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首页 [GRE语文优势].Verbal.Advantage.pdf

[GRE语文优势].Verbal.Advantage.pdf

[GRE语文优势].Verbal.Advantage.pdf

上传者: nomad 2013-01-20 评分 5 0 135 18 612 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《[GRE语文优势].Verbal.Advantagepdf》,可适用于哈哈哈哈领域,主题内容包含PagePageTableofContentsIntroductionPretestLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelRevi符等。

PagePageTableofContentsIntroductionPretestLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelLevelReviewTestforLevelPosttestPageIntroductionLetmeguesswhyyoupickedupthisbookYouwanttobecomeabetterwriterandspeakerYouwanttousetheEnglishlanguagecorrectlyandwithconfidenceYou'relookingforsomethingthatwillhelpyoulearnmorewordsandlearnthemswiftlysomethingthat'snotjustinformativebutalsointerestingandfuntoreadYoudon'twantwordgamesYouwantresultsStoprighthereVerbalAdvantageispreciselywhatyou'relookingfor:themostcomprehensive,accessible,andeffectivevocabularybuildingprogramavailabletodayHere'swhatyoucanexpectfromVerbalAdvantage:BythetimeyoufinishreadingthisbookyouwillhavemorethantripledyournormalrateoflearningvocabularyAndwhenyouhavemasteredallthewordsintheprogram,yourvocabularylevelwillbeinthetoppercentofalleducatedadultsYouwillalsoknowhowtoavoidcommonerrorsofgrammar,usage,andpronunciation,andyouwillpossessthetoolstocontinuebuildingyourverbalskillsfortherestofyourlifeThroughouttheVerbalAdvantageprogramIwillbeyourpersonalguideonatouroftheEnglishlanguage,atourthatIguaranteewillhelpyouimproveyourwordpowerdramaticallyandpermanentlyAlongthewayIwillalsocoachyouinhowtousethelanguagewithgreaterclarity,precision,andstyleLetmetellyouabitaboutmyselfIamanauthor,journalist,andradiocommentatorwhospecializesinwritingabouttheEnglishlanguageLikemostseriouswriters,Icaredeeplyaboutwordswheretheycamefrom,whattheymean,howtheyareusedandpronouncedInfact,Ithinkit'sfairtosaythatI'mafflictedwithaterminalpassionforwordsAllowmetoexplainhowIcontractedthismostpleasantmaladyForaslongasIcanrememberIhavebeeninlovewiththebeauty,rhythm,subtlety,andpoweroflanguage,andfromanearlyageIaspiredtoacareerworkingwithwordsLikemanywriters,IacquiredmyaffectionforwordsfrommyparentsAlthoughbothmyfatherandmotherareretiredprofessionalmusicians,theyhavealwaysbeenavidreaderswithafineearforlanguageaswellasmusicWhenIwasyoungtheyreadmestoriesandpoemsatbedtime,andasIgrewoldertheyencouragedmetoreadwidelyonmyownIoftenhadlengthydiscussionswiththemaboutbooksandlanguage,andwheneverwehadaquestionoradisputeaboutaword,theheftyunabridgeddictionaryinourlivingroomwasthefinalauthorityTheconsequenceofthisverballyintensiveupbringingwasthattwoparentswholovedPagelanguagebutmademusicforalivingwoundupwithasonwholovesmusicbutmakeshislivingwithwordsButthat'senoughaboutme,becausethisbookisnotaboutmeandmywritingcredentialsIt'saboutyou,andhowyoucanachievetheverbaladvantageVerbalAdvantageisaboutdefinitions,solet'sbeginbydefiningthephrase“verbaladvantage”Whatexactlyisa“verbaladvantage”Doesitsuggestwhatsmart,successfulpeopleknowaboutlanguageDoesitrefertothewordstheyuseinconversationandwritingYes,inpartButinthisbook,“verbaladvantage”encompassessomethingmorethanjustwhateducatedpeoplealreadyknowaboutusingthelanguageItalsomeanswhateducatedpeopleoughttoknowaboutusingthelanguageandhowusingitwellcanhelpthemsucceedInshort,a“verbaladvantage”istheabilitytousewordsinapreciseandpowerfulmanner,tocommunicateclearly,correctly,andeffectivelyineverysituation,bothonandoffthejobInthisbookIintendtotakeyourabilitywithwordsandturnitintomasteryNumerousstudieshaveshownthatthereisacorrelationbetweencareerandfinancialsuccessandanaboveaveragevocabulary,andthatthelevelofsuccesspeopleachieveislinkedtothenumberofwordstheycommandYoumaybeontherighttrack,butareyouasproductiveandsuccessfulasyouknowyoucanbeInthelongrunallyourhardworkandalltheknowledgeyougainfromexperiencemaynotproducetheresultsyouexpectifyoulacktheconfidencethatcomesfromanaccompanyingmasteryofwordsAsthesyndicatedcolumnistWilliamRaspberryonceputit,“GoodEnglish,wellspokenandwellwritten,willopenmoredoorsthanacollegedegree…BadEnglishwillslamdoorsyoudon'tevenknowexist”VerbalAdvantagewillgiveyoumostofthelinguistictoolsyouneedtocommunicatemoreeffectivelyandconfidently,andIwillshowyouhowtousethemwithprecisionIfyoulike,considerVerbalAdvantageanapprenticeshiptoasecondcareeronethatcanhelpyouimmeasurablyandenhanceyourchancesofsuccessWhenyoufinishreadingthisbook,you'llbeonyourownButIthinkyou'llfindyourselfpreparedtomeetthechallengeofachievingandmaintainingaverbaladvantageImprovingyourverbalskillsisnotaneasytask,butitdoesn'thavetobeachoreInfact,itcanbeoneofthemostrewardingactivitiesyouwilleverundertakeFewthingscanequalthesatisfactionthatcomesfromusingtherightwordattheappropriatemomentorrealizingthatthewayyouhavechosentoexpresssomethinghasmovedorgratifiedorpersuadedyouraudienceLet'sbegin,then,withabriefsummaryofwhatyoustandtogainfromreadingthisbookYouwilllearnaboutvocabularybuildingandwhyitisindispensabletoyourpersonaldevelopmentIwillteachyoutheprinciplesandtechniquesofbuildingalargeandexactvocabularyandintroduceyoutowordsthatwilladdclaritytoyourwritingandinfuseyourconversationwithstyleYouwillalsodiscoverhowtoputyourpowerfulnewvocabularyintoactionrightaway,andhowtomakethewordsyou'velearnedserveyouwellfortherestofyourlifePageThroughoutthisbookwewillalsoexplorethesubjectofusageversus“abusage”inotherwords,howtouse,notabuse,thelanguageYouwilllearnhowusagechanges,whyitchanges,andwhycertainchangeshavebeenacceptedandothershavenotIwillalsocoversomeperplexingproblemsofusagethattroubleeventhebestwritersandspeakersFinally,IwilladdresstheissueofrulesgoodrulesversusbadrulesanddiscusshowyoucanstrikeabalancebetweencurrentstandardusageandwhatseemsnaturalandcorrecttoyouBuildingapowerfulvocabularyandlearninghowtousewordsproperlyrequirethatyoualsodevelopyourknowledgeofarelatedsubject:pronunciationItisasadfactthatmanyeducatedpeoplewhohaveinvestedagreatdealoftimeandenergybuildingimpressivevocabularieshavenotbotheredtolearnhowtopronouncethewordstheyhaveacquiredThatdeficiencyleadstoatwofoldtragedyFirst,tothosewholookuptothespeakerasamoreknowledgeableperson,themispronouncerdoesthedisserviceofpassingalonghisorhermispronunciationsSecond,tothosewhoknowsomethingaboutwordsandhowtheyshouldbepronounced,themispronouncer,nomatterhowintelligent,willappearuneducated,evenfoolishThepointis,ifyouhavetakenthetimetolearnthemeaningofawordandhowtouseitproperly,thenwhynotalsolearnhowtopronounceitcorrectlyWithVerbalAdvantage,notonlywillyoulearntheproperpronunciationofwordsthatarenewtoyou,youwillalsolearntoavoidcommonmispronunciationsoffamiliarwordsonesyoumaybemispronouncingrightnowwithoutrealizingitInaddition,IwillteachyousomesimpletechniquesthatwillhelpyoucontinuetoimproveyourspeechonyourownBuildingyourvocabularyistheprimarygoalofthisprogram,andresearchhasshownthatthemosteffectivewaytobuildyourwordpowerrapidlyandpermanentlyistolearnwordsintheirorderofdifficultyCertainwordsareharderthanothersthereforeitstandstoreasonthatyouhavetoknowtheeasierwordsbeforeyoucanlearnandretaintheharderonesWhenyouknowwhatrecklessandrashmean,you'rereadytolearnthemoredifficultsynonymsimpulsive,imprudent,andimpetuousAndwhenyouhavethosewordsunderyourbelt,thenyoucantacklethechallengingsynonymsprecipitateandtemerariousInshort,youarefarmorelikelytorememberwordsifyouareexposedtotheminascendingorderofdifficultyThatiswhyIhavemadeVerbalAdvantageagraduatedvocabularybuildingprogram,whichmeansthewordsgetharderasyougoalongYouwillproceedthroughtenlevelsofvocabulary,eachlevelmorechallengingthanthelastForexample,Levelcontainswordsfamiliartoabouttopercentofadultsthatis,wordsknowntomanyhighschoolgraduatesandmostcollegegraduatesBytheendofLevelyouwillhaveraisedyourvocabularytoaboutthethpercentilethetopquarterofalleducatedadultsBytheendofLevelyourvocabularywillhavesurpassedthatofmostexecutivesandprofessionals,includingthosewithadvanceddegreesAndwhenyoucompletethetenthandfinallevelyouwillhaveprogressedbeyondpercentoftheentirepopulationYouwillcommandanarmoryofwordsthatonlyahandfulofpeopleineverythousandcanmatchEachlevelofVerbalAdvantagefocusesonspeciallyselected“keywords”essentialtoeducateddiscourseButthosewordsconstituteonlyafractionofwhatyou'lllearnfromthisbookCarefullystudyallthekeyworddiscussionsandyouwilllearnscoresofusefulrelatedwordsandaplethora(PLETHuhruh,greatnumberorquantity,abundance)ofchallengingsynonymsandantonymsYouwillalsodiscoverwherethewordsyouarelearningcomePagefromandhowtheirhistoryhasinfluencedtheircurrentmeaningInadditiontobuildingyourvocabulary,VerbalAdvantagewillguideyouinthesubtletiesofusingthelanguageproperlyandpreciselyEachlevelcontainsinterludesoncommonlymisusedwords,commonlyconfusedwords,andcommonlymispronouncedwordsYouwilllearnhowtoavoidvariouserrorsofgrammar,diction,andpronunciationthatvexeventhemosteducatedadultsIwillshowyouhowtoeliminateredundanciesflabby,repetitivephrasesfromyourwritingandspeech,andhelpyouheedtheadviceofMarkTwain,whosaid,“Usetherightword,andnotitssecondcousin”Finally,thesynonymstudiesinthekeyworddiscussionswilldevelopyourabilitytodistinguishwiselybetweenwordsofsimilarmeaningLet'sreturnnowtothelinkbetweenvocabularyandsuccessThetheorythatknowingmorewordscanhelpyousucceedisnothingnewSincetheearlytwentiethcentury,researchershavedocumentedtheconnectionbetweenastrongvocabularyandacademicandprofessionalsuccessProfessorDeanTremblyoftheTestingandCounselingCenteratCaliforniaPolytechnicStateUniversity,SanLuisObispo,supportsthethesisthatbuildingyourvocabularyenhancesyourchancesofsuccessInhisbookLearningtoUseYourAptitudes,Tremblyexplainsthat“alargevocabularyismorethanknowingthedifficultwordsitisknowingtheeasierwordsmorethoroughlyandusingthemwithgreaterprecision…Apowerfulvocabularygivesyouthefacilitytousetheeasierwordsmoresmoothly…Aswithgradesinschool,”writesTrembly,“moneyearningsarerelatedtovocabularyWithineachoccupation,thosewithlargervocabulariesaremorelikelytoprofitPutadollarsigninfrontofeachadditionalwordyoulearn”PerhapsthemostinfluentialresearchertoexploretheconnectionbetweenvocabularyandachievementwasJohnsonO'Connor,founderoftheHumanEngineeringLaboratory,nowcalledtheJohnsonO'ConnorResearchFoundationO'ConnorwasaHarvardeducatedengineerwhodevotedhislifetoidentifyingandmeasuringhumanaptitudesandstudyingtheirrelationshiptoaknowledgeofEnglishvocabularyAftermorethantwentyyearsoftestingthousandsofAmericansofallages,occupations,andlevelsofeducation,O'Connorconcludedthat“anexactandextensivevocabularyisanimportantconcomitantofsuccess…Furthermore,suchavocabularycanbeacquiredItincreasesaslongasapersonremainsinschoolorcollege,butwithoutconsciouseffortdoesnotchangemateriallythereafter”MargaretEBroadleyisanauthorityonJohnsonO'Connor'sworkandtheauthorofseveralbooksonhumanaptitudesInYourNaturalGiftssheexplainshow,asfarbackasthes,O'Connor'sHumanEngineeringLaboratorydiscovered,asBroadleyputsit,“acloserelationshipbetweenalarge,preciseknowledgeofEnglishwordsandachievementinlife”“Worldlysuccess,earningsandmanagementstatus,”writesBroadley,“correlatedwithvocabularyscoresInfollowupstudiesofpersonstestedasmuchastwentyorthirtyyearsago,alimitedvocabularyisprovinganimportantfactorinholdingmenandwomenbackfromachievingthepositionwhichtheiraptitudesshowedtheyshouldhavegained”Broadleycontinues:“AlowvocabularyisaserioushandicapAmbitiousandenergeticPagepersonscanpushaheadintheirjobsjustsofar,butthentheyreachaplateaucausedbylowvocabularyTheyneveradvanceAndwhileyouthfulzestandhighaptitudescanenableustoforgeaheaddespitelowvocabulary,whenwebecomematuretheworldexpectsustoknowsomethingandwearejudgedonknowledgeratherthanourpossibilitiesTheworlddoesn'tseeouraptitudes,butitpaysforknowledgebecausethatcanbeseen”Broadleythengetsdowntothenittygritty“StudiesshowthatatmiddleagethelowvocabularypersonsarestuckinroutinejobsFurthermore,whenbigcompanieshavetheirshakedownsandmergers,toooftenthelowvocabularypersonsfindthemselvesoutonthestreetToooftentheyplacetheblameonprejudice,insidepolitics,andpersonalantagonismwhenthetruthcanbetracedtolowvocabulary…“Onlyabout,wordsseparatethehighvocabularypersonfromthelow,”Broadleyconcludes“Yetthese,wordscanmeanthedifferencebetweensuccessandfailure”ItisworthnotingherethatcompanypresidentsandupperlevelbusinessexecutiveshaveconsistentlyachievedthehighestscoresinthevocabularytestsadministeredbytheJohnsonO'ConnorResearchFoundationAsagroup,executivesscorebetterthaneditors,writers,collegeprofessors,scientists,doctors,lawyers,psychologists,architects,andengineersallhighvocabularyoccupationsThefoundation'sresearchersarenotquitesurewhattomakeofthatfinding,buttheydoknowonething:Ifyouwishtosucceedinyourcareer,yourvocabularylevelmustatleastequaltheaveragelevelofthemembersofyourprofessionIfyouwishtoexcel,yourvocabularymustsurpassthatofyourcolleaguesAsJohnsonO'Connorsaid,“Wordsaretheinstrumentsofthoughtbywhichmenandwomengraspthethoughtsofothers,andwithwhichtheydomostoftheirthinking”Toparaphrasethat:Wordsarethetoolsofthought,anditfollowsthatifyourtoolsaren'tthesharpestonesintheshed,youcan'texpecttohaveanedgeinthestruggleforsuccessThereisoneotherpointaboutvocabularyandsuccessthatIwouldliketoclarifybeforewegoanyfurtherResearchersandlanguageexpertshaveknownformanyyearsthatvocabularyisthekeytosuccess,butwhatdoesthatreallymeanItistruethatvariousstudieshaveshownthat,particularlyamongbusinessexecutives,EnglishvocabularyleveloftencorrelateswithsalarylevelHowever,therearemanywealthypeoplewhohavelowvocabulariesandlackabilitywithlanguage,justastherearemanypeoplewhoearnmodestsalariesbutwhohaveexcellentvocabulariesandawideknowledgeoftheworldThepointis,ifyouronlyambitioninlifeistomakewadsofmoney,therearewaystodothatwithoutbuildingyourvocabularyThereforeitisimportantthatyoudonotequatebuildingalargevocabularyonlywithpaddingyourbankbalanceanddiversifyingyourstockportfolioVocabularyisthekeytosuccess,butwealthisnottheonlyyardstickofsuccessWhatIamtalkingaboutisadefinitionofsuccessthatencompassesmorethansalariesandinvestmentsWhatIamtalkingaboutisyourcareerwhatyoudoandhowwellyoudoitandalsoyourpersonaldevelopmenthowyoucanmakethemostofyournaturalabilitiesandachieveyourgoalsinlifeThatiswhereapowerfulvocabularycanhelpyouThatiswhereknowingtheprecisemeaningsofmanywordsgivesyouaninvaluableadvantageaVerbalAdvantageWhatitboilsdowntocanbeexpressedintwowords:careersatisfactionBuildingapowerfulvocabularycanhelpyouadvanceyourcareer,becauseasyouPageimproveyourskillwithlanguageyouwillbecomeabetterspeaker,abetterwriter,abetterreader,andabetterlistenerAndifyouareallofthosethings,thenyouprobablywillbeamoresuccessfulpersonIwouldberemissinmydutyasyourinstructorandguideifIneglectedtounderscorethefactthatbuildingyourvocabularytakestimeanddedicationTrueandlastingknowledgeisnotacquiredovernightThat'swhymostofusspendthefirstquarterofourlivesinschool,presumablylearningtobeintelligent,productivemembersofsocietyVerbalAdvantagewillboostyourvocabularyandenhanceyourverbalskills,butrememberthatyourverbaldevelopmentdidnotstartwiththisbookanditshouldnotendwithitThinkofthisprogramasthebeginningofalifelongprocessofselfeducationor,ifyoulike,thinkofyourselfasanathleteanintellectualathleteembarkingonachallengingconditioningprogramforyourmindVerbalAdvantagewillgiveyouthetoolsandshowyouhowtousethem,butit'suptoyoutodecidewhattobuildwiththosetools,andtheresponsibilityforkeepingthemcleanandsharpultimatelylieswithyouThereforeyouwillgetthemostoutofthisbookifyoufollowthethreeR'sofverbaldevelopment:routine,repetition,andreviewEffectivevocabularybuildingbeginswithestablishingaroutineandstickingtoitYoushouldreadVerbalAdvantageforasetamountoftimeeveryday,preferablyatleastthirtyminutesIfyoucurrentlywatchanhourormoreoftelevisioneachday,whynotcutahalfhouroutofthattimeanddevoteittosomethingmoreproductive:readingthisbookHoweveryoudecidetoworkitintoyourday,forbestresultsyoushouldmakeVerbalAdvantagearegularpartofyourscheduleAsthesayinggoes,practicemakesperfect,andwhenitcomestobuildingyourvocabulary,repetitionandreviewareessentialifyouwishtoretainthewordsyoulearnYouwillmakebestuseofthisbookifyougooverthe

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