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Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as a.pdf

Fear, threat and efficacy in th…

上传者: 178687041 2013-01-20 评分 3 0 31 4 140 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Fear, threat and efficacy in threat appeals: Message involvement as apdf》,可适用于哈哈哈哈领域,主题内容包含AccidentAnalysisandPrevention()–ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirectAccid符等。

AccidentAnalysisandPrevention()–ContentslistsavailableatScienceDirectAccidentAnalysisandPreventionjournalhomepage:wwwelseviercoFear,thsakeymeVerolienensaGhentUniveres,KobUniversityofcHasseltUniveBEDRarticlArticlehistory:ReceivedJunReceivedinreNovemberAcceptedNKeywords:ThreatappealsEvokedfearPerceivedthrePerceivedefficMessageinvolvementSpeedingectoourdivedringinsageiacypmesssMenevoIntroduThreatabydescribindowhattheandthreatetal,)fromcertaithreatsTheisnotthesaal,)Imessage,anInearlieastheonlyJanis,)(ProtectionallelProcesreasonformNeitheroftitsownrigCorresponEmailaddPatrickdepels(WJanssens),$–doi:jactionppealsare“persuasivemessagesdesignedtoscarepeoplegtheterriblethingsthatwillhappentothemiftheydonotmessagerecommends”(Witte,,)Fearappealsappealsareoftenincorrectlyusedassynonyms(KohnHowever,threatsillustrateundesirableconsequencesnbehaviorsfearisapotentialemotionalresponsetoobjectoffearorthemessagecontent(threatappeal)meastheaudiencereaction(feelingoffear)(Lewisetntheremainderofthistext,threatappealreferstothedfeartotheemotionalresponserthreatappealmodels,evokedfearisconsideredeitherfactorthatinfluencesadaptivebehavior(Drivemodels,,asadeterminantorconsequenceofperceivedthreatMotivationTheory(PMT),Rogers,ExtendedParsingModel(EPPM),Witte,,,),orasaaladaptivebehaviorasaresultoffearcontrol(EPPM)hesemodelsassignsanimportancetoevokedfearinhtandincombinationwiththecognitiveappraisalofdingauthorTel:fax:resses:Veroliencaubergheugentbe(VCauberghe),mackeruaacbe(PDePelsmacker),WimjanssensuhasseltbeNathaliedensuaacbe(NDens)threatandresponseefficacyfordevelopingadaptiveattitudesandbehaviorSecond,manythreatappealmodelshaveignoredtheroleoftheindividual’sreactiontothethreatappealmessageitselfinthepersuasionprocess,buthavemostlymeasuredtheeffectofanindividual’sreactiontothethreatappealmessageintermsofattitudetowardstheissue,behavioralintention,andbehaviorchangeHowever,thereisalongresearchtraditioninadvertisingstudiesthatattributesastrongmediatingroleofthereactiontowardstheadvertisement(eg,theattitudetowardstheaditself)foradvertisingeffectiveness(eg,BrownandStayman,MitchellandOlson,)ThisresponsecanbebothcognitiveandoraffectiveThreatappealsmaytriggerperceivedthreatorperceivedresponseefficacythatleadstohighmessageinvolvementandelaboration(RoskosEwoldsenetal,Witte,)Inaddition,threatappealsmayevokefearPeoplecanalsousethisevokedemotiontoscrutinizeamessagebecausetheybelieveitcontainsvaluableandrelevantinformation,leadingtomoreinvolvementandsystematicinformationprocessing(Bagozzietal,Slavinetal,TiedensandLinton,)TheroleofmessageinvolvementinpersuasionisalsoconsistentwiththeprinciplesoftheElaborationLikelihoodModel(PettyandCacioppo,)Therefore,itmaybeexpectedthatperceivedthreatandresponseefficacyandevokedfearhaveanimpactonmessageinvolvement,whichinturnimpactsmessageoutcomes(ie,attitudetowardstheissueandbehavioralintentions)seefrontmatterElsevierLtdAllrightsreservedapreatandefficacyinthreatappeals:MesdiatortomessageacceptanceCauberghea,PatrickDePelsmackerb,,WimJansssityandUniversityofAntwerp,GhentUniversity,DepartmentofCommunicationSciencAntwerp,FacultyofAppliedEconomics,Prinsstraat,BEAntwerpen,BelgiumrsityandUniversityofAntwerp,HasseltUniversity,CampusDiepenbeek,DepartementeinfoevisedformovemberatacyabstractInasampleofyoungsters,theeffappealagainstspeeding,placedinfandprobabilityofoccurrence),perceantispeedingattitudeandantispeedefficacyindependentlyinfluencemesevokedfear,perceivedthreatandefficandbehavioralintentiontoaccepttheativeimpactonantispeedingattitudecongruencyhaveasignificanteffectomlocateaapgeinvolvementasac,NathalieDensbrteMeer,BEGent,BelgiumBBK,AgoralaanGebouwD,BEDiepenbeek,Belgiumftwoversionsofapublicserviceannouncement(PSA)threatifferentcontexts,onevokedfear,perceivedthreat(severityesponseefficacyandselfefficacy,messageinvolvementandtentionisinvestigatedEvokedfearandperceivedthreatandnvolvementMessageinvolvementisafullmediatorbetweenerceptionontheonehand,andattitudestowardsthemessageageontheotherSpeedingexperiencehasasignificantlynegssageandmediumcontextthreatlevelsandcontextthematickedfearandtoalesserextentonperceivedthreatElsevierLtdAllrightsreservedVCaubergheetalAccidentAnalysisandPrevention()–Moststudieshaveconfinedthemselvestomanipulatingtheleveloffear,butcontextvariables,suchasemotionalorthematic(in)congruency(see,eg,JanssensandDePelsmacker,)mayhaveaneffectontheresponsestothreatappealsaswellOneoftheleaststmessageanceivedthreWitte,Finally,mechanismhabitformaPelsmackerTheprespeedingcoroleofmesperceivedttion(fear)ospeedingonsagethreatcontexttheevokedfeartargetbehastudiedTheThestudusingpubliventspeedofindividuashowthatryoungerageofvehiclecetal,Therefore,frelevanttarFirst,earesultsarearederivedtheconceptefficacyonmattitudeandthefirstpathreatlevelperceivedthTheoretConceptstruggledwDrivemodeappealstoonemotionUshapedretudesandbbest:somedrivestatereduction)theoryofreone’sfreedoandShen,port(GlendandThorntoBenArietafearmessagpledenythselfesteemHowever,nrejection(eg,DillardandAnderson,KingandReid,LaTourandRotfeld,Witte,)TheProtectionMotivationTheory(PMT,Rogers,)prescribesthatfourindependentcognitiveresponsesmediatetheofarceivethreividueat,eracacyommentthlfeffiesiuentactoThedel:seveotamendPMTpraisesexplexprallelPMdoneoavpeopdefevokepereaseothdpetualieiveasinofoWittetwedireclizatationnintsuscvelseacempporKelle)edtoncluorreardltwoficacriousffectsereudiedaspectsofthreatappealsisthequestionwhichdcontextelementsleadtohigherorlowerlevelsofperat,efficacyandevokedfear(HastingsandStead,)individualdifferencesmayimpactthepersuasiveofthreatappealsInthisrespect,experienceortionhasbeensuggestedasanimportantfactor(DeandJanssens,FalkandMontgomery,)sentstudytriestopartlyfillthesevoidsinanantintext,andhasthreecontributionsFirst,themediatingsageinvolvementbetweenadevokedcognitions(ie,hreat,perceivedcopingefficacy)andadevokedemontheonehand,andtheattitudeandintentiontowardstheother,isstudiedSecond,theeffectsofthemeslevel,themediumcontextthreatlevelandthemediummaticcongruencyonperceivedthreatandefficacyandareexploredFinally,theroleofexperiencewiththevior(speeding)onmessageprocessingandoutcomesisconceptualmodelisgiveninFigyiscarriedoutinagroupofBelgianyoungsters,cserviceannouncement(PSA)threatappealstopreingYoungpeopleareaparticularlyvulnerablegrouplswhenitcomestoroadsafetyandspeedingStudiesiskydrivingbehaviorandspeedingareassociatedwithandacrosstheworld,–yearoldsaremostatriskrashinvolvement(GlendonandCernecca,JankeTaubmanBenArietal,Williamsetal,)ocusinguponyoungstersisalegitimateandparticularlygetgroupchoicerliermodelsofthreatappealsandpreviousempiricaldiscussedasaconceptualframework,andhypothesesAnalysisreportstheresultsforthesecondpartofualmodelinFig,ie,theimpactoffear,threatandessageinvolvementandmessageoutcomes(speedingintention)Analysisreportstheresultsofthetestofrtofthemodel,ie,theeffectofmessageandcontextandcontextthematiccongruencyonevokedfearandreatandefficacyicalframeworkandhypothesesdevelopmentualmodelsofhowthreatappealswork,havealwaysiththeroleofevokedfearinthepersuasiveprocessls(eg,Janis,)attributetheeffectivenessofthreatevokedfearandareinthatsenseexclusivelyfocusedaleffectsDrivemodelsclaimthatthereisaninvertedlationshipbetweenthefearlevelofamessageandattiehaviorInotherwords,moderatefearappealsworkfearisneededtomotivatepeopletoreachanegativeHowever,thefearhastobeabletobereduced(driveIffearistoohigh,maladaptivebehaviorwillfollowTheactance(themotivationtoresistanyperceivedthreattomtomakeupone’sownmindaboutanissue,Dillard)forhighfearappealsfindssomeempiricalsuponandCernecca,KellerandBlock,Rossitern,)The‘TerrorManagementTheory’(Taubmanl,)alsooffersapotentialexplanationofwhyhighesarecounterproductiveAccordingtothistheory,peoeirfearofdeathandattempttoenhancetheirpositivebymeansofspeeding,asawayofmanagingthisfearearlyallformaltestsofdrivemodelshaveledtotheirimpactior:peoftheanindthethrwhethselfeffitherecrepresandsemessagconseqanimp)themoceivedfearisnrecomThetiveapoutcomjobinfailstoThePa,TheEPnitivewaystwhichtance,mayehighertoincrtrolInbfearanconcepofpercwhereabilityshipbcausalceptuaelabortion)Aandorhighlemessagproducicalsual(perceivTheycbehaviior,regfoundandefthevadentethatththreatappealoncopingattitudes,intentionsandbehavdseverity,anindividual’sbeliefsabouttheseriousnessat,perceivedsusceptibilityorprobabilityofoccurrence,al’sbeliefsabouthisorherchancesofexperiencingperceivedresponseefficacy,anindividual’sbeliefsastoresponseeffectivelypreventsthethreat,andperceived,anindividual’sbeliefinhisorherabilitytoperformendedresponsePerceivedseverityandsusceptibilityeperceivedlevelofthreat,perceivedresponseefficacycacyrepresenttheperceivedlevelofefficacyThreatnducetheabovementionedcognitiveresponsesandlyleadtoprotectionmotivationwhich,inturn,hasnattitudesandcopingintentionandbehavior(Witte,PMTdoesnotexplicitlyincludefearasanemotioninfearaffectsoutcomesonlythroughitsimpactonperrityandsusceptibility(probabilityofoccurrence),andnecessaryprerequisiteforcompliancewiththemessageation(Rogers,Tanneretal,)isessentiallyanadditivemodelinthatthefourcognialfactorseachhaveanindependentimpactoncopingAccordingtoWitte(),thePMTdoesanexcellentainingthefactorsleadingtomessageacceptance,butlainthespecificfactorsleadingtomessagerejectionProcessTheory(Leventhal,)andtheEPPM(Witte,,)reintegratefearintothreatappealprocessingefinestworeactionstothreatappeals:amainlycog(dangercontrol):peoplethinkaboutthethreatandertitandamainlyemotionalone(fearcontrol)inlereacttotheirfearandengageinstrategies(reacnsiveavoidance)tocontroltheirfearThreatappealsfearthatleadstofearcontrol,ortheymayleadtoceivedthreatthatleadstofearand,inturn,againdperceivedthreat(feedbackloop)anddangerconthePMTandtheEPPM,acorrelationbetweenevokedrceivedthreatisassumed(eg,Witte,)Insomezations,evokedfearisconceptualizedasanantecedentdthreat(LiuandStout,KellerandBlock,),othersitisaconsequenceofperceivedthreatandprobccurrence(ArthurandQuester,KingandReid,e,)However,empiricalsupportforarelationenfear,threatandefficacyappraisalisweak,andthetionisunclear(ArthurandQuester,)Insomeconions(eg,theEPPMmodel),threatappraisal(problem)precedescoping(efficacy)appraisal(solutionelaboraeractionisassumedbetweenperceivedthreat(severityeptibility)andperceivedresponseandorselfefficacy:ofthreatcombinedwithhighlevelsofefficacyproduceceptancehighlevelsofthreatwithlowlevelsofefficacyessagerejectionStill,thereisagainverylittleempirtforthistheoreticalassumption(ArthurandQuester,randBlock,)Forinstance,RoskosEwoldsenetfoundthattherewasnointeractioneffectbetweenhreatandperceivedefficacyonattitudeaccessibilitydedthatamessagestressingtheefficacyofadaptivesultsinamorepositiveattitudetowardsthisbehavessofthelevelofthreatWitteandAllen()onlystudiesinwhichaninteractioneffectbetweenthreatyonoutcomeswasfoundInthemajorityofstudies,cognitiveappraisalvariableshaveseparateindepenonoutcomesThishasledvariousauthorstoconcludeismoreempiricalsupportfortheadditivemodelofVCaubergheetalAccidentAnalysisandPrevention()–FigConcepongruandcopingeffispeedantispeedingcognitiveaptiveconcep)Further,shipbetweresponses)reportedaDillardandRotfeld,lackofatheelsinempibetriggeretionalarousresponses(viousreseaitselfbiases(suchasdevandPham,RoskosEwoaremoreacwhichintuquently,thefearonadaefficacyappAllthish(severityanandevokedthreatstimhaveanindtionandbethreatappedationsoftreactionstocompellingrelationshipcopingefficofthesecomHEvokeoccurrence,dentpositivintentionstthrocessHooleoisingprobveneiveamenineshat,highusthnsligeprsandarleamenmpolcantualmodeloftheeffectofmessageandcontextthreatlevel,contextthematicccacy(analysis)andofevokedfear,perceptionofthreatandcopingefficacyandintention(analysis)praisaleffects(theoriginalPMT)thanforanyalternatualization(ArthurandQuester,WitteandAllen,thereisoverwhelmingevidenceofapositiverelationenevokedfearassuch(ie,regardlessofcognitiveandpersuasionThemajorityofpublishedstudieshaspositive,monotonicfear–persuasionrelationship(eg,Anderson,KingandReid,LaTourandThorntonetal,)Oneofthereasonsfortheoreticallyassumednegativeeffectof‘toohigh’fearlevricalstudiesmaybethata‘fearoverdose’mayrarelydbyathreatappealad(LaTour,)Further,emoal,suchasevokedfear,canassuchdetermineadaptiveJanis,RoskosEwoldsenetal,)Indeed,prerchhasindicatedthatexperiencingafearemotioninone’spreferencetowardoptionsinvolvingalowriskelopingadaptiveattitudesandbehavior)(Raghunathan)Forinstance,RoskosEwoldsenetal()andldsenetal()statethataffectivelybasedattitudescessiblefrommemorythannonaffectivelybasedones,rnleadstomoreattitude–behaviorconsistencyConsereisreasontoassumethatthereisaneffectofevokedMoual’sprprocesatingradvertOlson,anditseffecticognitinvolveetal(determclaimtingofaaserioemotiomessaTiedenthatfeinvolvemoreiarousaptiveresponsesaboveandbeyondcognitivethreatandraisal(ArthurandQuester,deHoogetal,)asledvariousauthorstoconcludethatperceivedthreatdsusceptibility),perceived(responseandself)efficacy,feararethreepossibleindependentresponsestoaulus(StrongandDubas,)andthattheycanallependenteffectonmessageoutcomes(attitudes,intenhavior)Therefore,contrarytotheexpectationsofsomealmodels,butconsistentwithearlierempiricalvalihesemodelsandwithotherframeworksofconsumeremotionevokingappeals,theredoesnotseemtobeaargumentforexpectingastrongcorrelationoracausalbetweenarousedfear,perceivedthreatandperceivedacy,butratherforanindependentpositiveeffectofeachponentsonmessageoutcomesdfearandperceivedseverityofthreat,probabilityofselfefficacyandresponseefficacyhaveanindepeneeffectonantispeedingattitudeandantispeedingmessageprcessingfactanimportaemotionso(LaTourandtheroleofaetal(messagereimpactThewiththeprItmaybefearhaveanimpactonttionsThiseandRotfeldfeararousainturn,sigbehavioralH“Messeffectofevencyandspeedingexperienceonevokedfear,perceptionofthreatingexperienceonmessageinvolvement,antispeedingattitudeandeatappealstudieshaveignoredtheeffectoftheindividsingofthethreatappealmessageitselfinthepersuasionwever,manyadvertisingstudiesfoundastrongmediftheinitialresponsetowardstheadvertisementforeffectiveness(BrownandStayman,Mitchelland)Athreatappealmaymaketheseverityofthethreatabilityofoccurrencesalient,whilefocusingonissuesofssofcopingwiththemItmayinitiateattention,triggerppraisalandmotivationtoprocess,andleadtohighertandelaboration(Witte,)Forinstance,deHoog)foundthattheappraisalofthemagnitudeofathreatthedepthofmessageprocessingChaikenetal()inthecontextofhealthrelatedthreatappeals,processthreatmessagewillbedeepbecausebeingexposedtoreatislikelytotriggerathoroughevaluationAdevokedkefearcanbecentralcuesthatleadtomoreinvolvedocessingtoo(Bagozzietal,KellerandBlock,Linton,)Forinstance,Slavinetal()arguedstochangedbehaviorbycommandingattentionandttothemessage,andconsequentlyfeararousalmaybertantforattitudechangethancognitiveappraisalsFearactasamotivatortoengageinintensiveandthoughtfulocessing(deHoogetal,)Moreover,messageproorssuchasincreasedattentionandinvolvement,canbentmediatingvariablebetweenevokedcognitionsandntheonehandandmessageacceptanceontheotherRotfeld,Tanneretal,)Intheirstudyonttitudeaccessibilityinthreatappeals,RoskosEwoldsen)arguethatsystematicorelaborativeprocessingofasultsinmoreaccessibleattitudesandagreatermessageroleofmessageinvolvementinpersuasionisconsistentinciplesoftheELM(PettyandCacioppo,)expectedthatperceivedthreatandefficacyandevokedimpactonmessageinvolvement,whichinturnhasanheattitudetowardsthemessageandbehavioralintenxpectationisalsoconsistentwiththemodelofLaTour()inwhichperceivedoccurrence,selfefficacy,andlhadaneffectonresponsestotheadvertisementwhich,nificantlyimpactedtheattitudetowardstheissueandintentionTherefore,weexpect:ageinvolvementatleastpartlymediatesthepositiveokedfearandperceivedseverityofthreat,probabilityVCaubergheetalAccidentAnalysisandPrevention()–ofoccurrence,selfefficacyandresponseefficacyonantispeedingattitudeandantispeedingintention”Inametaanalysis,WitteandAllen()foundthatindividualdifferenoutcomeswOneofthecopingattitual’sexperiJanssens(speedingbelarly,KellercovariateinhavefoundappealoutcFalkandMoconfidenceperceptionencedspeedandonethaH“MoreitiveattitudIntheiroverall,strofeararous

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