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The Spirit of Cities.pdf

The Spirit of Cities

穀子
2012-12-20 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《The Spirit of Citiespdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheSpiriTofCiTieSThispageintentionallyleftblankTheSpiriTofCiTieSWhytheIdentityofaCityMattersinaGlobalAgeDanielABellandAvnerdeShalitprincetonuniversitypressprincetonoxfordCopyright©byPrincetonUniversityPressPublishedbyPrincetonUniversityPress,WilliamStreetPrinceton,NewJerseyIntheUnitedKingdom:PrincetonUniversityPress,OxfordStreetWoodstock,OxfordshireOXTWpressprincetoneduAllRightsReservedLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataBell,Daniel(DanielA),–Thespiritofcities:whytheidentityofacitymattersinaglobalageDanielABellandAvnerdeShalitpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexISBN(hardcover:alkpaper)CitiesandtownsSocialaspectsIdentitypoliticsUrbanpolicyIDeShalit,AvnerIITitleHTBdcBritishLibraryCataloginginPublicationDataisavailableThisbookhasbeencomposedinGaramondandArcherPrintedonacidfreepaper∞PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaToCiTyzensThispageintentionallyleftblankviiConTenTSAcknowledgmentsixIntroduction:CivicismJerusalem:TheCityofReligionMontreal:TheCityofLanguage(s)Singapore:TheCityofNationBuildingHongKong:TheCityofMaterialismBeijing:TheCityofPoliticalPowerOxford:TheCityofLearningBerlin:TheCityof(In)ToleranceParis:TheCityofRomanceNewYork:TheCityofAmbitionnotesBibliographyindexThispageintentionallyleftblankixACknowledgmenTSTheideaforthisbookcametousinearlySeptember,whenwewerewalkingthestreetsofSanFrancisco(theofficialreasonforthetripwasameetingoftheAmericanPoliticalScienceAssociation)WewerestruckbythecharmofthecityandspeculatedthatitwouldbeagoodideatowalkthestreetsofdifferentcitiesandwriteabookaboutourexperiencesAfewdayslater,however,terroristsstruckinNewYork,andtheplanwasshelvedItseemedimpossibletoimaginethatitwouldbepossibletostrollinourfavoritecitieswithoutfearoftheworldcollapsingbeforeoureyesFortunately,weweretoopessimistic,andtheprojectwasrevivedafewyearslaterAtthisstagewehadreadalotonstrollingasamethodofresearch,andweencounteredmuchenthusiasmandencouragementHence,wewouldliketothankthegeneroussupportoftheMaxKampelmanChairforDemocracyandHumanRightsattheHebrewUniversity,theLadyDavisFellowship(whichallowedDanieltospendtwomonthsinJerusalem),aswellastheDepartmentofPhilosophyatTsinghuaUniversityinBeijingandtheInstituteofArtsandHumanitiesatJiaotongUniversityinShanghaiWearealsogratefultotheEastAsianInstituteinSingaporeforsupportingDaniel’sstayinSingaporelongerthanwasstrictlynecessaryWewishalsotoexpressourthankstothreeveryenergeticandhelpfulresearchassistants,OrlyPeled,AlonGold,andNimrodKovner,andtoEmilieFrenkiel,MarieEveReny,andKevinTan,whohelpedustosecurephotosforthebookMuchofourresearchfocusedontalkingtofamilymembers,friends,andstrangersinthestreetsofourninecities,andsomeoftheseinterviewswereintensiveandverylongWewanttothankourinterviewees:theywerepatient,helpful,andverycooperativeTheyarenamedinthebookitself,sowewon’tthankthembynamehereEarlydraftsofchapterswerepresentedanddiscussedinseminarsandworkshopsWearegratefulforthefeedbackofourcolleaguesatConcordiaUniversity,DukeUniversity,FudanUniversity,HebrewUniversity,HeilongjiangUniversity,HuafanUniversity,UniversityofHongKong,UniversityofMacau,CityCollegeofHunan,McGillUniversity,PrincetonUniversity,RhodesUniversity,OxfordUniversity,andTsinghuaUniversityWeconfessthatsomeoftheseideaswerepresentedbeforetheywerematureandwethankourcolleaguesforpatientlyputtingusontherighttrackWeareverygratefulforfamilymembers,friends,andcolleagueswhodiscussedandcommentedonindividualchapters:JudyAbrams,TeviaAbrams,­xAcknowleDgmentSEitanAlimi,DanielAttas,ShlomoAvineri,BaiTongdong,CélineBell,JulienBell,ValérieBell,EyalBenAri,FranBennett,AnnieBillington,SébastienBillioud,KateriCarmola,JosephChan,MauriceCharland,CheeSoonJuan,AnneCheng,ChuaBengHuat,CiJiwei,G ACohen,SébastienCorrec,NeviaDolcini,JackDonnelly,MichaelDowdle,JamesFallows,FanRuiping,EmilieFrenkiel,NicoleHochner,NoamHofshtater,IanHolliday,P JIvanhoe,JiangHaibo,LilyKaplan,GillianKoh,LeeChunYi,DonnaLevy,LiYing,LiuKang,KimberleyManning,KaiMarchal,DavidMiller,GlennMott,LilachNir,AnthonyOu,PaikWooyeal,RandyPeerenboom,DaphnaPerry,KamRazavi,MarieEveReny,MikeSayig,TatianaSayig,PhillippeSchmitter,JosephSchull,DanielSchwartz,ShlomiSegall,SongBing,KristinStapleton,KevinTan,JoelThoraval,WangHao,LynnWhite,JonathanWolff,GadiWolfsfled,BenjaminWong,DavidYang,PeterZabielskis,BoZhiyue,andZhuErWeareparticularlygratefulforfriendswhocommentedonthelargebulkofthemanuscriptParagKhanna,LeanneOgasawara,andJiangQianaswellasfortworefereesforPrincetonUniversityPress,NathanGlazerandDanielWeinstock,whowrotethoughtfulandconstructivereportsthathelpedustoimprovethemanuscriptPrincetonUniversityPresshasbeenexcellentOureditorsIanMalcolmandRobTempio,aswellasthepress’sdirector,PeterDoughertyhavebeensupportiveandenthusiastic,andhaveencouragedusthroughoutthevariousstagesofpublicationWearealsogratefulforthecarefulcopyeditingofMadeleineAdamsandtoLeslieGrundfestfortheefficientproductionofthemanuscriptLastbutnotleast,wearemostgratefultoourfamilymembersIfit’struethatouridentitieswereconstitutedinourcities,theyhelpedusalongthewayandmadethewholethingworthwhileTheSpiriTofCiTieSThispageintentionallyleftblankinTroduCTionCiviCismIntheWesterntradition,politicalthinkingfirstemergedasacomparisonofdifferentcitiesandthevaluestheyexpressedAncientAthensrepresenteddemocracyandfaithinthejudgmentofordinarypeople(withtheexceptionofslavesandwomen)whereasSpartarepresentedamoreoligarchicmodel,withwelldisciplinedcitizensoldiers(andrelativelypowerfulwomen)strivingforthegloryofthestateDifferentpoliticalthinkerstooksidesandderivedinspirationfromthesecompetingmodelstodeveloptheirowntheoriesofpoliticalrulePlatomayhavebeenfavorablyinclinedtowardSpartawhereasAristotle,arguably,hadamorebalancedviewofdemocraticruleandsawsomevirtuesintheAthenianwayAthirdcityJerusalemcalledintoquestiontheconcernforthisworldlypoliticalsuccess:theultimatepurposeoflifeistoworshipGodThreegreatmonotheisticreligionsJudaism,Christianity,andIslamweretolayclaimtoJerusalemassymbolizingreligiousvaluesAroundthesametimethatGreekcitystateswereattheirpeak,thecountrythatcametobeknownasChinawasdividedintodifferentwarringstatesthatcompetedforpoliticalsupremacyThecapitalsofthesevenleadingpowerswerewalledcitiesthatdwarfedearlierChinesecities:eachhadapopulationofonehundredthousandormoreThecitieswerebureaucraticallyorganizedforthepurposeofregistering,taxing,andconscriptingthepeopleofthestate,butnotallcitiesdevelopedamilitaryorpoliticalethos:forexample,thetwincitiesthatmadeuptheZhoudynasty’scapitalatLouyangflourishedasacommercialmetropolisPoliticalthinkersandstrategistsroamedfromcitytocitywithdifferentideasformakingthecountrystrongandsecure,andthemainschoolsofChinesesocialandpoliticalthinkingemergedoutofthefermentofideasinWarringStatescitiesThetheoristsdidallsharetheidealofaunifiedworldwithoutterritorialboundaries(incontrasttoearlyGreekthinkers,whoarguedforthevirtuesofsmallstates),buttheyhadradicallydifferentideasabouthowtoachieveitandwhattheendstatewouldlooklikeThinkerssuchasConfuciusandMenciustriedtopersuaderulerstoruleinaccordancewithmoralitywhereasthehardnosedrealistsknownasLegalistsadvocatedrulebymeansof­IntroDuctIonharshpunishmentsTheLegalistshadmoreimmediatesuccesswiththekingofQin,whounifiedthecountryunderhisrule,assumingthetitleofFirstEmperor,butthesubsequentHandynastygraduallyadoptedConfucianprinciplesItwouldbeonlyaslightexaggerationtodescribethesucceedingtwothousandyearsofChinesepoliticalhistoryasaconstantstrugglebetweenLegalismandConfucianismDoesitmakesensetothinkofcitiesasrepresentingdifferentpoliticalvaluesinthemodernworldIncomparisonwithancientGreekcitystatesandancientChinesewalledcities,today’scitiesarehuge,diverse,andpluralistic,anditmayseempeculiartosaythatonecityrepresentsthisorthatButjustthinkofJerusalemandBeijing:CancitiesgetanymoredifferentthanthoseBothcitiesaredesignedwithacoresurroundedbyconcentriccircles,butonecoreexpressesspiritualvaluesandtheotherrepresentspoliticalpower(nottomentionthatBeijinghasapopulationtwentyninetimesbiggerthanJerusalem’s)Clearly,somecitiesdoexpressandprioritizedifferentsocialandpoliticalvalues:whatwecancallan“ethos”or“spirit”ofacityethosisdefinedasthecharacteristicspirit,theprevalenttoneofsentiment,ofapeopleorcommunity(OxfordEnglishDictionary)WeapplythisdefinitiontocitiesthroughoutthebookMorespecifically,wedefineacity’sethosasasetofvaluesandoutlooksthataregenerallyacknowledgedbypeoplelivinginthecityCitiesreflectaswellasshapetheirinhabitants’valuesandoutlooksinvariouswaysThedesignandarchitectureoftheirbuildingsreflectdifferentsocialandculturalvaluesPublicmonumentsoftenmarkpoliticallysignificantepisodesanddifferentwaysofhonoringthedeadTheextentofmetropolitansprawlandtrafficreflectsdifferentassumptionsaboutcityversusrurallifeintheareasofpopulationcontrolandstateplanningversusthefreemarketThepresenceorabsenceofwomeninpublicstreetsrevealssomethingaboutandinfluencesconceptionsofgenderrelationsAsDavidHarveyhasargued,thedeteriorationofmanyneighborhoodsiscloselyrelatedtoissuesofsocialjusticeandmakesanimpactonhowpeoplethinkaboutsocialjusticeThecompositionofcommunitiesandneighborhoodscaneitherundermineorpromotedemocracyandpublicparticipationGhettosreflectbadlyonthestateofracerelationsTheaters,stadiums,cafés,andrestaurantsarerelatedtoquestionsoflifestyle,hedonism,eliteversuspopularculture,andsoonCitiesbuiltforwalkingandbicyclingversusthosebuiltforcarsencourageandpromotedifferentvaluesaboutsustainabilityStreetsignsareoftenwritteninmorethanonelanguage,revealingdifferenttakesonmulticulturalismandminorityrightsThepresenceorabsenceofhospitalssayssomethingaboutconcernforthebodyThewayordinarycitizensinteractwithoneanotherandwithoutsidersreflectsdifferentvaluesEven(especially)theconversationtopicsoftaxidriverssayssomethingIntroDuctIonaboutthedominantethosofacityDespitewhatwehearabout“globalization”and“homogenization,”thereareoftenhugedifferencesbetweendifferentcitiesintheserespectsNow,itcouldbearguedthatthereisalimittohowmuchplanning,buildings,andarchitecturecanshapeacity’sethosandthewayitsinhabitantsreflectonlife,butthereareclearcutcasesofinfluence,suchasthe“Jerusalemsyndrome,”inwhichtouristsaresotouchedbythereligioussymbolismofthecity’sstreetsandbuildingsthattheybelievetheyhavemetamorphosedintoJesushimselfStalinistandfascistarchitectureoftenhastheeffectofdwarfingtheindividual,makingiteasierforthestatetomakepeoplebelievethattheyshouldsubmittothestateandits“greatleader”Morepositively,perhaps,aweinspiringGothiccathedralssuchasChartrescanreinforcefaithinahigherbeing(Napoleonfamouslysaidthatthecathedral“makesatheistsfeeluneasy”)ItisdifficultnottobemovedbytheTajMahal,perhapstheworld’smostbeautifultestamenttothepowerofloveFrankGehry’sspectacularmuseuminBilbaoalmostsinglehandedlychangedtheSpanishcityfromadecliningindustrialcenterintoameccafortourismTheuseofparticularbuildingstoshapevaluesisnotalwayseffectivethebuildingsofGeoffreyBawa’sParliamentIslandontheoutskirtsofColumbocombineSinhalese,Buddhist,andWesternfeaturesandaremeanttoconveytheimageofanidealmulticulturalandtolerantSriLankabutovertimeandinthewidercontextofacity’sethos,peoplecanbeshapedbytheirurbanenvironmentAsCharlesLandry,thefounderofComedia(athinktankGuggenheimMuseum,Bilbao,SpainPhotograph©GerardLazaroCourtesyofShutterstock­IntroDuctIonpromotingcreativethinkinginurbanlife)argues,thecity’sphysicalinfrastructuremakesanimpactonthehumandynamicsofaplaceCitybasedethosesalsoaffectthewaypeopleevaluatecitiesConsiderthewayweoftenmakecomparativejudgmentsaboutthewaysoflifeofdifferentcitiesPeopleoftensay,“Ilove(Montreal,Beijing,Jerusalem,etc),”and“Ihate(Toronto,Shanghai,TelAviv,etc),”almostasthoughcitieswerelikepeople,withdistinctivepersonalitiesTypicallyspeaking,anevaluationofacity’sdesirabilityisnotjustanaestheticjudgmentitisalsoajudgmentaboutthemoralwaysoflifeofpeopleinthatcitySuchjudgmentsareoftenmorestronglyheldthanjudgmentsaboutcountries,whichtendtobemoreabstractandimaginedentitiesthancitiesareForexample,itwouldbestrangeforaneducatedpersontosay,“Ilove(Canada,China,Denmark,etc),”and“Ihate(France,Korea,Ethiopia,etc)”weexpectmorenuancedjudgmentsinsuchmattersButjudgmentsmadeaboutcitiesdonotseemsosweepingormorallyproblematicitisoftenworthinquiringfurtherintothereasonsforsuchjudgments,andonreflectionwemightwellagreeCitiesarealsomoreopentooutsiders’affectionandidentificationAforeignerismoreapttosay,“IloveAmsterdam,”than“IlovetheNetherlands,”andthisidentificationislesslikelytobeseenasoddbylocalsYethardlyanybodytheorizesaboutsuchcitybasedjudgmentsInpoliticaltheory,thedebatestendtobeaboutwhetherthewholeworldorparticularnationsshouldbethesitesofnormativetheorizingButwhyshouldn’tpeoplelivingincitiesstruggletonourishandpromotetheirparticularwaysoflifeinthepoliticalprocessInpoliticalpractice,citiesareoftensitesofcollectiveselfdetermination,butcontemporarythinkersfailtotheorizeinwaysdesignedtoprovideinformedjudgmentsaboutwhat’sgoodandwhat’sbadabouturbanprideInfact,it’shardtothinkofawordthatevencapturestheideaofurbanpride,theideathatresidentsofacityareproudoftheirwayoflifeandstruggletopromoteitsparticularidentityPatriotismtodayreferstonationalpride,butwhataboutfeelingproudofbeingamemberofthe(Jerusalem,Beijing,Montreal,etc)communityWenominatethewordcivicismtoexpressthesentimentofurbanprideCosmopolitanCommunitarianismWhydowecareaboutthistopicInAvner’scase,theideastemmedfromhisworkonenvironmentaltheoryHebegantoquestiontheassumptionthattheenvironmentwasalwaysabout“wilderness”surelycitiesarepartoftheenvironmentaswellandsohewasoneofagroupofenvironmentaltheoristswhostartedtoworkoncitiesAndsincehehadappliedthemethodofcreatingenvironmentaltheorybylettingtheenvironmenttalktoandinspirethetheorist,heIntroDuctIondidapaperonNewYork,treatingitasanenvironmentthat“talks”tothegentlestroller,revealingitselfviamonuments,buildings,citygrids,andunexpectedconversationswithitsinhabitantsThebasicideaistoaccumulateasmuchinformationaspossiblebeforefirmlysettlingonresearchquestionsandtheoriesInthecaseofDaniel,hewastalkingtoAvneraboutcitieswhenithithim:hehadbeenmovingfromcomparingcivilizations(EastAsiaandtheWest)tocountries(ChinaandtheUnitedStates)whynotmovefurther“down”tocomparecitiesTotheextentthatsuchcomparisonsareproblematicbecausetheytendto“essentialize”diverseunitsofanalysis,maybetheybecomelessproblematicthefurther“down”onemoves,giventhattheunitsofanalysisbecomemoreandmoreconcreteand“real”Plus,DanielhadbeenlivinginseveraldifferentcitiesforextendedperiodsoftimeandhewasstruckbytheirdifferencesintermsofwhattheyexpressandrepresentassocialandpoliticalwaysoflifeWhynotfollowAvner’smodelandtheorizeonthebasisoflivedexperiencesandsentimentsAspoliticaltheorists,wetrytodescribeandexplainsocialandpoliticalphenomenabutwealsotrytothinkaboutimplicationsofnormativequestionssuchas“Whataremorallyjustifiableformsofpoliticallife”Sohere’souragenda:ourbookismeanttocountertheworrythatinanageofglobalization,socialunitshavenopoliticalandeconomicwilltoopposeglobalizationPerhapsstatesarebecomingmoreuniform,butcitiesmaycometotherescue,sotospeakStatesoftenhavetocomplywithinternationalagreementsandregulationsandwiththedictatesoftheInternationalMonetaryFund,theWorldBank,theEuropeanUnion,orsimplythefreemarket,whichtendstodiminishtheroleofparticularcultures,values,andwaysoflifeInthatsense,globalismhastheeffectofhomogenizingcultures,transformingavarietyofculturesintoasinglecultureofconsumerism,theresultofwhichisafeelingofsamenessandlesseningofpluralismanddiversityinculturalideasandalternativesLiberaltheoristswhodefendtheideathatstatesshouldbeneutralbetweenconceptionsofthegoodlifeunintentionallyaddtotheflatteningofculturesbyleavingnoroomforthestatetonourishandsupportparticularformsoflifethatarethreatenedbyglobalizationButmanypeopledowanttoexperienceparticularity,tomaintainandnurturetheirowncultures,values,andcustomsthattheybelieveareconstitutiveoftheiridentities,andwithoutwhichtheircommunalwayoflifewouldbesubstantiallydiminishedHence,wewanttosuggestthatcitieshavebeenincreasinglythemechanismbywhichpeopleopposeglobalizationanditstendencytoflattenculturesintosamenessManycitiesinvestthought,time,andmoneyinprotectingtheiruniqueethosandpreservingitthroughpoliciesofdesignandarchitectureandthroughthewaypeopleusethecitiesandinteractwiththemArguably,notallcitiesdothis,andsomemaysimplysurrendertothedemands­Int

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