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首页 日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(Agricultural extension model…

日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(Agricultural extension models in Japan and Holland, current situation and advantages).doc

日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(Agricultura…

张信宽
2018-12-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(Agricultural extension models in Japan and Holland, current situation and advantages)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(AgriculturalextensionmodelsinJapanandHolland,currentsituationandadvantages)日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(AgriculturalextensionmodelsinJapanandHolland,currentsituationandadvantages)InHolland,themeaningofagriculturalextensionistoconsciouslyuseinformationexchangetohelpfarmersformscientificopinionsandmakecorrectdecisionsItsmaintaskistohelpfarmers,analysisofthestatusquo,toestablishgoalsforthefuture,andhelpfarmersimprovetheirknowledgeandskills,tomaketherightdecisions,toencouragefarmerstoperformthecorrectdecisionmaking,guidingfarmerstotheappropriateimprovementintheimplementationofthedecisionmaking,soastoachievethedesiredeffectidealHollandagricultureisageneralizedagriculturalproduction,includingagriculturalindustry,agriculturalproductsprocessingandexportetcTherefore,thescopeoftheagriculturalextensionworkinvolvedisbroad,generallyincludingthepopularizationofAgriculturalTechnology(seeds,farmmachinery,farmlaw,etc)(managementaccounting,costaccounting,investmentanalysisetc),ruralsocialandeconomiclife(suchasruraleconomics,legalaffairs,economiccontractrelationswithotherservices)threeaspectsbasically,themainaspectsinvolvedintheproductionandlifeoffarmersAgriculturalextension,aswellasscientificresearchandeducation,isconsideredasoneofthepolicytoolsforruraldevelopmentItcanbeseenthattheextensionsystemforsuchlargeagriculturalservicesmustbecomprehensiveandmultilevelTheagriculturalextensionsysteminHollandconsistsoffouraspects:ThenationalextensionorganizationThenationalextensionorganizationisdividedintotwomajorsystems,plantingandbreeding,andthebasicstructureofthetwocountriesisapproximatelythesameAtthecentrallevel,theBureauofanimalhusbandryofthestateagriculture,fisheriesandFisheriesDepartmenthasanextensionofthebreedingindustry,andthehorticultureandfieldcropsBureauhasanextensionoftheplantingindustryThesetwodepartmentsareresponsibleforthemanagement,coordinationandorganizationofthenationwideagriculturalextensionThecountryhastwelveprovinces,attheprovinciallevel,havenotsetupaspecialmanagementdepartmentofagriculturalextensionadministrativeregion,butaccordingtothenaturaldivisionwithtwelveplantingandaquaculture(seventeenarea)extension(RegionalExtensionStonsatonsion*),eachareaextensionstationabouttopeople,setupawebmastertwo,deputychief,eachextensionstationaccordingtothemaincropandanimalproductionindustryintheregiontosetupateamofprofessionalandtechnicalpromotionandcommonpromotionteam,eachteamfrom,andextendtheareaofstationforgrassrootsPromotionStationinHolland,chargedwiththedirectforfarmerstoprovidefreeservicefunctionsAtpresent,thereareaboutpromotionpersonnelinHollandTherearealsoexperimentalstations(RegionalExperimentalStonsatonsion),eachexperimentalstationhasseveralexperimentalsites(ExperimentalFarm),atotaloftestsites,employingtechniciansThemainresponsibilitiesoftheseteststationsandfieldsaretocarryoutscientificresearchandtoprovideexperimentaldemonstrationsforfarmersInaddition,twentyinthecorrespondingnationalresearchinstitutesandexperimentalstationneartheLiaisonOffice(LiaisonOffice),eachwithliaisonoffice,employsstaff,themainresponsibilitiesoftheofficeistocoordinatetherelationshipbetweenthenetworkofscientificresearch,education,promotion,collectandcollaterelevantinformationofagriculturalscienceandtechnologyandwilltherelevantscientificandtechnologicalachievementstothetimelyanddynamiceducationandpromotionagenciesandrelevantpersonnelsocialandeconomicpromoters(SocialEconomicExtensionWorker)HollandfromthecentraltolocalaChristian,Catholicandroyalassociationsofthreeagriculturalassociation,withthesocialandeconomicpromotionagenciesintheassociationsattheprovinciallevel,eachwillbeabouttohiresocialpromotion,thecountryisaboutorsoThesepromotersaremainlyresponsibleforthepromotionofhousekeeping,includingfamilylife,legalaffairs,economiccontracts,youth,women,health,healthcareandotheraspectsofworkpromotionofprivateenterpriseTheseindividualsareemployedbyprivateenterprisessuchasagriculture,commercialcompanies,agriculturalbanksandsoonforproductmarketingandcreditcounselingTheimplementationofpaidservicesorthecostofservicesincludedinthecostoftheproductstheysellItsscopeofwork,includingseeds,pesticides,fertilizers,feedandotheraspectsofthecountryaboutpeopleBecausetheirmainpurposeistosellproductssuchasrawmaterials,althoughmanypeople,butitcanonlybeusedasanauxiliaryforcetopromotefarmerscooperativespromotionstaffThispartofthepopulationreferstothefarmersemployedbythecooperativespromotionstaff,asmallnumberofthecountryTheagriculturalextensionsysteminHollandisajointpromotionsystembetweenthestateandthepeasantsInthispromotionsystem,thenationalpromotionsystemplaysaleadingrole,andcancoordinateotheraspectsofthepower,socialandeconomicpromotersplayacomplementaryroleInHolland,agriculturalextensionsystem,includingfundsmanagement(team),andotheraspectsoftheprojectmanagement,agriculturalextensiondepartmentspaygreatattentiontotheseaspectsofthemanagementwork,andintheyearsofpracticeandexploresomemanagementmeasuresandexperiencemanagementofpromotionalfundsAsthepromotionsysteminHollandismadeupofmanycomponents,thesourcesandusesofthefundsarerelativelycomplexAtpresent,allthefundsforthestatepromotionsystemarepaidbythestate,Thestateallocatedannuallyabout$millionasapromotion,demonstrationoffunds,thesefundsaremainlyusedtopaystaffwages,travelallowance,promotionalmaterialproduction,organizevariouspromotionalactivities,demonstrationetcFromthisyear,farmersbegantoincreaseontheNationalAssociationofinvestmentpromotionsystem,theannualincreaserateof,until,theNationalAssociationandeachpayComparedwiththedevelopingcountries,theHollandgovernment'sinvestmentinthepromotionishigh,butcomparedwithotherdomesticindustries,thepromotionisstillinsufficientThefundsforthepromotionstationsinvariousregionsarealsoallocatedbytheMinistryofagriculture,fisheriesandfisheriesSocialpromotionalthoughonlyinvolvingdomesticandrurallivingthingsnontechnical,butthegovernmentbelievesthatthisworkisveryimportant,sotheagricultureandFisheriesDepartmenttopayofthecost,providejaPrivateenterprisepromotionstaffarerequiredtopayfortheirownfundsGenerallyspeaking,thesedepartmentsstillhavemorefundsforpromotionAnswersupplementteammanagementsinces,agriculturalextensiondepartmentsinHollandtointroduce"organizationdevelopment",thecoreofthistechnologyistheinternalpotentialfromorganizations,miningmanagement,improvethemanagementfunctionInrecentyears,theyhaveusedthistechnologytoguidethemanagementofthepromotionsystem,andhaveexploredsomeways()theverticalleadershipofthepromotionorganizationBecausethecountryissmaller,moreconvenienttrafficconditions,thenationalpromotionsysteminHollandisdividedintotwocentralandlocallevel,themainforceinthepromotionoflocalareadistribution,extensionstationfundsdirectlybytheMinistryofagricultureandfisheriestoadministrationfromtheMinistryofagricultureandFisheriesleadershipfromthelocaladministrativedepartmentofinterventionOrganizationandmanagementforpromotion()establishandperfectthepostresponsibilitysystemandtheworkreportsystemThepromotionpersonneldividedintotwocategories:oneisfromtheprofessional(suchasplantprotection,fertilizerandseeds)technologypopularizationpromotion,calledprofessionaltechnologypromotion(SubjectMatterSpecialist)andanotherwasengagedintheordinary(suchaswheat,corncultivationandcomprehensiveagriculturaltechnologypromotionwork),saidforthecommonpromotion(Generalist),toincreaseknowledge,commonpromotioneveryyearstochangetheindustryThemainresponsibilityoftheprofessionalpromoteristoassistthegeneralpromoterinhisfieldofwork,liaisonwiththeliaisonofficeandresearchstaffinthefieldofexpertise,andtrainingthegeneralpromotionstaffGeneralpromotion(includingthewebmasterandcaptain),aredividedintosmallpiecesofcontractedservices,acertainnumberoffarmers,generallycontractingperpersonInordertocheckandevaluatetheworkofthepromoters,astrictreportingsystemhasbeensetupinthepromotionorganizationThepromoterwillsubmitareporttothecaptaineverymonthThecaptainwillsubmitareporttothestationmastereverymonthonthebasisofthecomprehensivepromoter'smonthlyreport,andthestationmasterwillsubmitareporttotheagricultureandFisheriesDepartmenteverymonthTheMinistryofagricultureandfisherieswillregularlyreportthepromotionstationstotheministerandthedistrictpromotionstations,andthroughsuchreportingsystem,theywillpromptlyreporttheworkofgrassrootspromotionandfarmers'issuestotheMinistryofagriculture,fisheriesandfisheries()hireandpromotestaffseriouslyHollandhasasetofstandardproceduresfortherecruitmentofstatepromotionpersonnelWiththeimprovementoftheculturalandeducationallevelofthewholecountry,HollandhasrequiredahigherlevelofeducationforthenewlyrecruitedextensionstaffWhenthepromotiondepartmentneedstorecruitnewpromoters,usuallythefirstinvariousmediaadvertising,andthendeterminethenumberofcandidatesfromtheapplicant,bytheagricultureandFisheriesDepartmentinchargeoftheleadershipandstaffneedpromotionwebmasterinterviewingcandidates(includingoralandwritten),accordingtotheresultsaftertherecruitmentIftheresultissatisfactory,theextensionstationwillsignatwoyeartrialcontractwithhimInthefirstyear,thenewpromotionmustbeengagedinallkindsofworkinthepromotionofthespecifiedoldpromotionledtoparticipateinanextensionofthebasictheoryoftraining,tolearnallkindsofpromotionmethods,everysixmonths,andtheoldcaptaindesignatedpromotiontothepromotionofthesummaryofnewwork,pointedoutthedeficienciesTwoyearslater,bythehigherauthoritiesandpromotionstationagainjointassessment,qualifiedpersonintoaformalpromotionAstherecruitmentsystemisstrict,toacertainextent,toensurethequalityofthepromotionstaff()graspposttraining,andconstantlyimprovetheprofessionalqualityofthepromotionstaffHollandmarketingdepartmenttopromotetrainingasthekeypointtoimprovethepromotionofqualitytograsp,inthecentralandlocalpromotiondepartment,withpromotionoftrainingfulltimeeducationexperts,educationexpertstopromotethebeginningofeachyeartoassistthewebmastertopromotepersonneltrainingplanThepromotiondepartmentrunsanumberoftrainingcourseseachyearThesecoursesaredividedintotwocategories:oneislongterm(twoweeks),andtheotheristhebasiccoursesEachpromotionatleastonceayeartoattendashorttrainingclassesprovidedthepromotiondepartment,everytwoyearstoparticipateinatleastoneofthetrainingclasses,soastoupdatetheirknowledge()ComprehensiveuseofvariouspromotionalmethodsInthepromotionofHolland,therearethreekindsofpromotionmethods:massmedia(MassMedia),grouppromotion(GroupMethod)andindividualpromotion(IndividualMethod)AnswersupplementPublicitymediamainlyreferstotheuseofradio,television,brochures,picturesandvariouspromotionalmaterialsforpromotion,theadvantagesofthismethodisthatthepromotionoflarge,butthedrawbackisthattheeffectisnotgoodGroupmethodmainlyreferstotheuseoflectures,discussions,demonstration,promotionandotherformsofpromotion,extensionofthismethodastheformer,butinthepromotionactivities,farmerscanpromoteinteractioneffectthanisgoodAsinglepromotionmethodreferstotheuseoftelephone,visitfarmers,consultingandotherformsofpromotion,thismethodisthebestone,butifthepromotionpersonneltoallthefarmerstoservetheareatoprovideasinglepromotionserviceisactuallyimpossibleThepromotiondepartmentrequiredtopromotepersonnelcomprehensiveuseallkindsofpromotionmethods,inordertoensurethequalityofservicepromotion,promotionorganizationalsoprovidescommonpromotionatleastofthetimetoengageinfacetofaceindividualpromotionservices()insistonregularassessmentofpromotionstaffInthePromotionDepartmentofHolland,thereisonlyaseriesofadministrativeposts,andthereisnotechnicaltitleseriesNevertheless,theystillpaygreatattentiontotheassessmentofpromotionpersonnelIngeneral,theassessmentisbasedonjobcompletion,themonthlysystem,publishedprofessionalarticles,thefarmers'responseFortheworkofoutstandingpromotionstaff,canappropriatelyraisewages,forparticularlyoutstandingpromotionpersonnel,canbepromotedtothecaptain,webmaster,butwhenthemastermusthavemaster'sdegree,answersupplementBachelor'sdegreeinthepromotionofUniversityfulltimeandparttimetrainingclass,afteraperiodoflearninganddoingsomeresearchwork,thethesiswillbeamaster'sdegreeForthosewhodonotworkwell,theycanbeeducatedorloweredtheirsalaries()encouragefarmerstoparticipateinthepromotionandmanagementHolland'sagriculturalextensionisacooperativepromotionFarmersontheonehandfundedagriculturalextension,ontheotherhand,alsoparticipatedinthemanagementofagriculturalextensionOfthefundsreceivedbythesociety,oftheregionalexperimentalstationsandofthefundsallocatedbythestate,andofthefundsoftheNationalExtensionSystem()werepaidbythefarmersFarmersmayparticipateinthemanagementofscientificresearchandpopularizationthroughthepeasantassociations,orthroughthemanagementcommitteesoftheexperimentalstationsandfieldspromotionprojectmanagementBecausetheagricultureinHollandisakindofagricultureundertheguidanceofthemarket,thepeasantscandecidetheirownmanagementaccordingtothechangeofthemarketIngeneral,therearefewerpromotionprojectsatthenationallevel,andaredrawnupeveryfiveyearsLocalpromotionstationscandevelopandimplementlocalpromotionprojectsaccordingtolocalneedsTheformulationandmanagementoftheprojectarestandardizedandcarriedoutaccordingtothepatternStrivetomakethetopicaccurate,feasibleandeasytoassessScientificandtechnologicalachievementsweretransmittedbyscientificresearchdepartments,universitiesandliaisonofficesWidedepartments,andgraduallyextendedtofarmersBecauseofthehighculturalqualityoffarmers,theycanalsoaccessscientificandtechnologicalinformationdirectlyfromscientificjournals,magazines,andevendirectlyfromnetworkedcomputersTheexperienceandachievementscreatedbyfarmerscanalsobepromotedbythepromotiondepartmentGenerallyspeaking,thespeedofpopularizationofscientificandtechnologicalachievementsisstillfaster,andthepopularizationrateishigherHollandhaslawsonlandleaseandenvironmentalprotectionlawsthatplayanimportantroleinthedevelopmentofagricultureTheyhavenotyetpromotedlegislationWiththedevelopmentofagriculturalmechanization,intensificationandmodernization,Hollandagricultureisfacingtheseriousproblemofovercapacityandenvironmentalpollution,italsobringsalotofproblemstotheagriculturalextension,nowthefocusofagriculturalextensionprotectioninimprovingefficiencyandreducingpollutionDuetothenationalpromotionfundslimit,extensionworkerswagesarenothigh,promotionorganizationisalsoverydifficulttoretainhighqualitypromotionpersonnelAnswersupplementJapanJapanimplementstheagriculturaltechnologyextensionsystem,whichismainlyorganizedbythegovernment,andhasreachedafairlyperfectlevelbothinthecentralandlocalareasTheJapaneseauthoritiesoftheagriculturalextensionsystemofagriculturalscienceandtechnology,fisheries,agriculturalhorticultureMinistryofpopular,mainlyresponsiblefortherelatedsystemoftheagriculturalscienceandtechnologyextension,andorganize,coordinateandguidethepromotionoftraining,promotionpersonneletcAtthesametime,thewholeofJapanisdividedintodistricts,ineachdistrictsetuplocalorganizations,isresponsibleforsupervisionandguidanceofthecountyagriculturaltechnologyextensionworkandthepromotionoffundingJapanJapanislocatedintheAsianmonsoonregion,theclimatechangeisbig,oftensufferseachkindofnaturaldisasterattackBecausetheJapaneseagricultureisasmalloperation,lowcapacitytoresistdisasters,thegovernmentinordertostabilizeagriculture,guaranteeagriculturalreproductionandnationalfoodsupply,TheestablishmentofinsurancesystemasanimportantmeansofdisasterpreventionandfightagainstdisasterTheimportantfeatureofJapan'sagriculturalinsurancesystemisthatthegovernmentdirectlyparticipatesintheinsuranceplanandhasmandatorynature,andthefarmersandfarmsproducingmorethantheprescribedamountmustparticipateintheinsuranceThespecificapproachis:accordingtothereportthenumberofinsuredinsurancefieldTheinsuredamountisthemaximumamountofcompensationthatcanbeobtainedfortheinsuredfarmerTheamountofinsuranceiscalculatedbyofthestandardoutputaccordingtotheamountinsuredperkilogramEachyeartheMinistryofAgricultureForestryandFisheriesregulations"perkilograminsurance"standardyieldfromagriculturalcooperativestodeterminefield

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日本和荷兰的农业推广模式,现状及其优点(Agricultural extension models in Japan and Holland, current situation and advantages)

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