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OB-Edwin Locke.pdf

OB-Edwin Locke

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简介:本文档为《OB-Edwin Lockepdf》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含ffirsinddii::PMffirsinddi::PMHANDBOOKOFPRINCIPLESOFORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIORS符等。

ffirsinddii::PMffirsinddi::PMHANDBOOKOFPRINCIPLESOFORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIORSECONDEDITIONffirsinddii::PMffirsinddiii::PMHANDBOOKOFPRINCIPLESOFORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIORINDISPENSABLEKNOWLEDGEFOREVIDENCEBASEDMANAGEMENTSECONDEDITIONEditedbyEDWINALOCKEAJohnWileyandSons,Ltd,Publicationffirsinddiv::PMThiseditionfirstpublishedJohnWileySons,LtdRegisteredofficeJohnWileySonsLtd,TheAtrium,SouthernGate,Chichester,WestSussex,POSQ,UnitedKingdomFordetailsofourglobaleditorialoffices,forcustomerservicesandforinformationabouthowtoapplyforpermissiontoreusethecopyrightmaterialinthisbookpleaseseeourwebsiteatwwwwileycomTherightoftheauthortobeidentifiedastheauthorofthisworkhasbeenassertedinaccordancewiththeCopyright,DesignsandPatentsActAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,exceptaspermittedbytheUKCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,withoutthepriorpermissionofthepublisherWileyalsopublishesitsbooksinavarietyofelectronicformatsSomecontentthatappearsinprintmaynotbeavailableinelectronicbooksDesignationsusedbycompaniestodistinguishtheirproductsareoftenclaimedastrademarksAllbrandnamesandproductnamesusedinthisbookaretradenames,servicemarks,trademarksorregisteredtrademarksoftheirrespectiveownersThepublisherisnotassociatedwithanyproductorvendormentionedinthisbookThispublicationisdesignedtoprovideaccurateandauthoritativeinformationinregardtothesubjectmattercoveredItissoldontheunderstandingthatthepublisherisnotengagedinrenderingprofessionalservicesIfprofessionaladviceorotherexpertassistanceisrequired,theservicesofacompetentprofessionalshouldbesoughtLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataHandbookofprinciplesoforganizationalbehavioreditedbyEdwinLockepcmPreviouslypublishedundertitle:TheBlackwellhandbookofprinciplesoforganizationalbehavioreditedbyEdwinALockeMalden,MA:BlackwellBusiness,IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(cloth)ISBN(pbk)OrganizationalbehaviorILocke,EdwinAIIBlackwellhandbookofprinciplesoforganizationalbehaviorHDBdcAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrarySetinptBaskervillebyMacmillanPublishingSolutions,Chennai,IndiaPrintedinGreatBritainbyAntonyRoweLtd,Chippenham,Wiltshireftocinddv::PMContentsContributorsandEditorixPrefacebyDeniseRousseauxvEditor’sIntroductionxxvPARTISELECTIONSelectonIntelligenceFRANKLSCHMIDTSelectonConscientiousnessandEmotionalStabilityMURRAYRBARRICKANDMICHAELKMOUNTStructureInterviewstoRecruitandHiretheBestPeopleCYNTHIAKAYSTEVENSPARTIITRAININGANDPERFORMANCEAPPRAISALDesignTrainingSystematicallyandFollowtheScienceofTrainingEDUARDOSALASANDKEVINCSTAGLConductPerformanceAppraisalstoImproveIndividualandFirmPerformanceMARIAROTUNDOftocinddvi::PMviCONTENTSPARTIIITURNOVERANDSATISFACTIONPromoteJobSatisfactionthroughMentalChallengeTIMOTHYAJUDGEANDRYANKLINGERControlVoluntaryTurnoverbyUnderstandingitsCausesMARIONBEBERLY,BROOKSCHOLTOM,THOMASWLEE,ANDTERENCERMITCHELLPARTIVMOTIVATIONAttainEmotionalControlbyUnderstandingWhatEmotionsAreEDWINALOCKEMotivateEmployeePerformancethroughGoalSettingGARYPLATHAMCultivateSelfefficacyforPersonalandOrganizationalEffectivenessALBERTBANDURAUsingEmpowermenttoMotivatePeopletoEngageinEffectiveSelfandSharedLeadershipJAYACONGERANDCRAIGLPEARCEPayforPerformanceCATHYCDURHAMANDKATHRYNMBARTOLProvideRecognitionforPerformanceImprovementFREDLUTHANSANDALEXANDERDSTAJKOVICPromoteProceduralandInteractionalJusticetoEnhanceIndividualandOrganizationalOutcomesJERALDGREENBERGPARTVTEAMDYNAMICSFosterTeamEffectivenessbyFulfillingKeyLeadershipFunctionsJRICHARDHACKMANANDRUTHWAGEMANComposeTeamstoAssureSuccessfulBoundaryActivityDEBORAHANCONAANDDAVIDCALDWELLftocinddvii::PMCONTENTSviiMakingGroupProcessWork:HarnessingCollectiveIntuition,TaskConflict,andPacingGERARDOAOKHUYSENANDBETHABECHKYManageIntrateamConflictthroughCollaborationLAURIERWEINGARTANDKARENAJEHNPARTVILEADERSHIPUsePowerEffectivelytoInfluencePeopleGARYYUKLLeadthroughVisionandValuesSHELLEYAKIRKPATRICKFosterTrustthroughAbility,Benevolence,andIntegrityJASONACOLQUITTANDSABRINACSALAMPARTVIIORGANIZATIONALPROCESSESDesignStructuretoFitStrategyLEXDONALDSONCommunicateSuccessfullybySeekingBalanceDEBORAHACAIANDEDWARDLFINKUseParticipationtoShareInformationandDistributeKnowledgeJOHNAWAGNERIIIBroadentheDecisionFrametoMakeEffectiveDecisionsRICHARDPLARRICKStimulateCreativitybyFuelingPassionTERESAMAMABILEANDCOLINMFISHERManageStressatWorkthroughPreventiveandProactiveCopingTABEAREUTERANDRALFSCHWARZERManageConflictthroughNegotiationandMediationMSUSANTAYLORANDASHLEYFIELBIGftocinddviii::PMviiiCONTENTSSustainOrganizationalPerformancethroughContinuousLearning,ChangeandRealignmentMICHAELBEERPARTVIIIENTREPRENEURSHIPGainEntrepreneurshipSuccessthroughSwiftnessandExperimentationJROBERTBAUMPARTIXWORK,FAMILY,TECHNOLOGY,ANDCULTUREAchieveWork–FamilyBalancethroughIndividualandOrganizationalStrategiesBORISBBALTESANDMALISSAACLARKUseInformationTechnologyforOrganizationalChangeMARYAMALAVIANDYOUNGJINYOOMakeManagementPracticeFitNationalCulturesandtheGlobalCultureMIRIAMEREZIndexfbetwinddix::PMContributorsandEditorMaryamAlaviGoizuetaBusinessSchool,EmoryUniversityMaryamAlavibusemoryeduTeresaMAmabileHarvardBusinessSchooltamabilehbseduDeborahAnconaMITSloanSchoolofManagementanconamiteduBorisBBaltesDepartmentofPsychology,WayneStateUniversitybbalteswayneeduAlbertBanduraDepartmentofPsychology,StanfordUniversityBandurapsychstanfordeduMurrayRBarrickMaysBusinessSchool,TexasAandMUniversitymbarrickmaystamueduKathrynMBartolRobertHSmithSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofMarylandkbartolrhsmithumdeduJRobertBaumRobertHSmithSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofMarylandjrbaumrhsmithumdedufbetwinddx::PMxCONTRIBUTORSANDEDITORBethABechkyGraduateSchoolofManagement,UniversityofCaliforniababechkyucdaviseduMichaelBeerHarvardBusinessSchoolEmail:mbeerhbsedDeborahACaiDepartmentofCommunication,UniversityofMarylanddebcaiumdeduDavidCaldwellManagementDepartment,SantaClaraUniversitydcaldwellscueduMalissaAClarkDepartmentofPsychology,WayneStateUniversitymalissawayneeduJasonAColquittUniversityofFloridacolquittufleduJayACongerKravisLeadershipInstitute,ClaremontMcKennaCollegejaycongercmceduLexDonaldsonAustralianSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofNewSouthWaleslexdagsmeduauCathyCDurhamDirector,TitleVGrant,GlendaleCommunityCollegecdurhamglendaleeduMarionBEberlyMichaelGFosterSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofWashingtonmarionbuwashingtoneduMiriamErezFacultyofIndustrialEngineeringandManagement,IsraelInstituteofTechnologymerezietechnionacilAshleyFielbigCollegeofBehavioralandSocialSciencesafielbigumdedufbetwinddxi::PMxiCONTRIBUTORSANDEDITOREdwardLFinkDepartmentofCommunication,UniversityofMarylandelfumdeduColinMFisherMorrisHallA,HarvardBusinessSchoolcfisherhbseduJeraldGreenbergInstituteforCivilJustice,RANDCorporationjgreenberandorgJRichardHackmanDepartmentofPsychology,HarvardUniversityhackmanfasharvardeduBrooksCHoltomMcDonoughSchoolofBusiness,GeorgetownUniversitybchmsbeduKarenAJehnDepartmentofSocialandOrganizationalPsychology,LeidenUniversity,TheNetherlandsJehnkaFSWLeidenunivnlTimothyAJudgeDepartmentofManagement,WarringtonCollegeofBusiness,UniversityofFloridatimothyjudgecbaufleduRyanKlingerWarringtonCollegeofBusiness,UniversityofFloridaryanklingercbaufleduShelleyAKirkpatrickDirectorofAssessmentServices,ManagementConcepts,Vienna,VirginiaskirkpatrickmanagementconceptscomRichardPLarrickFuquaSchoolofBusiness,DukeUniversitylarrickdukeeduGaryPLathamRotmanSchoolofManagement,UniversityofTorontolathamrotmanutorontocaThomasWLeeMichaelGFosterSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofWashingtonorcasuwashingtonedufbetwinddxii::PMxiiCONTRIBUTORSANDEDITOREdwinALockeRobertHSmithSchoolofBusiness,UniveristyofMaryland(Emeritus)elockerhsmithumdeduFredLuthansDepartmentofManagement,UniversityofNebraskaLincolnfluthansunleduTerenceRMitchellMichaelGFosterSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofWashingtontrmuwashingtoneduMichaelKMountTippieCollegeofBusiness,UniversityofIowamichaelmountuiowaeduGerardoAOkhuysenDavidEcclesSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofUtahgerardobusinessutaheduCraigLPearcePeterFDruckerandMasatoshiItoSchoolofManagementCraigLPearcegmailcomTabeaReuterFreieUniversitätBerlin,GermanytabeareuterfuberlindeMariaRotundoJosephLRotmanSchoolofManagement,UniversityofTorontorotundorotmanutorontocaSabrinaCSalamEditor’snote:IregrettoannouncethatSabrinaSalamdiedtragicallyinacaraccidentonApril,EduardoSalasDepartmentofPsychologyandInstituteforSimulationandTraining,UniversityofCentralFloridaesalasistucfeduFrankLSchmidtTippieCollegeofBusiness,UniversityofIowafrankschmidtuiowaeduProfessorDrRalfSchwarzerFreieUniversitätBerlin,Germanyhealthzedatfuberlindefbetwinddxiii::PMxiiiCONTRIBUTORSANDEDITORKevinCStaglSeniorTalentAdvisorandCEO,TalentThresholdLLCkevintalentthresholdcomAlexanderDStajkovicDepartmentofManagementandHumanResources,UniversityofWisconsinMadisonastajkovicbuswisceduCynthiaKayStevensRobertHSmithSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofMarylandcstevensrhsmithumdeduMSusanTaylorRobertHSmithSchoolofBusiness,UniversityofMarylandstaylorrhsmithumdeduRuthWagemanDepartmentofPsychology,HarvardUniversityrwagemanwjhharvardeduJohnAWagnerIIIDepartmentofManagement,MichiganStateUniversitywagnermsueduLaurieRWeingartTepperSchoolofBusiness,CarnegieMellonUniversityweingartcmueduYoungjinYooFoxSchoolofBusinessandManagement,TempleUniversityYoungjinyootempleeduDrGaryYuklManagementDepartment,SchoolofBusiness,UniversityatAlbanyGyuklalbanyedufbetwinddxiv::PMfprefinddxv::PMPrefaceThehandbook,nowinitssecondedition,fulfillsapromisemadewhenthefirstbehavioralresearchinorganizationsbegan(Munsterberg,)attheoutsetofthethcenturyItidentifiesgeneralprinciples,validatedbyscience,formanagingpeople,work,andorganizationswellMasteringtheseprinciplesistheessentialfocusofhighcalibermanagementeducationandeffectiveworkplacepracticeThisbookhelpsthereadertoclosethegapbetweenthemassofscientificknowledgeonorganizationalbehaviorandthedaytodaydecisionsmadeinorganizationsManagerstypicallymakedecisionsusingtheknowledgetheyalreadypossessFewbasetheirprofessionaldecisionsonsystematicknowledgeoforganizationsandhumanbehaviorEvenmanagerswithadvancedtrainingoftenpossesslittleknowledgeofscientificfactsabouttheworktheydoFurther,manymanagementeducatorsdonotkeepupwiththeeveraccumulatingstateofknowledgeinmanagementresearch(Rousseau,)Byhelpingtoclosetheresearch–practicegap,thishandbookoffersbothpractitionersandeducatorstheopportunitytobringtheirownprofessionalpracticesuptospeed,buildingonthebestavailablescientificevidenceScientificevidenceisacquiredthroughdirectexperience,controlledobservation,measurement,andexperimentationItisbothanepitomeofhumanknowledgeandaprojectinvolvingmanythousandsofpeopleThescienceinthisbookstandsincontrasttothebusinesshypeandfadspushedbyselfappointedgurus,whoofferagoodstoryandonesizefitsallsolutions,butnotscientificevidenceActingonunsubstantiatedbeliefsandtrendyclaimsultimatelywastesanorganization’stimeandmoneyandtheeffortsofmanywellmeaningpeopleFailedeffortstoimprovetheworkplacetakeatollonorganizationalwellbeingandperformanceandontherelationshipbetweenanorganization’sleadersanditsmembersAsThomasHuxleysaid,“Thedeepestsinagainstthehumanmindistobelievethingswithoutevidence”ManagingbyevidenceandfactmeanstakingactionbasedoncoreprinciplesandfundamentaltruthsdevelopedthroughscienceandsystematicobservationDecisionsmadeonthissensibleandreliablefoundation,inturn,buildemployeetrustthatmanagersarecompetentandwellinformed(ColquittandSalam,Chapter)ThehandbookprovidesthisfoundationSCIENCEYOUCANUSEThehandbookischockfullofsciencebasedfactsaboutthehumanmadeworldoforganizationsMassiveamountsofdatahavebeenaccumulatedandintegratedtodeveloptheknowledgebaseonwhicheachchapterisbasedChapterauthorsarethefield’sleadingfprefinddxvi::PMxviPREFACEexperts,whohavepulledtogetherthemostimportantfactsregardingeachtopicinafashionbotheducatorsandpractitionerscanuseIndoingso,theauthorspresentmuchofthebestreplicatedandmostusefulknowledgeinorganizationalbehaviorForexample,didyouknow:Inskilledjobs,topworkersproducetimesasmuchasthepoorestperformersThesinglebestpredictorofthisdifferenceinproductivityisgeneralmentalability(intelligence,Schmidt,Chapter)Hiringpeoplewhoareconscientiousandemotionallystablehasnumerousbenefitsfororganizations(BarrickandMount,Chapter)Jobsatisfactionisanimportantpredictoroflifesatisfaction–andmentalchallengeisakeyfactorinjobsatisfaction(JudgeandKlinger,Chapter)TurnoverhasseveraldifferentcausesEachrequiresadifferentapproachbymanagement(Eberly,Holtom,Lee,andMitchell,Chapter)Settingspecificchallenginggoalsforemployeesisaveryeffectivemotivationaltechniquebutonlyifcertainproceduresarefollowed(Latham,Chapter)Moneydoesmotivatepeople,butpaysystemshavetobedesignedverycarefullytoavoiddysfunctionalconsequences(DurhamandBartol,Chapter)Effectiveteamleadershipdoesnotdependonleadercharismabutratheronperformingcertainkeyleadershipfunctions(HackmanandWageman,ChapterAnconaandCaldwell,Chapter)Groupsbecomeskilledininterpersonalandtaskprocessesastheydevelopsubconsciousknowledge(oftencalledcollectiveintuition)thathelpsthemcopewithnewsituations(OkhuysenandBechky,Chapter)Conflictswithinteamscanbeeffectivelymanagedbyimplementingvariouscoordinationmechanisms(WeingartandJehn,Chapter)Todotheirjobswell,managersneedtoutilizemoretypesofpower(egexpertpower)thansimplytheauthoritythatcomeswiththeirposition(Yukl,Chapter)Topmanagerswhosetaclearvisionfortheirorganizationandpromoteandenforcearationalcodeofvaluestypicallyoutperformexecutiveswhodon’t(Kirkpatrick,Chapter)Theoptimalorganizationalstructuredependsuponavarietyoffactorsincludingsize,strategy,anddegreeofspecialization(Donaldson,Chapter)AkeytoeffectivedecisionmakingisbroadeningthedecisionframeworkDoingsoisenabledbyusingchecklists,logicmodels,andotherheuristics(Larrick,Chapter)Negotiationismosteffectiveifspecific,researchbasedproceduresarefollowed(TaylorandFielbig,Chapter)Swiftactionandexperimentationarecriticaltoentrepreneurialsuccess,butonedoesnothavetobethefirstmovertosucceed(Baum,Chapter)Workfamilybalancerequiresbothorganizationalsupportsandindividualflexibility(BaltesandClark,Chapter)NewscientificknowledgeisdiscoveredeverydaySuchknowledgeistheproductofmanythousandsofactivelythinkingindividualsJustconsiderwhatwasrequiredjusttodiscover,validate,andapplygermtheoryinthefieldofmedicineThoughitsbodyofknowledgeismuchyoungerthanthecorefieldsofthenaturalsciences,thesameistruefprefinddxvii::PMPREFACExviiinthefieldoforganizationalbehaviorPeoplearecomplicated,andthecomplexitymultipliesamillionfoldwhenyouputhundredsorthousandsofthemtogetherinorganizationsPeoplethink,feelandmakechoicesgenes,particles,atoms,andmoleculesdonotNevertheless,throughsystematicstudyitispossibletounderstandbothpeopleandtheorganizationstheycreateandbelongtoThechaptersinthisbooksummarizemuchofwhat’sbeendiscoveredaboutbehaviorinorganizationsThisprovidesboththeeducatorandthepractitionerafoundationtobuildonintheirownworkHaveyoueverheardthesecomplaints“Thecollectivewisdomfromresearchisbeinglost”“Practitionersdonotreadacademicjournals”“Academics,notpractitioners,aredrivingtheresearchagenda”“Therelevance,quality,andapplicabilityofresearcharequestionable”“Practiceisbeingdrivenmorebyfadsandfashionsthanresearch”“Manypracticesaredoingmoreharmthangood”Thesestatementsmightremindyouofconversationswithfacultyinschoolsofbusinessorwith

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