealandcitizen:这个法律保证每个新西兰公民TherighttoenterNewZealand(Section())有权进入新西兰TheActguaranteeseveryone:这条法律保证每个人*TherighttoleaveNewZealand(Section())有权离开新西兰TheActalso(Section())ensuresthatnonNewZealandcitizenslawfullyinNewZealandshallnotberequiredtoleaveexceptunderadecisiontakenongroundsprescribedbylaw这条法律保证在法律上允许的非新西兰公民不被要求离开除非一法律为准则做的决定。NonDiscriminationandMinorityRights不被区别对待和少数民族的权利SectionoftheActguaranteesfreedomfromdiscrimination,onthegroundsofdiscriminationsetoutintheHumanRightsAct在人权法关于歧视的规定的基础上这条法律保证不受歧视的自由Search,Arrest,andDetention搜捕逮捕和拘留TheActguaranteeseveryone:这条法案保证每个人*Therighttobesecureagainstunreasonablesearchorseizure,whetheroftheperson,property,orcorrespondence,orotherwise(Section)*Therightnottobearbitrarilyarrestedordetained(Section)Everyonewhoisarrestedorwhoisdetainedhastherightto:如果您被逮捕或拘留您有权:*Beinformedatthetimeofthearrestordetentionofthereasonforitand有权在逮捕和拘留时被知会地板和拘留的原因*Consultandinstructalawyerwithoutdelayandtobeinformedofthatrightand有权告知这个权利并咨询以为律师*HavethevalidityofthearrestordetentiondeterminedwithoutdelaybywayofhabeascorpusandtobereleasedifthearrestordetentionisnotlawfulEveryonewhoisarrestedforanoffencehastherighttobechargedpromptlyortobereleasedEveryonewhoisarrestedordetainedforanyoffenceorsuspectedoffenceshallhavetherightto:*Refrainfrommakinganystatementandtobeinformedofthatright有权知会您有这个权利和不做任何声明。Everyonedeprivedoflibertyhastherighttobetreatedwithhumanityandwithrespectfortheinherentdignityoftheperson(Section)被剥夺了自由的每一个人有权享受人道主义待遇关于与生俱来的人的尊严CriminalJustice犯罪公正TheActrequiresthateveryonewhoischargedwithanoffence:这个法律要求每个被指控的犯人*Shallbeinformedpromptlyandindetailofthenatureandcauseofthechargeand被迅速告知指控的原因和具体的犯罪性质*Shallbereleasedonreasonabletermsandconditionsunlessthereisjustcauseforcontinueddetentionand基于理由和条款将被释放除非仍然有继续拘留的原因*Shallhavetherighttoconsultandinstructalawyerand将有权利咨询一位律师*Shallhavetherighttoadequatetimeandfacilitiestoprepareadefenceand将有权有足够的时间和设备去为自己辩护。*Shallhavetheright,exceptinthecaseofanoffenceundermilitarylawtriedbeforeamilitarytribunal,tothebenefitofatrialbyjurywhenthepenaltyfortheoffenceisorincludesimprisonmentformorethanmonthsand*Shallhavetherighttoreceivelegalassistancewithoutcostiftheinterestsofjusticesorequireandthepersondoesnothavesufficientmeanstoprovideforthatassistanceand如果为了跟公正的判决如果当事者没有足够的资金来帮助自己有权获得一个免费的法律援助。*Shallhavetherighttohavethefreeassistanceofaninterpreterifthepersoncannotunderstandorspeakthelanguageusedincourt(Section)如果当事人不能理解或说在法庭上使用的语言有权拥有一个免费的口译员。FairTrial公平的审判Everyonewhoischargedwithanoffencehastheminimumright:每个被指控的人的最低权利:*Toafairandpublichearingbyanindependentandimpartialcourt有权在一个独立和公正的法庭上经过一个公平的公开的审判*Tobetriedwithoutunduedelay没有任何拖延的进行一个审判*Tobepresumedinnocentuntilprovedguiltyaccordingtolaw有权假设无辜直到根据法律被证明有罪。*Nottobecompelledtobeawitnessortoconfessguilt有权不被强迫成为一个见证人或供认有罪*Tobepresentatthetrialandtopresentadefence有权经过一个审判和自我辩护的过程*Toexaminethewitnessesfortheprosecutionandtoobtaintheattendanceandexaminationofwitnessesforthedefenceunderthesameconditionsastheprosecution*Ifconvictedofanoffenceinrespectofwhichthepenaltyhasbeenvariedbetweenthecommissionoftheoffenceandsentencing,tothebenefitofthelesserpenalty*Ifconvictedoftheoffence,toappealaccordingtothelawtoahighercourtagainsttheconvictionoragainstthesentenceoragainstboth:*Inthecaseofachild,tobedealtwithinamannerthattakesaccountofthechild'sage(Section)DoubleJeopardySectioncoversinstancesofdoublejeopardyTheActholdsthat:*NooneshallbeliabletoconvictionofanyoffenceonaccountofanyactoromissionwhichdidnotconstituteanoffencebysuchpersonunderthelawofNewZealandatthetimeitoccurred*Noonewhohasbeenfinallyacquittedorconvictedof,orpardonedfor,anoffenceshallbetriedorpunishedforitagainRemedieshttp:wwwjusticegovtnzpublicationsglobalpublicationstthenewzealandlegalsystemTheNewZealandBillofRightsActTheNewZealandBillofRightsActsafeguardsthecivilandpoliticalrightsofNewZealandersTheActprotectsthefollowingcategoriesofrightsandfreedoms:lifeandsecurityofthepersondemocraticandcivilrightsnondiscriminationandminorityrightssearch,arrestanddetentioncriminalprocedureandrighttojusticeTheActisnothigherlawanddoesnot"override"otherlaws,butitdoesneverthelessprovideprotectionfortherightsinitTheCourtsmustinterpretotherlawsconsistentlywiththeBillofRightsActifatallpossibleFurther,allbillsareassessedforconsistencywiththeBillofRightsActbeforetheyareintroducedintoParliamentWherethereisaninconsistencyinabill,theAttorneyGeneralmustinformParliamentWhilethisdoesnotpreventParliamentpassinginconsistentlaws,itdoesensurethatanyissuesarefullydebatedTheHumanRightsActTheHumanRightsActisaimedatgivingallpeopleequalopportunitiesandpreventingunfairtreatmentonthebasisofirrelevantpersonalcharacteristicsTheHumanRightsActcoversdiscriminationonthegroundsofsex,maritalstatus,religiousbelief,ethicalbelief,colour,race,ethnicornationalorigins,disability,age,politicalopinion,employmentstatus,familystatus,andsexualorientationItisunlawfultodiscriminateonthesegroundsinthefollowingareasofpubliclife:employment,education,accesstopublicplaces,provisionofgoodsandservices,andhousingandaccommodationPeoplewhothinktheyhavebeendiscriminatedagainstmaycomplaintotheHumanRightsCommissionNewZealandHumanRightsActTheHumanRightsActisanActoftheParliamentofNewZealandwhichdealswithdiscriminationItwasaconsolidationandamendmentofTheRaceRelationsActandtheHumanRightsCommissionActItpassedintolawFebruaryTheActgovernstheworkoftheNewZealandHumanRightsCommissionItalsooutlaweddiscriminationonawidevarietyofgrounds,including:Sex(includingpregnancyandchildbirth)MaritalstatusReligiousbeliefEthicalbeliefColourRaceEthnicornationaloriginsDisabilityAgePoliticalopinionEmploymentstatusFamilystatusSexualorientationThereareasignificantnumberofcaveats,including"genuineoccupationalqualification,""domesticemploymentinaprivatehousehold,""topreservereasonablestandardsofprivacy,""nationalsecurity"and"organisedreligion"OtherformsofdiscriminationRacialdisharmony种族的不和谐对待Sexualharassment性别骚扰Racialharassment种族骚扰ChoiceofproceduresRepealedIndirectdiscrimination间接的歧视Victimisation受害Advertisements作广告LiabilityofemployerandprincipalsFurtherprovisioninrelationtosexualorracialharassmentinemployment新西兰人权法案ApplicationoftheBillofRights

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