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首页 果树修剪基础(Fruit pruning base)

果树修剪基础(Fruit pruning base).doc

果树修剪基础(Fruit pruning base)

爱生活爱胖纸-
2018-04-01 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《果树修剪基础(Fruit pruning base)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

果树修剪基础(Fruitpruningbase)果树修剪基础(Fruitpruningbase)First,thekindsandcharacteristicsofbudsKindsofbudsThebranchdevelopsfromthebud,sothebudcanberegardedastheepitomeorlatentstateofthebranchThebranchesofinternalandexternalconditionsofthenutritionalstatusofdifferentbranchesofthesamegrowthindifferentpositionofthebud,budsize,therearedifferencesinnature,fulldegreeofheterogeneityphenomenon,calledbudAccordingtothepointofviewofcultivation,thebudcanbedividedintothefollowingspeciesThebudaccordingtonaturecanbedividedinto:budandflowerbudAnewshootbudsgerminationFlowerbudsgerminateandblossomTheflowerbudcanbedividedintopureflowerbud(onlyflowers,suchaspeach,apricotandplum)andmixedbuds(firstnewshootssproutinginnewshootsontheflower,suchasgrape,persimmon)Dividedintopurebudandmixedbudproductionismixedbud,flowerandfruitthinningonly,butnotdisbuddingBecauseitisnecessarytoremovethecorrespondingleaves,itisitsinadequaciesButcanapureflowerbudbud,flowerthinning,fruitthinningcanalsoCherriescangerminateforonemonthbeforeteofbuddingthebranchesandleavesUsuallyexpressedasapercentageofthetotalnumberofbudsSuchaspeach,peargerminationgreaterforceTheshootsonthegrowthbrancharenotonlycapableofgermination,butalsocapableofpumpingbranchesLikepeach,thebranchisstronger,likepear,ithaslessbranchlayersanddryBudsonthetopofthesameplantorbranch,whosegerminationandbranchingforcearestrongerthanthoseofthelowerpart,arecalledapicaldominance,alsoknownaspolarityThemainmanifestationoftheapicaldominance:Therelationshipbetweentheupperandlowerintheupperpart,thebudgrowth,moreexuberant,moresmallanderectbranchingangleTheweakerthegrowthofthelowershoots,thelargerthebranchingangleFinally,thebaseisinbudcryptophyteend,completelyunabletogerminate,andthatis,thelengthofthebranchesaregettingshorter,moreandmorelargeangleWiththeincreaseofage,branchthickening,weakbranchesofdeath,lateralbranchdistributionformobviouslevelThisphenomenoniscalledstratificationStratificationistheresultofthecombinedeffectsofapicaldominanceandbudheterogeneityOntheinsideandontherelationshipofforcestostemgrowththantheirlateralbranches,thebranchesofthecentralpartofthelateralpartthantherelativeadvantageoftheobviousInotherwords,therelativecontrolforceofthemedialaxisofthecontralateralbranchiscalledthedrystrengthanddurationofthestemIstheenemyoflayertoachievethreedimensionalresultscloseplantingconditions,mustbreakthesimplemethod:oneistodrystrongspeciesorvarietiesofwinterandcuttingofelongatedshoots,suchascherryThetwoisfordryorgeneralorweak,thencontrolthesameyearinthelongbranchbranchinganglesThebranchangleandnegativegravityThemagnitudeofbranchnegativegravityvariesgreatlywiththesizeofbranchangleandbranchthicknessBranchangleThesmallerthebranchangleis,theweakerthebranchpointis,theweakerthegravityis,theeasieritistobreakThelargerthebranchangleis,thegreaterthenegativegravityBranchthicknessThesmallerthethicknessofthetwobranches,theweakerthenegativegravityofthebranch,andthegreaterthethicknessdifference,thelesslikelyitistobreakAtissuebranchingpoint,deeplyembeddedinthethickbranchorganization,surroundedbythebaseofthebigorganizationlikenailintothewood,thecombinationofthetwoisverystrongInwhorlsofbranchesCombinationofwhorlofbranchesarenotsolid,easytocrackInshort,thesmallerthebranchingangle,theeasieritistosplitThegreaterthedifferencebetweenthetwobranches,theharderitistosplitTherequirementofpruningislarge,andthedifferencebetweentheupperandlowerbranchesisbiggerThebranchangleandgrowthThemoreabranchshoots,thelessitgrowsupward,andthemorevigorousitgrowsThatis,thegreatertheangledownward,theweakeritgrowsThisisdeterminedbytheapicaldominanceoftheshootsIntheproductionpractice,foundthatthebranchangleissmallbranches,althoughafterbranchopenangle,withthesameroughnessandangle(naturallywithoutopenangle)growthisnotthesame,theformerisflourishing,growthisnoteasytobalanceSo,inthepruning,trynottousethesmallangleofcompetitivebranches,shouldbepromptlyandresolutelycutshortorheavythinningItisimportanttounderstandthecharacteristicsoftheshootsofvarioustreespeciesandcultivarsthathelpcorrectpruningButthepruningshouldbedoneby"tree"ratherthanby"book"Thatistosay,treeisourbestteachertorelyonthecarefulobservationofthetreeBecauseofthegrowthofthetreeandthepruningreactionovertheyears,themanagementlevelsareobjectivelyandfullyexpressedonthetreeItisalivingrecorderandateachingbookinitselfAslongaswearegoodatfieldwork,analysisandresearch,wecanfindoutthebiologicalcharacteristicsoftreesandthereactionofthepastpruning,andwecanadoptandimplementmoreappropriatepruningmeasuresThatistosay,althoughwedon'tknowwhatkindofvarietyitis,wecanmakeareasonablepruningaslongasweobserveandanalyzetheproblemsonthespot,AchievethepurposeofadjustinggrowthresultsTwoKindsandfunctionsofbranchesThetypesandfunctionsofvariousbranchesrelatedtopruningaredescribedasfollows:,thebackbonebranchandtheresultbranchgroupThebackbonebranchsupportandloadistherequirementofstout,sturdybranchesOfcourse,itsroleisnotonlysupport,butalsostorage,transportation,leadershiproleItscompositiondeterminestheshapeofthetreeTreeshapeismainlydeterminedbytheplantingdensity,thatisthesizeofthespaceThebasicunitoffruitsetisgrowthresults,itisthefunctionoftheDelicateandelasticThecharacterofthebackbonebranchandtheresultbranchgrouparedifferent,butthetwoareinterdependentAsaresult,thereareonlyafewbranchesinthebranches,whicharesoftandstrong,andthebackbonecanbestrongandvigorousThenumberofbackbonebranchesisonlysmallandthick,andthebranchescanbemoreflexibleResultbranchesandgrowthbranchesAsthenamesuggests,thebranchisthebranchthatcanbearfruitThelengthoftheclassificationofdifferentspeciesaredifferent,suchasmorethancmlongbranches,applefruitcm,cmbelowtheshortfruitpeachandplumfruit,fruitlengthcmcm,CM,shortfruitbouquetspurcmbelowThegrowthofbranches(alsocalledalsoknownasvegetativebranches)isageneraltermforallthegrowthofbranches,thennotbearfruitbranches,alsoknownasthedevelopmentbranch,accordingtoitsstrengthanddividedinto:generalgrowthofbranches,leggybranches,slenderbranchesLengthisageneralconceptInpractice,thekeyistoknowwhichisthebestresultbranchandthemostusefulnutrientbranch,shortbranchesandlongbranchesThetreehaslongshootsandshortshoots,shortbranchesandlongbranchesThesearethebranchesoftheyearIndeciduousfruittrees,thebrancheswithleavesinthegrowingseasonarecallednewshootsNewshootleavestonextspringbeforegermination,calledannualbranchesWhatweusuallycall"growthvigor"istheabilityofthetreetoshootnewshoots,thatis,thelengthoftheshootsShortshootsareshorterthanshortshoots,butfirst,theresultsaredifferent,butthetwoaredifferentincharacterLongbranchangleissmallandlong,shouldnotbecomeflowers,shortbranchesangleislargeandshort,easytospendAlthoughthelongbranchhasalongconstructionperiod,ithasastrongexchangerelationshipwiththenewroot,thatis,therearetwoexchangesIftheconfigurationisverystrongbranchbranchendexchangestrengthened,easytomaintainvigorEspeciallyinthefruitingperiod,maintainthetipofthebranchestopromotetheexchangeofmaterialbetweentheupperandlowerpartsoftheground,sothatthelateralbranchoftheformationofsufficientnutrients,whichisnecessaryforstrengtheningtheroottreeLongbranchesarerequiredtooccupyacertainproportioninthetotalnumber,andthedistributionisevenTherefore,allbranchesofthetree(includingbranches)shouldmaintainacertainapexadvantageLongshootsstandforvegetativegrowth,andshortshootsrepresentreproductivegrowthRequirementsforlongbranchesandshortbrancheseachaccountforacertainproportion,thatis,toachievethebalanceofyinandYang,thatistoachievethebalancebetweenvegetativegrowthandreproductivegrowthannualbranchesandperennialbranchesItismainlybasedonitsageWhenthebranchesfromleavestonextspringgermination,calledannualbranchesSincesecondyearsaftergerminationtospring,knownasthebiennialbranchByanalogy,oneyearisanotherthreeyearoldbranch,Onpruning,thesmallertheage,thestrongerthepruningreaction,branchtimesandbranchcoarsenessThenumberofbranchesinordertoexpresstheAtreeaslongastheplantingsurvival,willcontinuetogrow,thegrowthwillcontinuetoexpandthebranchbranch,everyonebranchhasincreasedalevelThenumberofordersisatreeorabranchbranchIfthemiddlestemisdefinedasarankbranch,thebranchisdividedintotwoordersofbranchesinthemiddlestem,andthebranchesdividedonitarethreeordersofbranches,followedbyanalogy,andtherearefourordersofbranchesandfiveordersofbranchesThatistosay,withthecontinuousexpansionofbranchingfork,continuouslyimproveorderThehighertheorderoftheresultofatree,thegreaterthevoidspace,andthetallerthetree,thelessstunteditisToevaluatethequalityofpruning,animportantindexistoseeitsresult,position,grade,thelowerthebetter,anditstechnicallevelishigherSohowcanwereducethegradeIstoraisetheleveldifferenceThebranchdiameterfordifferentialexpressedGradationisthedifferencebetweentheroughnessoftheupperandlowerbranches,andthegreaterthedifference,thebetterInotherwords,thelargerthegrade,thelowerthegrade,thebetterthedegreeofdwarfingSosuccessfulpruningis:lowlevel,advanceddifferenceGradeandgraduationareimportantconceptsusedinpruning,whichshouldbepaidspecialattentiontoandunderstoodThreeTermsanddefinitionsrelatingtopruning,treeBypruning,makepermanentbranchaccordingtocertainrulesThecrowncrowncontourskeleton,andformedacertainshape,trunkandcrownTheabovegroundpartofafruittreeconsistsoftwoparts,thetrunk(trunk)andthecrownThefirstpartofthefirstbranchorbranchesfromtherootnecktrunk(trunk)themainpartofthecanopyabove,backbonebranchesApermanentbigcanopyskeleton,includingstem,branches,suchascenter,resultBranchGroupItisthebasicunitofgrowthresults,directlyproducingthenonpermanentbranchesinthebackbone,growthpotentialandgrowthGrowthpotentialreferstothegrowthlengthofnewshoots,whilethegrowthrateofnewshootsisstrong,butviceversaisweakgrowthquantityisthesizeofgrowth,thebranchofabranchislarge,thegrowthislarge,anditsroughnessisalsolargeTherefore,theamountofgrowthisindicatedbycoarsenessButfortheannualbranch,thegrowthpotentialandgrowthamountareuniform,thegrowthpotentialisstrong,thelengthislong,anditsgrowthisalsolarge!Generallyspeaking,thegrowthrateofnewshootsreferstotheaveragelengthofthebranchesofthetreesontheperipheryofthecrown,branchvolumeandpruningamountThetotalnumberofsproutingbranchesinthatyearTheamountofpruningisalsothetotalnumberofannualbranchescutoffduringdormancyThree,themainmethodofpruninganditsresponseAccordingtothedifferentperiodofpruningcanbedividedintowinterpruningandsummerpruning,winterpruning,alsoknownasdormantpruning,whichleavesaftergerminationcompletedbeforetheappropriatetimeisafterthebeginningofspring,beforetheendofgerminationSummerpruning,whichisnotexact,shouldbecalledpruningbecauseitisduringthefruitgrowingseasonThatistosay,itcanbeprunedalltheyearroundAccordingtothecharacteristicsofbranchesandshootsoffruittreesandvarieties,weshouldusevariouspruningtechniquestorealizeourpruningpurposesButnomatterwhattheperiod,andwhatmethodtotake,wemustfirstunderstandtheoverallpruningandmainreaction,sothat"know"",prunetreeresponseAslongasyouprune,thetreewillrespondWecallthetree'sresponseastreepruningTherearethreemainaspects:,thewholeweakenedlocalstimulationThetreegrowthinmaximumpruningAnythinningofbranchesreducestheamountofgrowthThisisthewholeweakeningThelocalstimulationissignificanteffectafterpruningthetreeistorestoretheoriginalstateofthebodyhasagrowthtrend(recovery),canimprovethegrowthofbranchesareyoung,buttreesarestrongTheyoungbranchesareflourishingThesmallerthebranchage,thestrongerthepruningreactionIntheyoungshoots,cuttingshortonlyonWangjiawangWhentheamountofpruningisconstant,themorethenumberofcuttingpoints(thesmallerthebranchage),thegreaterthepruningreaction(themoresensitivethereaction)Afterdeterminingtheamountofpruningshouldtrytogobig,itcannotonlyreducethewoundquantity,butalsocanreducethetimeforstablegrowthThetreeisstrongwangThemoreprosperousthemoresensitivereactionWhenacertainamountofpruning,pruningtreesmoreprosperous,moresensitivereactionTherefore,accordingtothedeterminedamountofpruningtrees,treepruningamountshouldbemoreprosperous,morelight,theadvantageshiftedwithfourdegrees"Thedominantpartisnotfixed,butvarieswiththechangeofpruningBecauseofthis,wecanaccordingtothecharacteristicsofthetreebypruningpruning,adjustingmethod,different,balancedgrowthobjectiveTheshiftofdominancemainlyfollowsits"fourdegrees"":TheheightThehighertherelativeheightofabranch,themorecompetitiveitisAmongthemanybranches,thehigheroneistheking"TheangleThesmallerthebranchangleis,themorevigorousitgrowsIftheangleisopened,astheanglecontinuestoincrease,thedominantpartwillgraduallymovebackwardandmovetothemiddleandrearThelengthofWhenabranchisunderthesameangle,thelongerthetiplengthis,thebiggerthegrowthis,andthegreaterthecompetitionisThegreaterthepullatthebackThecoarsedegreeThequantityofbranchesdeterminesthecoarsenessandthecoarsenessisbigThemainaspectsoftheapplicationareasfollows:Ifthefrontofthethickbranches,thinningWangbranch,itisinevitablethatthefrontadvantagewillshift,topromotetheroleofsuppressionbeforeIfathinning,thickbranch,isboundtopromotethegrowthofotherbranchesIfaroughbranchissparse,thebranchisheavy,anditsadvantagewillbetransferredtotheadjacentbrancheswithmorebranches,themainmethodsandfunctionsofpruningthrowaside"Throw",alsoknownas"slowrelease",isamethodofcuttingthebranches,anditsmainrole:Youcanquicklyincreasetheamountofgrowth,moderategrowthItisthebasicmeasuretopromotetheyoungtreestoformrapidly,expandthecrownandharvestearlySomepeoplemistakenlybelievethatonlyashortcuttoformingcrownexpansion,butinfacttheopposite,swingputeasilyshapedcrown,butalsoforabranch,onlyleftinordertoputquicklyincreasetheirweightanddiameterofbranchesYoucanquicklyincreaseshortbranchquantity,isoneoftheeffectivemeasurestoachieveearlyresultsNotonlyistheeffectivewaytoputoffthedevelopmentoftheframeworkbranches,isthemainmeasuresoftraininghighqualitybranchgroupItisoneofthebasictechniquesofclippingthinningscissorsThinningisamethodofcuttinganannualorperennialfromthebase,anditisalsooneofthechiefmethodsofpruningItsmainfunctionliesin:Theonthebranchthinning,hasobviousinhibitingeffectafterthecatchbefore,isconducivetothetechnicalmeasuresofflowersTheonthebranchthinning,canpromotegrowthofposteriorbranchgroup,butalsoimprovethegrowthamountofretainedbranches(branchessparsetothegreatersurfaceoftheeffectisgreater)Theresultscaneffectivelyreducethesitelevel,isoneofthebasicmethodstoachievesolidresultsThePromotingGerminationEffectofpayThinningcanmakekryptoblastgermination,suchaspersimmontreeshortcutAshortcutisamethodofpruninganannualbranchItsmainfunctionliesin:TheshortsectioncaninhibitandextendthesameyearbranchlateralgrowthinLongBranch(branchcontrolcompetition)Likethebaseofchestnutshootsaregood,heavyshortcuteffectisgood,andthepersimmontreebasebudisflat,heavyshortcut,butnotasgoodasbranchessparsebranches(itsbudbetter)Intheshortsectioncanimprovethegrowth,growthinlongbranchBecauseoftheheterogeneityofbuds,theresponsesofdifferentpartsofshortcutaredifferentTheeffectoflightshortcutsissimilartothatofaswingreleaseItcanproducemoreshortbranches,growinquantityandeasethegrowthforceItisalsobeneficialtothecuttingoffloweringOnthebaseofheavycutting(iewithPEGtrim,but,inthebaseofthepeartreecannotblindsection),growthrateandgrowthpotentialweresmall,itseffectissimilartotheshearthinning,intheshortsectionistoimprovethecutgrowth,promotebranching,notconducivetothewayreducingscissorsAlsoknownasshearshrinkageretractionisonewaytoperennialshortcut,itiswidelyusedintheoldtree,itsmainroleistomaintainreasonablespaceandvigor,thedegreeofreactionandretractionoftherelevantbranchageGenerallyretractionshouldbebasedonalargenumberofflowerbudsontheinsideToppingDividedintolightandheavypinchingpinchingpinchingtwoToshootshortcutcanalsobeseenasatopping,onlytosomeextentthanpinchingThatistosay,canalsoputthelightandheavypinchingpinchingastoshootshortcutThedifferenceisthatthedegreeofremovalofthenewshootsisdifferentTheyarepartofthecuttingoffofthenewshootsUsuallyperformedinsemilignificationorlignificationLightandheavypinchingpinchingisverydifferentinresponsetolightisoftenreturnedtothetopofthewayforwardextensionofsinglebudgrowth,generallystoppedaboutdayslongaftergerminationandgrowthaheavyheartbecauseitisinasemilignifiedorwoodyparts,canpromotebranchThisshouldbenoted!Specifically,therearethreekinds:InthelightofpinchingIsthenewgrowthpointofthetopbuttontoshootIfthenewshootsofcmheartcardTheheavyheartItislocatedinthenewshootpinchinghalfwood,GeneralpickaboutcmSuchascherryincmaroundthecardtocmorso,leavingleavespinchingThenewshootshortcutShortcutsinvaryingdegreesaccordingtodifferentneedsShortcutinnewshootsMultipurposeextensionofnewshoots,thepurposeistolettheirbranchesSuchascherrysaplingsshootstemextensionofcmorsocuttingshortretentionNewshootweightshortcutShortpruningofnewshootsShortpruningofnewshootsistheprocessofleavinglargeleavesandshortcutstothetipMoreapplesareusedtocontrolthesideshoots,buttheycannotbeusedonthenewshootsbudAlsocalledeyeinjury(budcarvedcarvedbud)iswithasmallbladeinthebudsidecrosscutbranchestothecortex,likeeyeeyebrowshapedescriptionCarvedbudsaredividedintotwokinds:seekingbranches,carvingflowersandcarvingflowers:Asksthebranchtoengrave,mustseparatethreeshootsamoment,orinletsitsbranchplaceengraveseekstheflowertoengraveinasfaraspossiblemanyengrave,moregrowsthepowertodisperse,ismoreeasytomakeshortbranchCanbesaidtobe"Themore,thebetter"Suchascherrysaplingscarvedwithmanytopping,isanimportantmeasuretoadvancetheresultsThebestmomentiscarriedoutinthespringafterbudThedepthvarieswithtreespeciesIftheappleisshallow,thecherrymustbealittledeeperThelengthofthewoundonthebudislongerthanthewidthofthebudshoulderThefunctionofbudcuttingliesin:Thebudnumbercanincreasethenumberofbranches,andshort(forshortshoots,morebudsareneeded)Topromotestudentslongbranch(forthemiddlebranch,thenumberofcutsshouldbefew)ringcarving(ringcutting)Ring(ringcutting)iscarvedwithaknifeorscissorscutaweekinSheungWan,deepwoodenwayItcanbeinbig,canalsobecarriedoutonthetwigInapple,thelocalusuallyinlateMayandearlyJune,itsrolecanpromotegrowthbranches,increasethenumberofflowerbudsGenerallyinyoungtreesonthebranches,nottopromotetreesontheresultsNowlet'stalkabouthowtoovercometheyearroundgirdlingproblemoftheredFujiappleparkTheredFujiappleorchardinconsecutiveyearshasgreateffectonthetreetrunkgirdling,andseriouslyaffectthequalityoffruitInthefullfruitperiodisnolongerthebesttreegirdlingButoftensuddenlywithoutgirdling,resultinginsignificantlyreducedInordertoovercomethisphenomenon,thefollowingmeasuresshouldbetaken:Thestrengthenmanagement,andintegratedpestmanagementmeasuresTheingraspingthefoundationofartificialpollination,strictthinningSpecificmeasurestoimplementthethinning,thealternatinggroupMakethebranchgroupmoreorless,ordonotknot,toachievereasonableloadThiscanmaintainacertaineconomicyield(byabranchgroup),andtheappearanceoftheflowerbud(bynotabranchgroup),toensuretheeconomicyieldinnextyearThebytrunkgirdlingtocoarsebranchgirdling,increasethegirdlingorders,thisisthetechnicalmeasuresbythetreegirdlingtoatransitionalrodnolongergirdling,especiallytolimbsandtomakeitmoreresultstosparseresultsThechangeinthepruningtechniques,fruitbranches,cultivatehighqualityfruitset,onlyinthecaseofmultigroup,alternatingbetweengroupscanresultintreebranches,yieldyearafteryearopenangleThatis,inthegrowingseason,thegrowthofnewshootscausedsomeinternaldamage,andproperopeningangleOpeningtimeshouldbebasedontreespecies,varieties,growthandflexibilitySuchasinpeachtrees,canbeinthesideofthebaseofthenewshootshalfwoodyparts,andtakethehandwhenthescrew,tocreate"frombone"feelingdamageTheangleofopeningshouldalsobeadjustedwiththedifferenceofthetreespeciesandtheintensityofthedryYoungbranchisveryimportant,butshouldnotbeinthedormantperiod,isthebestmomentinthespringbudafterthecompletionofSAPflowItsroleistoimprovethequalityofthebranches,openbranchesangle,increasedryButbeflexibleMorethaneightpruningmethod,dredging,cutting,reductionofwinterpruningtechniques,picking,carving,stripping,openforthegrowthofJiXiujiantechnique,especiallyinthepruningoftreesmustbecombinedwiththesummerandwinter,fourseasonspruning,usedtogethertoplaythedesiredeffectTheabovepruningnounsareinterpretedaccordingtotheirownunderstandingandwrittenintheirownproduction,andmaydifferfromsomeofthebook'sinterpretationsTherearesomewrongplaces,IhopeyoucancorrectmeJiaoshid
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果树修剪基础(Fruit pruning base)

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