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Maintaining a Cognitive Map in Darkness The Need to Fuse Boundary Knowledge with Path Integration.doc

Maintaining a Cognitive Map in …

上传者: 喜欢的深伤的痛 2018-04-30 评分 0 0 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Maintaining a Cognitive Map in Darkness The Need to Fuse Boundary Knowledge with Path Integrationdoc》,可适用于高等教育领域,主题内容包含MaintainingaCognitiveMapinDarknessTheNeedtoFuseBoundaryKnowledgewithPathIn符等。

MaintainingaCognitiveMapinDarknessTheNeedtoFuseBoundaryKnowledgewithPathIntegrationMaintainingaCognitiveMapinDarkness:TheNeedtoFuseBoundaryKnowledgewithPathIntegrationAllenCheung*,DavidBall,MichaelMilford,GordonWyeth,JanetWilesTheUniversityofQueensland,QueenslandBrainInstitute,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia,QueenslandUniversityofTechnology,SchoolofElectricalEngineeringandComputerScience,ScienceandEngineeringFaculty,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia,TheUniversityofQueensland,SchoolofInformationTechnologyandElectricalEngineering,Brisbane,Queensland,AustraliaAbstractSpatialnavigationrequirestheprocessingofcomplex,disparateandoftenambiguoussensorydataTheneurocomputationsunderpinningthisvitalabilityremainpoorlyunderstoodControversyremainsastowhethermultimodalsensoryinformationmustbecombinedintoaunifiedrepresentation,consistentwithTolman’s‘‘cognitivemap’’,orwhetherdifferentialactivationofindependentnavigationmodulessufficetoexplainobservednavigationbehaviourHerewedemonstratethatkeyneuralcorrelattableplaceresultsshowthatabsoluteHDinformationisnotsufficientintheorgridfieldswithoutvisionTheargumentsofthatinsectsdopresenceofdrift,whereasangulardisplacementinformationisnotpossessa‘‘cognitivemap’’cannotbeextendedtorodents,sufficientforeffectivenavigationindarknessItshouldbenotedpossiblyreflectinggeneraldifferencesinthespatialnavigationthattheseresultsdonotprovethatangularvelocityinformationpersystemsofdifferentanimalphylaseisused,sinceangulardisplacementcouldbeinferredfromtheAnimportantquestioniswhetherthenecessityoffusionofiPIchangeinsuccessiveabsoluteHDestimatesHowever,pastandboundaryinformationshouldbeconsideredassufficientexperimentshaveshownthattemporaryinactivationoftheevidenceofa‘‘cognitivemap’’inrodentsAlthoughthisissueisvestibularsystemdisruptsboththelocationspecificfiringofplacepartlyoneofsemanticsanddefinition,wenoteanumberofcellsandthedirectionspecificfiringofHDcellsdespitevisualandimportantpointsFirstly,thenecessityofinformationfusionisatodorcuesbeingavailable,TogetherwiththeexistenceofoddswiththestimulusresponseclassofmodelswhichTolmanlargepopulationsofAHVcells(morepopulousthatHDcellsinusedtocontrastagainstthe‘‘cognitivemap’’classofmodelssomeregions),theseevidencestronglysuggestthatangularSecondly,thefusionofinformationisconsistentwithTolman’svelocityoraccelerationinformationiscriticalforoptimalfunctionnotionofa‘‘centralcontrolroom’’indescribinga‘‘cognitiveintherodentspatialnavigationsystemOneavenueoffuturemap’’,whereinformationfromvarioussourcesiscombinedinaresearchistoincorporateangularheadvelocitymodelscalibratedcoherentmannertoproduceusefuloutputThirdly,thefundausingvision,intoexistingmodelsofmammalianPImentaloutputofPIsystemsismetricspatialinformationIfSpecificeffectsofnoiseontheperformanceoftheoscillatoryboundaryinformationhastointeractinausefulmannerwithPIinterferenceandattractorclassesofmammalianPImodelshaveinformation,itmustalsocontainmetricinformationItisdifficultbeenconsideredpreviously,However,itisclearthattoenvisageausefulrepresentationofanarenaboundarywithallotheticinformationsuchasboundarygeometrymustbeusedinembeddedmetricspatialinformation,whichbearsnoresemblanceconjunctionwithPIforaccuratelocalization,ratherthanrelyingtoaspatialmapFourthly,neitherfusionofiPIandboundaryonPIinisolationItwillbenecessarytoinvestigatethecellularmemoryinformationonly,norintermittentuseofamodularandcomputationalbasisforacquiringandusingaboundarymapnavigationsystemcanmaintainstableplacesfields,showingthatOnetheoreticalapproachistoextendtheexistingmammalianPItheuseofa‘‘cognitivemap’’perseisnotalwayssufficientunderthemodelstoincorporateaboundarymap,anddeterminewhetheritconditionsdescribedThenatureanddegreeofinformationfusionispossibletoachievestableplacegridfieldsassumingrealisticinusinga‘‘cognitivemap’’areimportantFinally,ithasbeensensoryinputsanderrormagnitudesAsecondapproachistodemonstratedthatitispossiblefora‘‘cognitivemap’’modelwhichconsiderthemovementstrategiesandpossiblecueswhicharatcombinesiPIandboundaryinformationinanearoptimalmannermayusetoacquireaboundaryrepresentationinthefirstplacetoexplainstableplaceandgridfieldswithoutvisionorolfactionTwocandidatecelltypesundermodelinginvestigationaretheboundaryvectorcell,,,,andbordercellInconjunctionwithapositioncode,boundaryneuronsmaybeableConclusionstoencodeanarenaboundaryshapeTherodentHDsystembecomesunstableindarknessbeyond–minutes,consistentwiththetheorythatallocentriccuesareNeedforaCognitiveMaprequiredtomaintainlongtermstabilityPlacecellsandgridcellsThecurrentworkfocusedspecificallyonsituationswhereinratscanshowstablefiringfieldsforoverminutesindarknessallotheticcueswerepurposefullyminimizedorremovedHenceitWehaveshownthattheseresultsareincompatiblewithPIorawasbydesignthatonlyboundarycuescouldreasonablyhavebeenboundaryrepresentationiftheyareusedindependentlyHowever,expectedtoprovidestableallocentricinformationButasa‘‘cognitivemap’’modelwhichcombinesbothcansupportstablestated,‘‘whenboundariesarenotavailable,othertypesofplaceandgridfieldsinvariousarenaswhileusingadriftingHDlandmarkscanbeeffectivelyrecruitedbythemappingsystem’’systemThismodelpredictsplaceandgridfieldsplitting,andconsistentwithIndeed,ourresultsarerestrictedtooneundersomeconditionsgridfieldrescaling,withoutvisionTheparticularsetofscenarioswherea‘‘cognitivemap’’maybetheresultssupporttheutilityofaconjunctiveposerepresentationforonlyplausibleexplanationofbiologicaldata,namelyplaceandoptimalnavigation,andshowhowratsmightbeabletonavigategridfieldstabilitywithoutvisionorolfactionOursystemsleveleffectivelyinenvironmentswherevisualandolfactorycuesarePLoSComputationalBiology|wwwploscompbiolorgAugust|Volume|Issue|eMaintainingaCognitiveMapinDarknessunreliableorabsentSeeminglyfeaturelessboundariesarepowasanorderofmagnitudelowerthanthespatialinformationwerfullandmarks,whencombinedwithaPImechanism,forstablecontent,typicallyaroundorbelowbitsspike(TableS),mediumtolongtermnavigationTheinfluenceofsuchpowerfulconsistentwiththemajorityofthesefieldsbeingpureplacelandmarksonnavigationtasksmustnotbeunderestimatedinrepresentationsAllpseudocolourscalesusedamaximumvalueofexperimentaldesignordatainterpretationspikesstepTheresultsofGHarediscussedfurtherinTextS(PDF)SupportingInformationFigureSAcomparisonoflocalizationperformanceincircularFigureSSpatialinformationcontentexpectedfromiPIaloneandsquarearenaswithoutvisionThemeansdoftheplaceMeansemofKLdivergenceof,trialsusingHDerrorstabilityindexoverminuteswithvisionareshownforusingiPImodeldescribedinMethods,assumingpreciselineardisplacementonly(blue),iPIandarenamemory(green),iPIandarenamemoryestimatesSeetextSforfurtherdetailsandwallcontactinformation(red)inacircular(A)andsquare(B)(PDF)arenaThesquarearenawasthesameareaasthecirculararenaFigureSComparingdistancestoboundaryandinteriorpointswhichwascmindiameterThecorrespondingcolourcodedofconvexshapesAGeometricconstructshowinganarbitraryfrequencyhistogramsofplacestabilityvaluesattheendofconvexDshape(lightgrey),withasmallregion(darkgrey)minutesareshowninC(circulararena)andD(squarearena)indicatingallpointsbetweenpointPandsegmentSalongtheTheangularerrormeansdandmeansdsimulatedHDperimeterBTakingthelimitasthelengthofSapproacheszero,(grey)andparticlefilterestimateofheading(red)areshownforthethedarkgreyregionin(A)isapproximatedbyascalenetrianglecircular(E)andsquare(F)arena,forthetopoftrialsbasedonCAnexpandedviewofthescalenetriangleof(B),showingaplacestabilityindexTheangularerrormeansdandmeancirculararcofradiusw(dashedline)centredatPsdsimulatedHD(grey)andparticlefilterestimateofheading(PDF)(red)areshownforthecircular(G)andsquare(H)arena,foraFigureSPlacestabilityestimatesusingdifferentparticlecloudrandomoftrialsForthetoptrialsbasedonplacesizesAThemeanplacestabilityindex(Ip)isshownforstabilityindexusedtogenerateplacefieldsinTableS,therelativefrequencydistributionsoftheCartesian(red)andpolarrandomtrials,inacirculararenaofcmdiameter,usingiPI,(blue)meanestimatesofradialpositionareshownforthecirculararenamemoryandboundarycontactinformationTheparticlefilterwasupdatedusingstochasticuniversalresampling,with(I)andsquare(J)arenaEachrawcountwasnormalizedbyparticlecloudpopulationsrangingfromtoBOnedividingbytheactualfrequencyofthesimulatedratbeingineachradialpositionbinofcmwidthThedottedlineshowstheidealstandarddeviationofIpisshownforthelaststepoftheresultsinArelativefrequencydistributionassumingerrorfreepositionNotchedboxplotsareshownfortherootmeansquare(RMS)trackingTheinsetshowstherelativefrequencywithrespecttodistanceerrorfromthetrueposition,usingtheCartesian(C)andXpositioninthesquarearenapolar(D)estimatesofposition,averagedoverminutesin(PDF)darknessforthesametrialsasAandB(PDF)FigureSPlacefieldsusingallotheticpathintegration(aPI)onlyAPlacefieldsweregeneratedusingaPIonlyFieldswereFigureSPlacestabilityindarknessusingtheCartesianmeancentredat(,)tomaximizespatialinformationcontent(seeS)ofthedistributedpositionestimateTheaverageofthemoststableStableplacerepresentationscouldnotbemaintainedusingaPIofplacefields(n=)areshowninmintimewindows(A,C,EandG)Theideallocationsarecm(A),cm(B),cmaloneBAllotheticPI(grey)ledtohigheraverageplacestabilitythaniPI(blue)Meansdof,trialsareshownforeachPI(C),andcm(D)fromthecentreofthearena,alongalineatufromthehorizontalThecorrespondingheadingdistributionsmodelInatypicalcase,theplacestabilityindexdroppedbelowchance(dashedline)withinminutesusingaPIalone(onaverageduringspikes(blue)andovertheentireperiod(red)arealsoshown(B,D,FandH)Fortheaveragedplacefieldsineachoftheinunderminutes)(PDF)locations,therewasnosignificantdeviationfromtheassumptionofuniformheadingdistributionatlevel(Rayleigh’stestwithFigureSTheeffectofarenatransformsontheestimatedBonferronicorrection),andthedirectionalinformationcontentpositionindarknessThemeanparticlecloudXpositionisplottedwasanorderofmagnitudelowerthanthespatialinformationagainstthetrueXpositionfromrandomtrialsineachoftwocontent,typicallyaroundorbelowbitsspike(TableS),reciprocalarenatransformsimulations,usingeachoftwoconsistentwiththemajorityofthesefieldsbeingpureplacestochasticresamplingmethodsThetrainingarenawascmrepresentationsAllpseudocolourscalesusedamaximumvalueofbycm(AB),andcmbycm(CD)ExamplesspikesstepTheresultsofGHarediscussedfurtherinusingboththestandardstochasticuniversalresamplingmethod(ATextSC)andresamplingofheadingonly(BD)areincludedfor(PDF)comparisonThecolourcodedoriginal(black)andtransformedFigureSPlacestabilityindarknessusingthepolarmeanofthe(red)arenasareshownschematicallyaboveeachcorrespondingplotdistributedpositionestimateTheaverageofthemoststableofplacefields(n=)areshowninmintimewindows(A,C,E(PDF)andG)Theideallocationsarecm(A),cm(B),cm(C),FigureSPlacestabilityindexoftheexampledescribedinTextandcm(D)fromthecentreofthearena,alongalineatuSThecorrespondingparticleclouddynamicsareshowninfromthehorizontalThecorrespondingheadingdistributionsVideoSandVideoS(periodsindicatedingrey)duringspikes(blue)andovertheentireperiod(red)arealsoshown(PDF)(B,D,FandH)Fortheaveragedplacefieldsineachofthelocations,therewasnosignificantdeviationfromtheassumptionTableSMeansquareddistanceerrorsincircularandsquarearenas,assuminglocationattheboundaryofuniformheadingdistributionatlevel(Rayleigh’stestwith(PDF)Bonferronicorrection),andthedirectionalinformationcontentPLoSComputationalBiology|wwwploscompbiolorgAugust|Volume|Issue|eMaintainingaCognitiveMapinDarknessTableSMeanplacestabilityindexincircularandsquareTextSMaintainingplacestabilityinsquareversuscirculararenasarenas(PDF)(PDF)TableSPropertiesofsimulatedplacefieldsinacirculararenaTextSPathintegrationwithvisionbutnoboundarymap(PDF)(PDF)TableSPropertiesofsimulatedplacefieldusingallotheticpathTextSGridfieldswithoutvisionfollowingarenacompressionintegrationonlyandexpansion(PDF)(PDF)TextSSimulatedrandomtrajectoriesTextSAnimatedexampleofsimulatedlocalizationwithout(PDF)vision(PDF)TextSHeaddirectionerrormodel(PDF)TextSUtilityofmodularnavigationmodels(PDF)TextSParticlefilternavigationmodel(PDF)VideoSSimulatedlocalizationwithoutvisionbetweenandTextSPlacestabilityindexminutes(AVI)(PDF)TextSRobotiRatexperimentVideoSSimulatedlocalizationwithoutvisionbetweenand(PDF)minutes(AVI)TextSEstimatingtheexpectedspatialinformationusingiPIonlyAcknowledgments(PDF)TheauthorswouldliketothankKieranMcLeanforcarryingoutTextSMeansquareddistanceandgeneraldistancemeasurespreliminaryparticlefiltersimulations,andTienLuuforassistancewithtoconvexboundariesediting(PDF)TextSAsymptoticplacestabilityindexinacirculararenaAuthorContributions(PDF)Conceivedanddesignedtheexperiments:ACDBMMPerformedtheTextSVaryingsimulatedplacefieldlocationsexperiments:ACDBAnalyzedthedata:ACContributedreagents(PDF)materialsanalysistools:ACDBWrotethepaper:ACDBMMGWJWReferencesTolmanEC()CognitivemapsinratsandmenPsycholRev:–SturzlW,CheungA,ChengK,ZeilJ()TheinformationcontentofpanoramicimagesI:TherotationalerrorsandthesimilarityofviewsinMittelstaedtML,MittelstaedtH()HomingbypathintegrationinarectangularexperimentalarenasJExpPsycholAnimB:–mammalNaturwissenschaften:–CheungA,SturzlW,ZeilJ,ChengK()TheinformationcontentofEtienneAS,JefferyKJ()PathintegrationinmammalsHippocampus:–panoramicimagesII:ViewbasednavigationinnonrectangularexperimentalarenasJExpPsycholAnimB:–VickerstaffRJ,CheungA()WhichcoordinatesystemformodellingpathintegrationJTheorBiol:–MittelstaedtH,MittelstaedtML()MechanismenderOrientierungohnerichtendeAussenreizeForschrZool:–WehnerR,RosselS()Thebee’scelestialcompassacasestudyinbehavioralneurobiologyFortschrZool:–DoellerCF,BurgessN()DistincterrorcorrectingandincidentallearningoflocationrelativetolandmarksandboundariesProcNatlAcadSciUSA:BenhamouS,SauveJP,BovetP()Spatialmemoryinlargescale–movements:efficiencyandlimitationoftheegocentriccodingprocessJTheorBiol:–DoellerCF,KingJA,BurgessN()ParallelstriatalandhippocampalsystemsforlandmarksandboundariesinspatialmemoryProcNatlAcadSciUSA:MullerM,WehnerR()Windandskyascompasscuesindesertant–navigationNaturwissenschaften:–LewA()Lookingbeyondtheboundaries:timetoputlandmarksbackonCheungA,ZhangSW,StrickerC,SrinivasanMV()Animalnavigation:thedifficultyofmovinginastraightlineBiolCybern:–thecognitivemapPsycholBull:–CheungA,ZhangSW,StrickerC,SrinivasanMV()Animalnavigation:O’KeefeJ,DostrovskyJ()ThehippocampusasaspatialmapPreliminarygeneralpropertiesofdirectedwalksBiolCybern:–evidencefromunitactivityinthefreelymovingratBrainRes:–SoumanJL,FrissenI,SreenivasaMN,ErnstMO()WalkingstraightintoTaubeJS,MullerRU,RanckJBJr()HeaddirectioncellsrecordedfromcirclesCurrBiol:–thepostsubiculuminfreelymovingratsI,DescriptionandquantitativeanalysisJNeurosci:–CheungA,VickerstaffR()FindingthewaywithanoisybrainPLoSComputBiol:eTaubeJS,MullerRU,RanckJBJr()HeaddirectioncellsrecordedfromthepostsubiculuminfreelymovingratsII,EffectsofenvironmentalTcheangL,BulthoffHH,BurgessN()VisualinfluenceonpathintegrationmanipulationsJNeurosci:–indarknessindicatesamultimodalrepresentationoflargescalespaceProcNatlAcadSciUSA:–FyhnM,HaftingT,TrevesA,MoserMB,MoserEI()HippocampalremappingandgridrealignmentinentorhinalcortexNature:–CruseH,WehnerR()Noneedforacognitivemap:DecentralizedmemoryforinsectnavigationPLoSComputBiol:eHaftingT,FyhnM,MoldenS,MoserMB,Moser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