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首页 汽车构造(英文版).pdf

汽车构造(英文版).pdf

汽车构造(英文版).pdf

上传者: yaoyeming 2013-01-03 评分 4.5 0 60 8 271 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《汽车构造(英文版)pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域,主题内容包含CHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTERAUTOMOTIVEAUTOMOTIVEAUTOMOTIVEAUTOMOTIVEBASICS符等。

CHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTERAUTOMOTIVEAUTOMOTIVEAUTOMOTIVEAUTOMOTIVEBASICSBASICSBASICSBASICSPrincipalPrincipalPrincipalPrincipalComponentsComponentsComponentsComponentsToday'saveragecarcontainsmorethan,separate,individualpartsthatmustworktogetherThesepartscangroupedintofourmajorcategories:engine,body,chassisandelectricalequipmentEngineEngineEngineEngineTheengineactsasthepowerunitTheinternalcombustionengineismostcommon:thisobtainsitspowerbyburningaliquidfuelinsidetheenginecylinderTherearetwotypesofengine:gasoline(alsocalledasparkignitionengine)anddiesel(alsocalledacompressionignitionengine)BothenginesarecalledheatenginestheburningfuelgeneratesheatwhichcausesthegasinsidethecylindertoincreaseitspressureandsupplypowertorotateashaftconnectedtothetransmissionBodyBodyBodyBodyAnautomobilebodyisasheetmetalshellwithwindows,doors,ahood,andatrunkdeckbuiltintoitItprovidesaprotectivecoveringfortheengine,passengers,andcargoThebodyisdesignedtokeeppassengerssafeandcomfortableThebodystylingprovidesanattractive,colorful,modernappearanceforthevehicleChassisChassisChassisChassisThechassisisanassemblyofthosesystemsthatarethemajoroperatingpartofavehicleThechassisincludesthetransmission,suspension,steering,andbrakesystemsTransmissionsystems―conveysthedrivetothewheelsThemaincomponentsareclutch,gearbox,driveshaft,finaldrive,anddifferentialSuspension―absorbstheroadshocksSteering―controlsthedirectionofthemovementBrake―slowsdownthevehicleElectricalElectricalElectricalElectricalEquipmentEquipmentEquipmentEquipmentTheelectricalsystemsupplieselectricityfortheignition,horn,lights,heater,andstarterTheelectricitylevelismaintainedbyachargingcircuitThiscircuitconsistsofthebattery,alternator(orgenerator)ThebatterystoreselectricityThealternatorchangestheengine'smechanicalenergyintoelectricalenergyandrechargesthebatteryNewNewNewNewWordsWordsWordsWordsPrincipalcomponent主要部件category种类类型body车身chassis底盘layout布置powerunit动力装置internalcombustionengine内燃机cylinder汽缸gasoline汽油spark火花ignition点燃点火diesel柴油机compression压缩shaft轴transmission传动系sheetmetal金属板shell外壳hood(发动机)罩trunkdeck行李舱盖cargo货物styling样式assembly总成装配suspension悬挂悬置shock冲击steering转向操纵brake刹车制动器clutch离合器gearbox变速器driveshaft传动轴finaldrive主减速器后桥differential差速器slowdown(使)慢下来减速horn喇叭starter起动机charge充电alternator交流发电机ReviewReviewReviewReviewQuestionsQuestionsQuestionsQuestionsListthemainpartsofanautomobileWhatarethecommontypesofavehicleaccordingtobodystylingWhichsystemsdoesachassisincludeandwhatarethemainfunctionsofthechassisWhyaresuspensionsystemsusedonvehiclesCHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTERCHAPTERINTERNALINTERNALINTERNALINTERNALCOMBUSTIONCOMBUSTIONCOMBUSTIONCOMBUSTIONENGINEENGINEENGINEENGINEprincipleprincipleprincipleprincipleofofofofoperationoperationoperationoperationEngineEngineEngineEngineandandandandpowerpowerpowerpowerEngineisusedtoproducepowerThechemicalenergyinfuelisconvertedtoheatbytheburningofthefuelatacontrolledrateThisprocessiscalledcombustionIfenginecombustionoccurswiththepowerchamber,theengineiscalledinternalcombustionengineIfcombustiontakesplaceoutsidethecylinder,theengineiscalledanexternalcombustionengineEngineusedinautomobilesareinternalcombustionheatenginesHeatenergyreleasedinthecombustionchamberraisesthetemperatureofthecombustiongaseswiththechamberTheincreaseingastemperaturecausesthepressureofthegasestoincreaseThepressuredevelopedwithinthecombustionchamberisappliedtotheheadofapistontoproduceausablemechanicalforce,whichisthenconvertedintousefulmechanicalpowerEngineEngineEngineEngineTermsTermsTermsTermsLinkingthepistonbyaconnectingrodtoacrankshaftcausesthegastorotatetheshaftthroughhalfaturnThepowerstroke“usesup”thegas,someansmustbeprovidedtoexpeltheburntgasandrechargethecylinderwithafreshpetrolairmixture:thiscontrolofgasmovementisthedutyofthevalvesaninletvalveallowsthenewmixturetoenterattherighttimeandanexhaustvalveletsouttheburntgasafterthegashasdoneitsjobEnginetermsare:TDC(TopDeadCenter):thepositionofthecrankandpistonwhenthepistonisfartherawayfromthecrankshaftBDC(BottomDeadCenter):thepositionofthecrankandpistonwhenthepistonisnearesttothecrankshaftStroke:thedistancebetweenBDCandTDCstrokeiscontrolledbythecrankshaftBore:theinternaldiameterofthecylinderSweptvolume:thevolumebetweenTDCandBDCEnginecapacity:thisisthesweptvolumeofallthecylinderegafourstrokehavingacapacityoftwoliters(cm)hasacylindersweptvolumeofcmClearancevolume:thevolumeofthespaceabovethepistonwhenitisatTDCCompressionratio=(sweptvolclearancevol)(clearancevol)Twostroke:apowerstrokeeveryrevolutionofthecrankFourstroke:apowerstrokeeveryotherrevolutionofthecrankTheTheTheTheFourstrokeFourstrokeFourstrokeFourstrokeSparkignitionSparkignitionSparkignitionSparkignitionEngineEngineEngineEngineCycleCycleCycleCycleThesparkignitionengineisaninternalcombustionenginewithexternallysuppliedinignition,whichconvertstheenergycontainedinthefueltokineticenergyThecycleofoperationsisspreadoverfourpistonstrokesTocompletethefullcycleittakestworevolutionsofthecrankshaftTheoperatingstrokesare::::ThisstrokeintroducesamixtureofatomizedgasolineandairintothecylinderThestrokestartswhenthepistonmovesdownwardfromapositionnearthetopofthecylinderAsthepistonmovesdownward,avacuum,orlowpressurearea,iscreatedDuringtheintakestroke,oneoftheportsisopenedbymovingtheinletvalveTheexhaustvalveremainstightlyclosedCompressionstrokeAsthepistonmovesupwardtocompressthefuelmixturetrappedinthecylinder,thevalvesareclosedtightlyThiscompressionactionheatstheairfuelmixtureslightlyandconfinesitwithinasmallareacalledthecombustionchamberPowerstrokeJustbeforethepistonreachesthetopofitscompressionstroke,anelectricalsparkisintroducedfromasparkplugscrewedintothecylinderheadThesparkignitesthecompressed,heatedmixtureoffuelandairinthecombustionchambertocauserapidburningTheburningfuelproducesintenseheatthatcausesrapidexpansionofthegasescompressedwithinthecylinderThispressureforcesthepistondownwardThedownwardstroketurnsthecrankshaftwithgreatforceExhauststrokeJustbeforethebottomofthepowerstroke,theexhaustvalveopensThisallowsthepiston,asitmovesupward,topushthehot,burnedgasesoutthroughtheopenexhaustvalveThen,justbeforethepistonreachesitshighestpoint,theexhaustvalveclosesandtheinletvalveopensAsthepistonreachesthehighestpointinthecylinder,knownasTDC,itstartsbackdownagainThus,onecycleendsandanotherbeginsimmediatelyEngineEngineEngineEngineOverallOverallOverallOverallMechanicsMechanicsMechanicsMechanicsTheenginehashundredsofotherpartsThemajorpartsofengineareengineblock,engineheads,pistons,connectingrods,crankshaftandvalvesTheotherpartsarejoinedtomakesystemsThesesystemsarethefuelsystem,intakesystem,ignitionsystem,coolingsystem,lubricationsystemandexhaustsystemEachofthesesystemshasadefinitefunctionThesesystemswilldiscussedindetaillaterNEWNEWNEWNEWWORDWORDWORDWORDPiston活塞Connectingrod连杆Crankshaft曲轴Powerstoke活塞行程Expel排出Valve气阀inlet(intake)valve进气阀exhaustvalve排气阀term术语TDC上止点BDC下止点Bore缸径sweptvolume有效容积enginecapacity发动机排量clearancevolume余隙容积,燃烧室容积compressionratio压缩比revolution旋转,转数everyother每隔一个cycle循环spreadover分布,遍及intakestroke进气行程compressionstroke压缩行程knock敲缸,敲打exhauststroke排气行程engineblock发动机缸体lubrication润滑EngineEngineEngineEngineBlockBlockBlockBlockandandandandCylinderCylinderCylinderCylinderHeadHeadHeadHeadEngineEngineEngineEngineBlockBlockBlockBlockTheengineblockisthebasicframeoftheengineAllotherenginepartseitherfitinsideitorfastentoitItholdsthecylinders,waterjackets,andoilgalleriesTheengineblockalsoholdsthecrankshaft,whichfastenstothebottomoftheblockThecamshaftalsofitsinsidetheblock,exceptonoverheadcamengines(OHC)Inmostcars,thisblockismadeofgrayiron,oranalloy(mixture)ofgrayironandothermetals,suchasnickelorchromiumEngineblocksarecastingsSomeengineblocks,especiallythoseinsmallercars,aremadeofcastaluminumThismetalismuchlighterthanironHowever,ironwearsbetterthanaluminumTherefore,thecylindersinmostaluminumenginesarelinedwithironorsteelsleevesThesesleevesarecalledcylindersleevesSomeengineblocksaremadeentirelyofaluminumCylinderCylinderCylinderCylinderHeadHeadHeadHeadThecylinderheadfastenstothetopoftheblock,justasarooffitsoverahouseTheundersideformsthecombustionchamberwiththetopofthepistonThemostcommoncylinderheadtypesarethehemi,wedge,andsemihemiAllthreeofthesetermsrefertotheshapeoftheengine'scombustionchamberThecylinderheadcarriesthevalves,valvespringsandtherockersontherockershaft,thispartofthevalvegearbeingworkedbythepushrodsSometimesthecamshaftisfitteddirectlyintothecylinderheadandoperatesonthevalveswithoutrockersThisiscalledanoverheadcamshaftarrangementLikethecylinderblock,theheadismadefromeithercastironoraluminumalloyGasketGasketGasketGasketThecylinderheadisattachedtotheblockwithhightensilesteelstudsThejointbetweentheblockandtheheadmustbegastightsothatnoneoftheburningmixturecanescapeThisisachievedbyusingcylinderheadgasketThisisasandwichgasket,ieasheetofasbestosbetweentwosheetsofcopper,boththesematerialsbeingabletowithstandthehightemperatureandpressureswithintheengineOilOilOilOilPanPanPanPanororororSumpSumpSumpSumpTheoilpanisusuallyformedofpressedsteelTheoilpanandthelowerpartofthecylinderblocktogetherarecalledthecrankcasetheyenclose,orencase,thecrankshaftTheoilpumpinthelubricatingsystemdrawsoilfromtheoilpanandsendsittoallworkingpartsintheengineTheoildrainsoffandrunsdownintothepanThus,thereisconstantcirculationofoilbetweenthepanandtheworkingpartsoftheengineNewNewNewNewWordsWordsWordsWordsengineblock缸体cylinderhead气缸盖fasten使固定waterjacket水套oilgallery油道camshaft凸轮轴overheadcam(OHC)顶置凸轮grayiron灰铸铁alloy合金nickel镍chromium铬casting铸件headcover汽缸盖罩intakemanifold进气总管distributor分电器oilpan油底壳aluminum铝belinedwith镶有cylindersleeve气缸套hemi半球形wedge楔型楔入semihemi准半球形rocker摇臂pushrod推杆gasket衬垫hightensile高强度的stud螺栓gastight密封的asbestos石棉crankcase曲轴箱曲柄箱encase封闭把…包起来drainoff排出流出ReviewReviewReviewReviewQuestionQuestionQuestionQuestionWhatdoTDC,BDC,stroke,compressionratioandenginecapacitystandforHowdoyoucalculatesweptvolumeandcompressionratioWhatcontrolsthelengthofthestrokeListthemainpartsoftheengineoverallmechanicsWhatarethemainfunctionoftheengineblockPistonPistonPistonPistonConnectingConnectingConnectingConnectingRodRodRodRodandandandandCrankshaftCrankshaftCrankshaftCrankshaftPistonPistonPistonPistonAssemblyAssemblyAssemblyAssemblyThepistonisanimportantpartofafourstrokecycleengineMostpistonsaremadefromcastaluminumThepiston,throughtheconnectingrod,transferstothecrankshafttheforcecreatebytheburningfuelmixtureThisforceturnsthecrankshaftThin,circular,steelbandsfitintogroovesaroundthepistontosealthebottomofthecombustionchamberThesebandsarecalledpistonringsThegroovesintowhichtheyfitarecalledringgroovesApistonpinfitsintoaroundholeinthepistonThepistonpinjoinsthepistontotheconnectingrodThethickpartofthepistonthatholdsthepistonisthepinbossThepistonitself,itsringsandthepistonpinaretogethercalledthepistonassemblyPistonPistonPistonPistonTowithstandtheheatofthecombustionchamber,thepistonmustbestrongItalsomustbelight,sinceittravelsathighspeedsasitmovesupanddowninsidethecylinderThepistonishollowItisthickatthetopwhereittakethebruntoftheheatandtheexpansionforceItisthinatthebottom,wherethereislessheatThetoppartofthepistonisthehead,orcrownThethinpartistheskirtThesectionsbetweentheringgroovesarecalledringlandsThepistoncrownmaybeflat,concave,domeorrecessedIndieselengine,thecombustionchambermaybeformedtotallyorinpartinthepistoncrown,dependingonthemethodofinjectionSotheyusepistonswithdifferentshapesPistonPistonPistonPistonRingsRingsRingsRingsAsFigshows,pistonringsfitintoringgroovesneartheofthepistonInsimplestterms,pistonringsarethin,circularpiecesofmetalthatfitintogroovesinthetopsofthepistonsInmodernengines,eachpistonhasthreerings(Pistoninolderenginessometimeshadfourrings,orevenfive)Thering’soutsidesurfacepressesagainstthecylinderwallsRingsprovidetheneededsealbetweenthepistonandthecylinderwallsThatis,onlytheringscontactthecylinderwallsThetoptworingsaretokeepthegasesinthecylinderandarecalledcompressionringsTheloweronepreventstheoilsplashedontothecylinderborefromenteringthecombustionchamber,andiscalledanoilringChromefacecastironcompressionringsarecommonlyusedinautomobileenginesThechromefaceprovideaverysmooth,wearresistantsurfaceDuringthepowerstoke,combustionpressureonthecombustionringsisveryhighItcausesthemtountwistSomeofthehighpressuregasgetsinbackoftheringsThisforcetheringfaceintofullcontactwiththecylinderwallThecombustionpressurealsoholdsthebottomoftheringtightlyagainstthebottomoftheringgrooveTherefore,highcombustionpressurecausesatightersealbetweentheringfaceandthecylinderwallPistonPistonPistonPistonPinPinPinPinThepistonpinholdstogetherthepistonandtheconnectingrodThispinfitsintothepistonpinholesandintoaholeinthetopendoftheconnectingrodThetopendofismuchsmallerthantheendthatfitsonthecrankshaftThissmallendfitsinsidethebottomofthepistonThepistonpinfitsthroughonesideofthepiston,throughthesmallendoftherod,andthenthroughtheothersideofthepistonItholdstherodfirmlyinplaceinthecenterofthepistonPinsaremadeofhighstrenghsteelandhaveahollowcenterManypinsarechromeplatedtohelpthemwearbetterConnectingConnectingConnectingConnectingrodrodrodrodTheconnectingrodismadeofforgedhighstrengthsteelIttransmitsandmotionfromthepistontothecrankpinonthecrankshaftTheconnectingrodlittleendisconnectedtothepistonpinAbushmadefromasoftmetal,suchasbronze,isusedforthisjointThelowerendoftheconnectingrodfitsthecrankshaftjournalThisiscalledthebigendForthisbigendbearing,steelbackedleadortinshellbearingareusedThesearethesameasthoseusedforthemainbearingsThesplitofthebigendissometimesatanangle,sothatitissmallenoughtobewithdrawnthroughthecylinderboreTheconnectingrodismadefromforgedalloysteelCrankshaftCrankshaftCrankshaftCrankshaftThecrankshaft,inconjunctionwiththeconnectingrod,covertsthereciprocatingmotionofthepistontotherotarymotionneededtodrivethevehicleItisusuallymadefromcarbonsteelwhichisalloyedwithasmallproportionofnickelThemainbearingjournalsfitintothecylinderblockandthebigendjournalsalignwiththeconnectingrodsAttherearendofthecrankshaftisattachedtheflywheel,andatthefrontendarethedrivingwhellsforthetiminggears,fan,coolingwaterandalternatorThethrowofthecrankshaft,thedistancebetweenthemainjournalandthebigendcenters,controlsthelengthofthestrokeThestrokeisdoublethethrow,andthestrokelengthisthedistancethatthepistontravelsfromTDCtoBDCandviceversaFlywheelFlywheelFlywheelFlywheelTheflywheelisthemadefromcarbonsteelItfitsontotherearofthecrankshaftAswellaskeepingtheenginerotatingbetweenpowerstrokesitalsocarriestheclutch,whichtransmitsthedrivetothetransmission,andhasthestarterringgeararounditscircumferenceThereisonlyoneworkingstrokeinfoursoaflywheelisneededtodrivethecrankshaftduringthetimethattheengineisperformingthenonpowerstrokesNewNewNewNewWordsWordsWordsWordsComprise由。。。。。。。组成包含Inter惯性惯量Radius半径范围Circular圆形的Steelband钢圈Fitinto放入放进Groove凹槽Pistonpin活塞销Pinboss活塞销凸台Withstand抵抗Hollow空的Brunt冲力Crown活塞顶Skirt裙部Ringland环带Concave凹的凹入的Dome圆顶Recessed隐蔽的Cylinderwall气缸壁Cylinderbore缸筒Splash飞溅chromeface表面镀银的Untwist朝相反方向的Inplace在适当位置Chromeplated镀铬的Forge伪造仿造Crankpin曲轴销Bush轴瓦套筒Bronze青铜Crankshaftjournal曲轴轴颈Steelbacked钢背的Lead铅Tin锡Splint切口中断分配分离Inconjunctionwith连同Reciprocatingmotion往复运动Rotary旋转的Carbonsteel碳钢Journal轴颈Alignwith匹配Overlap重叠Timinggear正时齿轮Throw摆幅Viceverse反之亦然Impulse脉冲Spaceout隔开分隔Throughout遍及Diagram图表Firingorder点火顺序Companion成对Circumference圆周ValveValveValveValveSystemSystemSystemSystemThevalvesystemismadeupofthosepartsneededtoopenandclosethevalvesatjusttherighttimeValveValveValveValveOperationOperationOperationOperationTocoordinatethefourstrokecycle,agrouppartscalledthevalvetrainopensandclosesthevalves(movesthemdownandup,respectively)ThesevalvemovementsmusttakeplaceatexactlytherightmomentsTheopeningofeachvalveiscontrolledbyacamshaftCamshaft(OHC)Camshaft(OHC)Camshaft(OHC)Camshaft(OHC)ValveValveValveValveTrainTrainTrainTrainOverheadOverheadOverheadOverheadThecamisaneggshapedpieceofmetalonashaftthatrotatesincoordinationwiththecrankshaftThemetalshaft,calledthecamshaft,typicallyhasindividualcamsforeachvalveintheengineAsthecamshaftrotates,thelobe,orhighspotofthecam,pushesagainstpartsconnectedtothestemofthevalveThisactionforcesthevalvetomovedownwardThisac

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