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首页 外文文献及翻译:基于单片机的电子称设计

外文文献及翻译:基于单片机的电子称设计.doc

外文文献及翻译:基于单片机的电子称设计

郭心安
2017-09-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《外文文献及翻译:基于单片机的电子称设计doc》,可适用于高等教育领域

外文文献及翻译:基于单片机的电子称设计本科生毕业设计(论文)外文翻译毕业设计题目:基于单片机的电子称设计学院:专业班级:学生指导教师:年月日ElectronicscalesElectronicscalesareweighingtechnologyinanewtypeofinstrumentiswidelyusedinvariousoccasionsElectronicscalesandmechanicalscaleshavemoresmallsize,lightweight,simplestructure,lowpriceandpracticalvalueofstrong,convenientmaintenanceandsooncanbeinavarietyofenvironmentalwork,theweightofthesignalcanbeRemote,theweightofdisplayiseasytoimplementdigital,easytocomputernetwork,productionautomation,higherlaborproductivityScalelabelsinthesupermarketisintheapplicationoffacevalueAsmalllabelcontains:name,price,weight,etclistinthissmallelectroniclabelGreatlyacceleratedtheuseoflabelmachinesalespace,butalsoconvenientforcustomersTopbarcodelabelshavemanyremarkablefeaturesofscale,EthernetfeaturemakesthemanagementmoreconvenientElectronicScaleClassification(scalescanbedividedintomechanicalandelectronictype)(Howitworks:electronicworksinelectroniccomponents(weighingsensor,ADconversioncircuit,microcontrollercircuits,displaycircuit,keyboardcircuitry,communicationsinterfacecircuits,regulatedpowersupplycircuitcircuit(usingthefunction:electronicweighingtheuseofmodernsensortechnology,electronicsandcomputertechnologyintegration,electronicweighingdevices,inordertomeetandsolvereallife's"fast,accurate,continuous,automatic"weighingrequirements,whileeffectivelyeliminatinghumanerror,tomakeitmoreinlinewiththemanagementoflegalmetrologyandindustrialproductionprocesscontrolapplicationsThreehealthscalesareweighingtheuseoffeaturesinacategory(dividedintomechanicalandelectronic),inexpensive,itcanhelppeopletoeffectivelymonitortheirownbodyweightchanges,newproductsalsocandetecttheirfatcontent,butalsoSomehumanorientedsubsidiaryfunctionsMaynotbepartofmeasuringequipment(ElectronicScaleisameasurementofthestatecompulsorytestapparatus,andhisqualifiedproductsaretestindexingthevalueofDvaluesofeandsubdivisionstandards,issubjecttotheprotectionofthenationalmetrologyproductsIntheelectronicweighingthereisacategorycalled"humanscale"products,whichcantestinthemeasurementsector,weighingverypreciseBlockdiagraminterpretationoftheprincipleofelectronicbalanceThefirstpartoftheelectronicscaleprincipleblockdiagram:ProgramKB(button)FxSensorsOPZoomADconverterCPUdisplaydriverdisplaymemoryWorkflowNote:Whenanobjectonthepanwhenthepressurefacilitiestothesensorthatoccurreddeformation,sothatresistancetochange,whiletheuseofexcitationvoltagechanges,theoutputofachangeinanalogsignalThissignalamplificationbytheamplifieroutputtotheADCConvertedtofacilitatetheprocessingofthedigitalsignaloutputtotheCPUoperatorcontrolCPUunderthekeyboardcommandsandprogramoutputtodisplaythisresultUntiltheshowsucharesultThesecondpartofthescaleoftheclassification:Accordingtoprinciplesofpoints:EscalemechanicalscalemechanicalandelectricalintegrationscalesAccordingtothefunctionssub:CountingScalesWeighingScalePricingScalePurpose:IndustrialCommercialScalesSpecialScalesBalanceThethirdpartofthescaletypes:ThefullnameofthedesktopScalereferstothevolumeoflessthanKgelectronicscaleThefullnameofplatformscalereferstothevolumewithintheKgElectronicScaleLoadometerfullnamereferstothevolumeofmorethanKgElectronicScalePrecisionBalancethPartoftheaccuracyofclassification:IClass:SpecialscalesprecisionWanIIlevel:highprecisionscaleprecisionof",III:theaccuracyofscaleprecisionof"ClassIV:CommonScaleprecisionof"PartVofprofessionalterminology:Maximumweighing:anelectronbalance,excludingtareweight,themaximumloadcanweighMinimumweigh:aelectronicscalesbelowthevaluethatwouldhaveoccurredwhenarelativelyerrorsafeload:ofthenormalweighingrangeRatedload:normalweighingrangepermissibleerror:classtestwhenthemaximumdeviationasenseofquantity:asingleelectronicscalescanshowthesmallestscaleusually"d"torepresentanalyticcapacity:afunctionwithacountoftheelectronicscales,candistinguishthesmallestscaleResolution:acountingfunctionwithanelectronicscale,theinternalcapacityofaResolutionofaparameterWarmuptime:ascaleusedtoachievethetargetsofthetimeAccuracy:Thefullnameofasenseofvolumeandvolumeratioselectronicscaleuseofenvironmentaltemperature:degreesCelsiustodegreesCelsiusplatformscaleThetablesize:cmXcmcmXcmcmXcmcmXcmcmXcmPartVIelectronicscalefeatures:ToachievelongdistanceoperationsToachieveautomaticcontrolFiguresshowthatanintuitive,reducehumanerrorHighaccuracyandresolutionstrongWeighingrangeiswideuniquefeatures:buckleweight,withholdingweight,zero,accumulated,warning,etcmaintenancesimplesizeissmallinstallation,calibrationsimplespecialindustry,canbeaccessedbytheprinterorcomputerdrivenIntelligentelectronicscale,quickreaction,highefficiencyPartVIIoftheelectronicscaleinspectionprocess:First,theoverallexamination:whetherthewearandtearWhethertheboot:thebootsequenceisfromtointurnshowsthatfiguresarevague,canzeroWhetherthebacklightwiththeweighttestsinweighingchargersisintact,canusepartsarecompletePartVIIIsensortype:Resistive:affordable,highaccuracy,widelyusedCapacitive:smallsize,lowprecisionMaglevstyle:specialhighprecision,highcostHydraulicformula:thecurrentthemarkethasbeeneliminatedDisplayType:LCD(liquidcrystaldisplay):freeelectricity,energysaving,withbacklightLED:freeelectricity,powerconsumption,verybrightLamp:electricity,powerconsumption,highKB(button)type:filmbutton:contacttypemechanicalbuttons:madeupofmanyindividualcombinationsofkeystogethersensorcharacteristics:ratedloadoutputsensitivitynonlinearhysteresisrepeatablecreep:outputeffectsratedoutputtemperature:inputinputimpedanceoutputimpedanceInsulationResistancetoallowexcitationvoltage(V)PartIXsensordamagedphenomenon:WeighingnotallowedShowsnoreturntozeroShowsthenumberofbouncetojudgethesensorE,E,S,SThefirsttouseresistanceprofilemeasurementlineThisresistancevalue,atotalofgroupsThecaseof,comparedwithEuropeE,EifitisinEurope,comparedtoS,SfortheinEurope,comparedtoRarmE,EterminatedontheVvoltageSensorcorrectlytoexertapressure,suchastheoutputSincrease,thentheredtablepensasS,thecontrarySthpartofthehighprecisioncountingscalefeatures:KgIbunitconversionfunctions:displayrangeadjustmentfunction(GLHseriesdoesnot)SamplingspeedadjustmentfunctionTherearegroupsmemoryfunctionsingletmaybeatthesametimetheweight,quantity,thecumulativefunction(GLHonlythenumberofcumulative)cansettheweight,themaximumamountofwarningfunctionautomaticzerotracking,temperaturelinearcorrectiondeductionofwithholdingheavyweightandfunctionStandbyfunctionthereiszeroshowszerotrackingrangeandscopethereisthebatteryvoltagecontroltolimitthefunctionElectronicscalesareweighingtechnologyinanewtypeofinstrumentiswidelyusedinvariousoccasionsElectronicscalesandmechanicalscaleshavemoresmallsize,lightweight,simplestructure,lowpriceandpracticalvalueofstrong,convenientmaintenanceandsooncanbeinavarietyofenvironmentalwork,theweightofthesignalcanbeRemote,theweightofdisplayiseasytoimplementdigital,easytocomputernetworking,processautomationofproductionandimprovelaborproductivityElectronicScalealsohasanautomaticzerotracking,overloaddisplayofselfextinguishingcharacteristicsMechanicalscales,floorscalelandinthevalue(carvalue),weighbridgesandotherfittedforcesensitivesensorsandmicrocomputercontrolledintelligentweighinginstrumentsbecomeintelligentdigitalelectricalandmechanicalbalance(orthemechanicalandelectricaldualusescales),toimprovethemechanicalbalanceofthemeasurementaccuracy,withlowcost,highreliability,simpleinstallationandsoon,withoutprejudicetotheoriginalmechanicalscalestoanytransmissionbearingstructureTherearepeeled,settozero,thecumulativenumberoftimes,thecumulativeweight(cumulativeamountofvaluationbased),autozeroing,autotrackingandotherfunctionsWeighingdatacanbedirectlyprintedortransmittedviacomputernetworks,industrialprocessescanimprovethelevelofscaleandproductquality,tradeclearingwiththescalecanimprovethecredibilityofincalculablesocialandeconomicbenefitsElectronicScaleisbasicallyasensor,amplifiercircuit,ADconversioncircuit,microcontrollercontrolofdisplayparts,switchmatrixcircuit,thekeyboardcircuitandpowercircuitWeightsensorsignalsareconvertedtoacorrespondingelectricalsignal,afteramplifiedintotheADconvertedintopulsesweight,throughtheSCMunderthecontroloftheanalogvoltagesignalsintodigitalThedigitalconversionbytheSCMprograminlinewiththeactualweightofthevalueofsendingthenumberofdisplaywindowsMCUatthesametimethekeyboardandswitchmatrixformonitoringAccordingtotheinputparametervalues,theprogramhandledaccordinglyPowercircuittoprovidethevariouspartsoftheoperatingvoltageMicroprocessorssuchas,HDF,,etcCPUHighlyversatilemotherboard,differentvaluesofrangeandsubdegreescales,justadjustthejumpersonthemotherboardandtheDIPswitchcanbeachieved,theonlydifferenceisthatthesensorusedwitharatedcarryingcapacitySensorisaphysicaldeviceorbiologicalorganthatcandetectandfeeltheoutsideofthesignal,physicalcondition(suchaslight,heat,humidity)orchemicalcomposition(suchassmoke),andDiscoveryofinformationtootherdevicesororgansDefinitionofsensorNationalstandardGBsensorisdefinedas:"canfeeltherequirementsaremeasuredandconvertedinaccordancewiththelawsofcertainsignaldeviceordevicesavailable,usuallycomposedofsensitivecomponentsandconversiondevices"Sensorisadetectiondevice,canfeeltheinformationbeingmeasured,andcandetectsenseofinformation,accordingtocertainlawsoftransformationintoelectricalsignals,orotherformsofinformationrequiredforoutputtomeettheinformationtransmission,processing,storage,display,recordingandcontrolrequirementsItistheautomaticdetectionandcontroloftheprimarylinkTheroleofsensorPeopleinordertoobtaininformationfromtheoutsideworldmusthelpofsenseorgansAndrelyonpeople'sownsenseorgans,thestudyofnaturalphenomenaandlaws,andproductionactivitiesintheirfunctionsonfarenoughTomeetthissituation,weneedsensorsItcanbesaidsensorisanextensionofhumansenses,alsoknownaselectronicfeaturesThearrivalofthenewtechnologicalrevolution,theworldenteredtheinformationageInthecourseoftheuseofinformation,wemustfirstresolveistoobtainaccurateandreliableinformation,andsensorsistoobtaininformationinthefieldofnaturalandproductionofthemainwaysandmeansInmodernindustrialproduction,especiallyautomatedproductionprocess,theuseofvarioussensorstomonitorandcontrolthevariousparametersoftheproductionprocess,sothatdevicesworkbestinthenormalstateorcondition,andtoachievethebestqualityproductsThereforewecansay,withoutalargenumberofgoodsensors,modernproductionbasewillbelostInthebasicscienceresearch,amoreprominentpositionsensorThedevelopmentofmodernscienceandtechnologyintomanynewareas:forexample,thousandsoflightyearstoobservethemacrolevelofthevastuniverse,toobservemicroscopicallysmallparticlescmtheworld,vertical,toobservetheevolutionoverhundredsofyearsofcelestialbodies,ashortresponsetothesmomentInaddition,therewasevenamatterofdeepeningunderstanding,developingnewenergy,newmaterials,playanimportantroleinavarietyofextremetechnologysuchasultrahightemperature,ultralowtemperature,highpressure,ultrahighvacuum,powerfulmagneticfield,ultraweakmagneticbagging,etcObviously,toobtainalargenumberofhumansensescannotdirectlyaccesstheinformation,NotcompatiblewithsensorsisimpossibleManybasicscientificresearchobstacles,firstofalltoobtaininformationontheobjectisdifficult,andanewhighlysensitivedetectionmechanismandtheemergenceofsensors,oftenleadtobreakthroughsinthefieldThedevelopmentofanumberofsensorsisoftenapioneerinthedevelopmentofmarginalsubjectsSensorhasalreadypenetratedinto,suchasindustrialproduction,spacedevelopment,marineexploration,environmentalprotection,resourcesurvey,medicaldiagnostics,biotechnology,andevenconservationareasandsomostofthepanItisnoexaggerationtosaythat,fromthevastspace,thevastnessoftheocean,aswellasavarietyofcomplexengineeringsystems,almosteverymodernproject,areinseparablefromavarietyofsensorsThus,thesensortechnologyineconomicdevelopment,promotetheimportantroleofsocialprogressisveryclearCountriesintheworldattachgreatimportancetothedevelopmentofthisareaIbelieveinthenearfuture,therewillbealeapinsensortechnology,toachievestatuscommensuratewithitsimportantnewlevelSensorclassificationDifferentviewscanbeclassifiedonthesensors:theytransformprinciple(Transduceronthebasicphysicalorchemicaleffect)theirpurposetheiroutputsignaltypesandtheproductionoftheirmaterialsandprocessesWorkingprincipleofthesensorcanbedividedintophysicalsensorsandchemicalsensorstwocategories:Sensorworkingprincipleoftheclassificationofphysicalsensorsthatphysicaleffects,suchasthepiezoelectriceffect,magnetostriction,ionization,polarization,thermal,optical,magneticandelectriceffectsSmallchangesintheamountofthemeasuredsignalwillbeconvertedintoelectricalsignalsChemicalsensors,includingthosewithchemicaladsorption,electrochemicalreaction,acausalrelationshipbetweenthephenomenonofthesensor,themeasuredsignalwillbesmallchangesinvolumeconvertedtoelectricalsignalsSomesensorscannotdividedintophysics,cannotbedividedintochemicalclassesMostofthephysicsbasedsensorisfunctioningManyproblemsofchemicalsensortechnology,suchasreliabilityissues,thepossibilityofmassproduction,prices,etc,solvesuchproblems,theapplicationofchemicalsensorswillhavetremendousgrowthDynamiccharacteristicThesocalleddynamiccharacteristics,isthechangeintheinputsensor,itsoutputcharacteristicsInpractice,thesensor'sdynamiccharacteristicscommontocertainstandardsofitsresponsetosaidinputsignalThisisbecausethesensorresponsetothestandardinputsignaleasilyobtainedbyexperiment,anditsstandardinputsignalresponseanditsresponsetoanyinputsignalexistsbetweentherelationship,oftenthelatterthattheformercanbepresumedThemostcommonlyusedstandardinputsignalandsinesignalwithsteptwo,sothedynamiccharacteristicsofsensorsarecommonlyusedinthestepresponseandfrequencyresponsetothat电子秤电子秤是称重技术中的一种新型仪表广泛应用于各种场合。电子秤与机械秤比较有体积小、重量轻、结构简单、价格低、实用价值强、维护方便等特点可在各种环境工作重量信号可远传易于实现重量显示数字化易于与计算机联网实现生产过程自动化提高劳动生产率。标签秤在超市中的应用已经是耳闻目睹的了。一张小小的标签包含着:品名、价格、重量等一一列表在这小小的电子标签上。标签机的使用大大加快了销售速度也方便了顾客。顶尖条码标签秤有着许多卓越的特点以太网功能使管理更加方便。电子秤的分类(衡器可以分为机械式和电子式)工作原理:电子式的工作原理以电子元件(称重传感器AD转换电路单片机电路显示电路键盘电路通讯接口电路稳压电源电路等电路组成。使用功能:电子衡器采用现代传感器技术、电子技术和计算机技术一体化的电子称量装置才能满足并解决现实生活中提出的"快速、准确、连续、自动"称量要求同时有效地消除人为误差使之更符合法制计量管理和工业生产过程控制的应用要求。健康秤是衡器使用功能中的一个分类(分为机械式和电子式)物美价廉它可以帮助人们有效的监视自己的体重变化新产品还可以检测自己的脂肪含量而且还有一些人性化的附属功能。可能不属于计量器具。电子衡器是国家强制检定的计量器具他的合格产品是有检定分度值e和细分值D的标准是受国家计量法保护的产品。在电子衡器分类中有一种叫“人体秤”的产品它可以在计量部门进行检定称重很精确。电子秤的原理方框图解读第一部分电子秤的原理方框图:程式KB(按键)Fx传感器OP放大AD转换CPU显示驱动显示屏记忆体工作流程说明:当物体放在秤盘上时压力施给传感器该传感器发生形变从而使阻抗发生变化同时使用激励电压发生变化输出一个变化的模拟信号。该信号经放大电路放大输出到模数转换器。转换成便于处理的数字信号输出到CPU运算控制。CPU根据键盘命令以及程序将这种结果输出到显示器。直至显示这种结果。第二部分秤的分类:按原理分:电子秤机械秤机电结合秤按功能分:计数秤计价秤计重秤按用途分:工业秤商业秤特种秤第三部分秤的种类:桌面秤指全称量在Kg以下的电子秤台秤指全称量在Kg以内的电子秤地磅指全称量在Kg以上的电子秤精密天平第四部分按精确度分类:I级:特种天平精密度万II级:高精度天平万精密度,万III级:中精度天平精密度,万IV级:普通秤精密度,第五部分专业术语:最大称量:一台电子秤不计皮重所能称量的最大的载荷最小称量:一台电子秤在低于该值时会出现的一个相对误差安全载荷:正常称量范围额定载荷:正常称量范围允许误差:等级检定时允许的最大偏差感量:一台电子秤所能显示的最小刻度通常用“d”来表示解析量:一台具有计数功能的电子秤所能分辩的最小刻度解析度:一台具有计数功能的电子秤内部具有分辩能力的一个参数预热时间:一台秤达到各项指标所用的时间精度:感量与全称量的比值电子秤使用环境温度为:摄氏度到摄氏度台秤的台面规格:cmXcmcmXcmcmXcmcmXcmcmXcm第六部分电子秤的特点:实现远距离操作实现自动化控制数字显示直观、减小人为误差准确度高、分辩率强称量范围广特有功能:扣重、预扣重、归零、累计、警示等维护简单体积小安装、校正简单特种行业可接打印机或电脑驱动智能化电子秤反应快效率高第七部分电子秤检查过程:首先整体检查:有无磨损和损坏能否开机:开机后是否从到依次显示、数字是否模糊、能否归零有无背光用砝码测试能否称重充电器是否完好能否使用配件是否齐全第八部分传感器类型:电阻式:价格适中、精度高、使用广泛电容式:体积小、精度低磁浮式:特高精度、造价高油压式:现市场上已淘汰显示器种类:LCD(液晶显示):免插电、省电、附带背光LED:免插电、耗电、很亮灯管:插电、耗电、很高KB(按键)类型:薄膜按键:触点式机械按键:由许多单独按键组合在一起传感器的特性:额定载荷输出灵敏度非线性滞后重复性蠕变零点输出影响额定输出温度影响零点输入输入阻抗输出阻抗绝缘阻抗容许激励电压(V)第九部分传感器损坏后现象:称量不准显示不归零显示的数字乱跳判断传感器的E、E、S、S先用电阻档测条线两两这间的电阻值共有组。如为欧则为E、E如果为欧则为S、S为欧则为R桥臂在E、E端接上V电压传感器正确施加一个压力如输出S增大则红表笔为S反之S第十部分高精度计数秤特点:KgIb单位转换功能零点显示范围、调整功能(GLH系列没有)取样速度调节功能有组单重记忆功能可同时进行重量、数量、累计功能(GLH只有数量累计)可设定重量、数量上限警示功能自动零点追踪、温度线性校正扣重及预扣重功能待机功能有零点显示范围和零点跟踪范围有电池电压管制限制功能电子秤是称重技术中的一种新型仪表广泛应用于各种场合。电子秤与机械秤比较有体积小、重量轻、结构简单、价格低、实用价值强、维护方便等特点可在各种环境工作重量信号可远传易于实现重量显示数字化易于与计算机联网实现生产过程自动化提高劳动生产率。电子秤还具有自动零点追踪超负荷显示自动熄灭之特点。将机械磅秤、地上衡地中衡(汽车衡)、轨道衡等装上力敏传感器和单片机控制的智能称重仪表即成为智能数字式机电秤(或机电两用秤)提高了机械秤的计量精度具有造价低廉、可靠性高、安装简单等特点且不影响原机械秤任何传力结构。还有去皮、置零、累计次数、累计重量(计价型的累计金额)、零位自动调整、自动跟踪等功能。称重数据可直接打印或经计算机联网传送工业用秤可提高工艺水平和产品质量商贸用秤可提高结算信誉带来不可估量的社会效益和经济效益。电子秤基本上由传感器、放大电路、AD变换电路、单片机控制显示部分、开关矩阵电路、键盘电路及电源电路组成。传感器将重量信号转换为相应的电信号经放大后送入AD变换成脉冲数重量经过单片机控制下将模拟电压信号转换成数字量。这个数字量经单片机程序转换成与实际重量一致的数字值送显示窗显示。单片机同时对键盘及开关矩阵进行监测。根据输入的参数值程序作出相应的处理。电源电路提供各部分的工作电压。微处理器采用如、HDF、等CPU。主板通用性很强不同量程和分度值的秤仅需调整主板上的跳线和拨码开关就可实现唯一不同的是配用的传感器的额定承载能力。传感器是一种物理装置或生物器官能够探测、感受外界的信号、物理条件(如光、热、湿度)或化学组成(如烟雾)并将探知的信息传递给其他装置或器官。传感器的定义国家标准GB对传感器下的定义是:“能感受规定的被测量并按照一定的规律转换成可用信号的器件或装置通常由敏感元件和转换元件组成”。传感器是一种检测装置能感受到被测量的信息并能将检测感受到的信息按一定规律变换成为电信号或其他所需形式的信息输出以满足信息的传输、处理、存储、显示、记录和控制等要求。它是实现自动检测和自动控制的首要环节。传感器的作用人们为了从外界获取信息必须借助于感觉器官。而单靠人们自身的感觉器官在研究自然现象和规律以及生产活动中它们的功能就远远不够了。为适应这种情况就需要传感器。因此可以说传感器是人类五官的延长又称之为电五官。新技术革命的到来世界开始进入信息时代。在利用信息的过程中首先要解决的就是要获取准确可靠的信息而传感器是获取自然和生产领域中信息的主要途径与手段。在现代工业生产尤其是自动化生产过程中要用各种传感器来监视和控制生产过程中的各个参数使设备工作在正常状态或最佳状态并使产品达到最好的质量。因此可以说没有众多的优良的传感器现代化生产也就失去了基础。在基础学科研究中传感器更具有突出的地位。现代科学技术的发展进入了许多新领域:例如在宏观上要观察上千光年的茫茫宇宙微观上要观察小到cm的粒子世界纵向上要观察长达数十万年的天体演化短到s的瞬间反应。此外还出现了对深化物质认识、开拓新能源、新材料等具有重要作用的各种极端技术研究如超高温、超低温、超高压、超高真空、超强磁场、超弱磁砀等等。显然要获取大量人类感官无法直接获取的信息没有相适应的传感器是不可能的。许多基础科学研究的障碍首先就在于对象信息的获取存在困难而一些新机理和高灵敏度的检测传感器的出现往往会导致该领域内的突破。一些传感器的发展往往是一些边缘学科开发的先驱。传感器早已渗透到诸如工业生产、宇宙开发、海洋探测、环境保护、资源调查、医学诊断、生物工程、甚至文物保护等等极其之泛的领域。可以毫不夸张地说从茫茫的太空到浩瀚的海洋以至各种复杂的工程系统几乎每一个现代化项目都离不开各种各样的传感器。由此可见传感器技术在发展经济、推动社会进步方面的重要作用是十分明显的。世界各国都十分重视这一领域的发展。相信不久的将来传感器技术将会出现一个飞跃达到与其重要地位相称的新水平。传感器的分类可以用不同的观点对传感器进行分类:它们的转换原理(传感器工作的基本物理或化学效应)它们的用途它们的输出信号类型以及制作它们的材料和工艺等。根据传感器工作原理可分为物理传感器和化学传感器二大类:传感器工作原理的分类物理传感器应用的是物理效应诸如压电效应磁致伸缩现象离化、极化、热电、光电、磁电等效应。被测信号量的微小变化都将转换成电信号。化学传感器包括那些以化学吸附、电化学反应等现象为因果关系的传感器被测信号量的微小变化也将转换成电信号。有些传感器既不能划分到物理类也不能划分为化学类。大多数传感器是以物理原理为基础运作的。化学传感器技术问题较多例如可靠性问题规模生产的可能性价格问题等解决了这类难题化学传感器的应用将会有巨大增长。传感器动态特性所谓动态特性是指传感器在输入变化时它的输出的特性。在实际工作中传感器的动态特性常用它对某些标准输入信号的响应来表示。这是因为传感器对标准输入信号的响应容易用实验方法求得并且它对标准输入信号的响应与它对任意输入信号的响应之间存在一定的关系往往知道了前者就能推定后者。最常用的标准输入信号有阶跃信号和正弦信号两种所以传感器的动态特性也常用阶跃响应和频率响应来表示。指导教师评语:指导教师签字:年月日

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