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首页 (美)克里斯丁·戴主编 中国的环境与可持续发展的挑战(东门图书出版 2005)

(美)克里斯丁·戴主编 中国的环境与可持续发展的挑战(东门图书出版 2005)

(美)克里斯丁·戴主编 中国的环境与可持续发展的挑战(东门图书…

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2008-03-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《(美)克里斯丁·戴主编 中国的环境与可持续发展的挑战(东门图书出版 2005)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

CHINA’SENVIRONMENTANDTHECHALLENGEOFSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTCHINA’SENVIRONMENTANDTHECHALLENGEOFSUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENTForewordbyNTWangKristenADay,EditorMESharpeArmonk,NewYorkLondon,EnglandAnEastGateBook}AnEastGateBookCopyright©byColumbiaUniversityAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproducedinanyformwithoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublisher,MESharpe,Inc,BusinessParkDrive,Armonk,NewYorkLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataChina’senvironmentandthechallengeofsustainabledevelopmenteditedbyKristenADaypcm“Aneastgatebook”IncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover:alkpaper)EconomicdevelopmentEnvironmentalaspectsChinaEnvironmentalpolicyChinaEnvironmentalprotectionChinaSustainabledevelopmentChinaIDay,KristenHCEC’dcPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThepaperusedinthispublicationmeetstheminimumrequirementsofAmericanNationalStandardforInformationSciencesPermanenceofPaperforPrintedLibraryMaterials,ANSIZ~BM(c)InmemoryofNianTzu(NT)Wang–viiContentsListofIllustrativeMaterialsixForewordNTWangxiiiAcknowledgmentsxviiIntroductionxixChina’sRoadtoSustainableDevelopment:AnOverviewCynthiaWCann,MichaelCCann,andGaoShangquanPublicEnvironmentalConsciousnessinChina:EarlyEmpiricalEvidenceYokshiuFLeeEnvironmentalLawinthePeople’sRepublicofChina:AnOverviewDescribingChallengesandProvidingInsightsforGoodGovernanceRichardJFerrisJrandHongjunZhangEnvironmentalEnforcementinChinaElizabethEconomyBeyondtheBureaucracy:ChangingChina’sPolicymakingEnvironmentEricZusmanandJenniferLTurnerEmissionsTradingtoImproveAirQualityinanIndustrialCityinthePeople’sRepublicofChinaRichardDMorgenstern,PiyaAbeygunawardena,RobertAnderson,RuthGreenspanBell,AlanKrupnick,andJeremySchreifelsEnvironmentalImplicationsofChina’sEnergyDemands:AnOverviewFrankWangandHongfeiLiviiiCONTENTSRevivingtheScorchedEarthASnapshotofChina’sHazardousWasteManagementandCleanerProductionProgramsDanMillisonSandyDesertificationinNorthernChinaWangTaoandWuWeiChina’sEnvironment:ABibliographicEssayJamesDSeymourAbouttheEditorandContributorsIndexixListofIllustrativeMaterialsTablesCommodityImportstoChina(January–September)ClassesofWaterUseinChinaSurveysonPublicEnvironmentalConsciousness,–PublicPerceptionoftheEnvironmentBeijingandShanghaiResidents’PerceptionoftheNation’sEnvironmentalProblemsBeijingandShanghaiResidents’PerceptionoftheConditionsofTheirOwnLivingEnvironmentPublic’sPerceptionoftheDegreeofConcernfortheEnvironmentShownbyPeopleAroundThemPublic’sRankOrderedListofVariousProblemsattheNationalScalePublic’sRankOrderedListofNationalDevelopmentGoalsPublicPerceptionofEnvironmentalProblemsinRelationtoOtherProblemsPublicAttitudesTowardEnvironmentalProtectionandEconomicGrowthUrbanandRuralResidents’PerceptionofNationalEnvironmentalProblemsPublic’sSelfAssessmentofCommandofEnvironmentalKnowledgePublic’sKnowledgeofGlobalEnvironmentalProblemsUrbanandRuralResidents’PerceptionoftheFiveMostImportantEnvironmentalProblemsWillingnesstoPayHigherPricesforEnvironmentallyFriendlyProductsandServicesxLISTOFILLUSTRATIVEMATERIALSPublicPerceptionoftheLevelofCommitmentforEnvironmentalProtectionShownbyGovernmentOfficialsPublicPerceptionoftheFutureTrendsofEnvironmentalConditionsintheNextFiveYearsPublicPerceptionofEnvironmentalPollutionProblemsinResidingCityandoftheCountryasaWholePublicPerceptionofEnvironmentalQualityofResidingDistrictandoftheCountryasaWholeDetailsontheTwoControlZonesEmissionAllowancesAcrosstheTwoControlZonesUSNongovernmentalOrganizationEnergyProjects,USNongovernmentalOrganizationBiodiversityandConservationProjects,AnnualAverageDailySOConcentrationsinTaiyuan,–SOControlMeasuresPlannedorinUseinTaiyuan,–SOEmissionsandTotalEmissionsControlObjectivesforMajorCitiesinShanxiintheTenthFYPMajorPolicyandRegulatoryDevelopmentsRelatedtoAirEmissionsPermitsSummaryofKeyDesignElementsEastAsiaHazardousWasteManagementChronologyCurrentTreatment,Storage,andDisposalFacilities’StatusinChinaExamplesofCleanerProductionMeasuresinChineseEnterprisesSandyDesertifiedLandsinChinaCausesofSandyDesertificationinNorthernChinaSandyDesertificationControlTechnologiesinNorthernChinaFiguresSchematicOverviewoftheModernStatutemakingProcessinChinaSchematicOverviewoftheStateCouncilRulemakingProcessinChinaSchematicOverviewoftheStateCouncilAgencyRulemakingProcessinChinaLISTOFILLUSTRATIVEMATERIALSxiSchematicOverviewoftheHierarchyofLawsinChinaBureaucraticFragmentationChina’sEnergyConsumption,OilConsumptionandDomesticSupplyofMajorPlayersintheInternationalOilMarket,China’sConsumptionandProductionofOil,–China’sProjectedEnergyConsumption,China’sPrimaryEnergyConsumption,–MapsTheTwoControlZonesDesertificationMapofNorthChinainBoxesAsianDevelopmentBankSupportforSustainableDevelopmentinChinaProgressinManagingtheYellowRiverChina’sKeyStateCouncilAdministrativeDepartmentswithEnvironmentalResponsibilitiesKeyPrinciplesSetForthinChina’sEnvironmentalProtectionLawKeyChineseEnvironmentalStatutesExamplesofKeyProvinciallevelandMunicipalLawsHazardousWasteManagementProgramandTreatment,Storage,andDisposalFacilitiesProjectDevelopmentIssues“BaselandtheBeast”:ProtectingtheEnvironmentorDistractingthePublicTypicalCleanerProductionApplicationsxiiiForewordThepresentvolumedrawsfromaseriesofpaperspresentedtotheUniversitySeminaronChina:InternationalBusinessatColumbiaUniversityduringthe–academicyearThemainpurposeoftheongoingseminar,aswithmanyotherUniversitySeminars,istobringtogetheracademiciansaswellaspractitionersfromColumbiaandelsewherefordiscussionsontopicsofmutualinterestTheseminarisalsoanintegralpartoftheChinaInternationalBusinessProject,ofwhichIamthedirectorundertheauspicesoftheuniversity’sGraduateSchoolofBusinessandtheSchoolofInternationalandPublicAffairsTheprojectwasinitiatedininanticipationoftheneedforgreatermutualunderstandingaboutbusinessrelationsbetweenChinaandtherestoftheworldwhenChina’snewpolicyofreformandopeningupbecameevidentattheendofthesTheproject’sseminarbecameoneoftheUniversitySeminarsinBetweenitsinceptioninandmid,theseminarhadmorethanmeetingsontopicsrelevanttothethemeinquestionTheseminargreatlybenefitedothercomponentsoftheprojectInparticular,itprovidedinvaluableinformationandinsightsforparticipantsintheColumbiagraduatecourseChina:InternationalBusinessRelations,aswellasforthoseattendingsimilarcoursesonChinaitsupplementedmajorinternationalconferencesonthesubjectthatinvolvedalargenumberofdistinguishedspeakersandaudiencesandyieldedconferencepublicationsitfacilitatedexecutivetrainingandoutreachanditaidednumerousresearchprojectsandpublicationsthoseauthoredandeditedbythepresentwriteraloneamountedtosixbooksandoverarticlesAtthebeginningofthe–academicyear,whenthedirectoroftheUniversitySeminars,RobertBelknap,approachedmeaboutthepossibilityofpublishingavolumeofselectedpapersfromtheseminar,myreactionwasenthusiasticItwasagreedthattheplannedpublicationshouldfocussharplyonasingletopicChina’senvironmentandthatspeakersattheseminarwouldbeinvitedtopreparepaperswithaviewtopublicationTherearemanyreasonswhytheenvironmentalissueismosttimelyforbusinesswithChinaFromabroadperspective,thestateoftheearthhasreachedapointatwhichthecapacitytosustainhumandevelopmentonthexivFOREWORDland,thesea,andintheairhasbeengreatlystrainedTherapiddisappearanceofmanyspecies,asinthecaseofdinosaursmillionsofyearsago,maybeirreversibleandraisesthequestionoftheultimatesurvivalofhumansThedeclineinbiodiversitynotonlyupsetsecologicalbalancebutalsothreatenshumanwellbeinginourtimeForexample,whilenutritionistsareextollingthevalueoffish,manyfishstocksarenowonlyonetenthofthoseofhalfacenturyagoTheincreasingdesertificationofmanypoorlandshasdeprivedthosealreadyonthevergeofthepovertylineoftheirlivelihoodThedryingupoflakesortheimpendingriseofthesealevel,resultingfromthecarelessdischargeofgreenhousegases,threatensmanyinhabitantsinlowlyingareasandislandsAtthesametime,thescarcityofwaterandcleanairhasalreadybecomeamajorprobleminagrowingnumberofcountriesBecauseofChina’ssizeandthegreaterthaneverconnectednessacrosstheglobe,theworldneedsChinatodealwithenvironmentalissues,andChinaneedstherestoftheworldforitsexperienceandknowhowonmanagingenvironmentalproblemsForexample,China’sduststormsarealreadyaffectingthehealthofresidentsinmanyneighboringcountriesInpastdecades,itwasassumedbyChinaandmanydevelopingcountriesthatprioritymustbegiventodevelopmentandthattheenvironmentalproblemcouldbeputonholdinthepoorercountriesmoreover,itwasfeltthatthedevelopedcountries,asthemainculprits,notonlyshouldbutalsocouldaffordtodealwiththeproblemsoftheirowncreationOnlyinrecentyearshaveboththecommonpersonandthegovernmentofChinareevaluatedtherelationshipbetweendevelopmentandtheenvironmentTobesure,developmentremainsanationalpriorityfortheeradicationofongoingpoverty,despitedecadesofasustainedriseinthegrossnationaloutputanddraconianmeasuresofpopulationcontrolYettheconventionalnationalaccountsignorethefactofenvironmentaldamageasnegativeoutputForexample,carelessupstreamlogginghascausedfloods,thusnotonlyreducingfutureproductionbutalsoleadingtohealthproblemsanddeathsThepromotionoftheexportofwoolhascausedovergrazinganddesertificationWhileadetailedaccountingofthenegativeoutputofenvironmentaldamagemaybebothdifficultanddebatable,itisevidentthatitconstitutesasubstantialportionofthetotalgrowthofChina’saggregateoutputinrecentyearsMoreover,someofthedamage,suchasthedisappearanceofcertainspecies,maynotbetranslatableinmonetarytermsManyinstancesoftheimpactofenvironmentaldamage,suchasthethousandsofdeathscausedbytheGreatSmogofinLondon,willremainunknownuntilfutureresearchrevealsthefactsInsomecases,suchastheriseofthesealevel,thenegativeeffectswillbebornebyfuturegenerationsFromthepointofviewofinternationalbusiness,itnolongercanbexviFOREWORDcountriesbythenouveauxrichesIfhabitsaredifficulttochange,shouldfiscalpolicymakeitcostlytoengageinsomeantisocialhabitsManystoriesofsuccessesandfailurescouldalsobeaddedtoguidefuturepoliciesandengagereaders’interestYet,inspiteofthelimitations,itishopedthatthisvolumewillcallattentiontotheroleoftheenvironmentinhumanwelfarebothinChinaaswellasgloballyMoreover,itisnotlimitedtotheinterestsofpeopleinbusinessandeconomicsbutisalsorelevanttoalldisciplinesandwalksoflifeIcongratulateKristenADay,theeditorofthisvolume,forherindefatigableenergyinputtingtogetherasufficientnumberofrelevantpapersandforherskillsinpersuadingthecontributorstomakethenecessaryrevisionsAschairoftheeditorialboard,Ialsowishtothankothermembers,notablyMingJerChenandJohnZYang,fortheircontributions,inspiteoftheirbusyschedulesGratitudetootherreadersisalsoexpressedinindividualpapersLastly,withouttheguidanceandintellectualstimulusofthedirectoroftheUniversitySeminarsandheadsandcolleaguesoftheWeatherheadEastAsianInstitute,theGraduateSchoolofBusiness,andtheSchoolofInternationalandPublicAffairs,inwhichtheChinaInternationalBusinessProjectislocated,andthegenerosityofthedonorstotheproject,thisvolumewouldnothavebeenpossibleNTWangDirector,ChinaInternationalBusinessProjectGraduateSchoolofBusinessandSchoolofInternationalandPublicAffairsColumbiaUniversityxviiAcknowledgmentsManypeoplegavemetheirtimeandprovidedvaluableassistancewiththisprojectIparticularlywouldliketoexpressmyappreciationforthemanycontributionsofthelateNTWang,whochairedtheEditorialBoardforthisprojectNT,whoprovidedmewiththisopportunitytoexploreChina’senvironmentalchallenges,passedawayshortlybeforethisbookwenttopressWereitnotforhisinvitationandtheguidancethatheprovidedthroughouttheprocess,thisbookwouldnothavebeenproducedHewasaremarkablepersonofgreatwisdomandwillbedeeplymissedIalsothanktheothermembersoftheeditorialboard,especiallyMingJerChen,whowasresponsivetomyeveryqueryandprovidedbothencouragementandpracticalassistanceJenniferLTurneroftheWoodrowWilsonInternationalCenterforScholarsinWashington,DCgavemetremendoussupportfromstarttofinishShetooktimeoutofabusyscheduletoshareherencyclopedicknowledgeofgreendevelopmentsinChinaandtodirectmetootherexpertsinthefieldIalsogreatlyappreciatethekindassistanceofJingjingQian,whoneversaidnowhenIcametoherwitharequestIacknowledgewithgratitudethesupportandinvolvementofmyadvisersatCalicoGroup:TejiBindra,PiyaChatterjee,RussellLangworthy,AlanSchindler,FrankWang,andNTWangTheyaremybraintrustandhavebeenadvisersforthisprojectinthetruestsenseofthewordIparticularlythankFrankWangandAlanSchindlerfortheirinsight,encouragement,andsubstantialcontributionsThisprojectwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithouttheencouragementofRobertBelknapatColumbiaUniversityIexpressmyappreciationtotheUniversitySeminarsatColumbiaUniversityfortheirhelpinpublicationTheideaspresentedhavebenefitedfromdiscussionsintheUniversitySeminaronChina:InternationalBusinessAliciaHetzner,mycopyeditor,providedessentialfeedbackandrefinedmanyroughedgesIalsothankthefollowingpeopleforreviewingmanuscriptsfromJulythroughJanuaryTheperspectivesandexpertisetheysharedwiththeauthorsinthisvolumewereinvaluable:xviiiACKNOWLEDGMENTSPamelaBaldingerAlanSchindlerPeterCarrollJudithShapiroLedfordDayJenniferLTurnerRichardJFerrisJrMinWangYuhongJiangJamesWenRussellLangworthyFuqiangYangSongLiYoulinYangBenjaminLiebmanEmilyTYehChrisNielsenHongjunZhangJingjingQianMyfamily,especiallymyhusband,NickLiu,andparents,BarbaraandLedfordDay,notonlyencouragedmyefforts,butalsoprovidedallmannerofpracticalsupportHelenHongnengLiuhelpedagreatdealonthehomefront,enablingmetoconcentrateonthisprojectLast,butnotleast,veryspecialthankstoKatrinaYangWenDayforthelightshehasbroughttomylifeandtoSerenaYangLinDay,abundleofjoyxixIntroductionThroughglobalization,ourworldhasbecomeincreasinglyinterconnected,andlocalfortuneshavebecomelinkedmorethanevertoforcesthatoftenliewellbeyondnationalbordersThishigherlevelofinternationalintegrationisadoubleedgedswordwithenormousbenefitsininformationexchange,communications,economicgrowth,andinternationaltradeaccompaniedbyconcomitantnegativeenvironmentalandsocialimpacts,theeffectsofwhichspaninternationalboundariesNowherearethecostsandbenefitsmoreapparentthaninthePeople’sRepublicofChina(PRC)ByjoiningtheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO)in,thePRCtethereditsnationaldevelopmentambitionstotheglobaleconomyTheWTOreportsthatfrom–,China’straderosebypercent,whileworldtradestagnatedTheenvironmentalconsequencesofsuchrapidexpansionandChina’sgrowingroleasamajorsupplierformanyeconomiesareworthyofconsideration,astheyare,andwillbe,feltfarbeyondChinaExamplesoftheseemergingimpactsaregrabbingmediaattention“FoulWaterandAirPartofCostoftheBoominChina’sExports,”statesonerecentheadlineHowwillChina’sbreakneckeconomicgrowthbepoweredasks“China’sDarkDaysandDarkerNights:IndustrialGrowthExceedsSupplyofElectricalPower”ThearticledescribestherollingblackoutsthathaverecentlybeeninstitutedinmajorChinesecitiesIsChina’ssurgingdemandfornaturalresourcessuchaswooddepletingforestsinneighboringcountriesqueriesthearticle“FellingAsia’sForests:China’sInsatiableAppetiteforTimber”Orconsiderthebiggerquestionraisedbythissituation:towhatextentcantradebasedoncomparativeadvantage,suchasthatespousedbytheWTO,resultinnegativeenvironmentalexternalitiesOtherrecentarticlesconsiderwhetherChina’srapideconomicgrowthmaybringaboutthedepletionofbasicresourcesExamplesinclude“WaterCrisisLoomingforChina,OfficialsWarn”and“Dry,withaChanceofGrainShortage”Indeed,arecurrentandfuturegenerationsofChinesedestinedtoliveinanunhealthy,seriouslydegradednaturalenvironmentplaguedbyshortagesofbasicnecessitiesTheseimportantquestionsmustbeconsidered,alongwiththeconsiderablebenefitsofeconomicgrowthforChina’sbillioncitizensxxINTRODUCTIONThisvolumeexploresthesustainabledevelopmentchallengesthatChinafacesasitpursuesarapidpaceofeconomicdevelopment,whilecomingtotermswiththeenvironmentalandnaturalresourcerelatedcostsThisisanenormoustopicthatimpactsvirtuallyeveryaspectofChina’snationaldevelopmentItinvolvesdisciplines,institutions,andissuesthatextendwellbeyondthoseconventionallylinkedtotheenvironmentWebeginwithanoverviewofthescopeandscaleofthesechallenges,containedinchapter,followedbyauniquecrosssectionofviewsthatanalyzetheinherenttensionsbetweeneconomicdevelopmentandenvironmentalprotectionSubsequentchaptersanalyzespecificsocial,political,economic,andenvironmentalforcesthatcontributetoChina’senvironmentalchallengesTheseexaminations

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(美)克里斯丁·戴主编 中国的环境与可持续发展的挑战(东门图书出版 2005)

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