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文化景观的保护.pdf

文化景观的保护

九月虺
2012-12-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《文化景观的保护pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

TheConservationofCulturalLandscapesThispageintentionallyleftblankTheConservationofCulturalLandscapesEditedbyMauroAgnolettiFacultyofAgricultureUniversityofFlorence,ItalyCABIisatradingnameofCABInternationalCABIHeadOfficeCABINorthAmericanOfficeNosworthyWayMassachusettsAvenueWallingfordthFloorOxfordshireOXDECambridge,MAUKUSATel:()Tel:Fax:()Fax:Email:cabicabiorgEmail:cabinaocabiorgWebsite:wwwcabiorg©CABInternationalAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproducedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronically,mechanically,byphotocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissionofthecopyrightownersAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibrary,London,UKAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheLibraryofCongress,Washington,DCISBN:ISBN:TypesetbyPhoenixPhotosetting,Chatham,UKPrintedandboundintheUKbyBiddlesLtd,King’sLynnTheEditorviiContributorsviiiIntroduction:FramingtheIssue–aTransdisciplinaryReflectiononCulturalxiLandscapesMAgnolettiPARTI:ANALYSISTheDevelopmentofaHistoricalandCulturalEvaluationApproachinLandscapeAssessment:theDynamicofTuscanLandscapebetweenandMAgnolettiCulturalLandscapesinNorthernForests–Time,SpaceandAffiliationtotheLandLÖstlundandIBergmanEnergyBalanceandLandUse:theMakingofanAgrarianLandscapefromtheVantagePointofSocialMetabolism(theCatalanVallèsCountyin)ETello,RGarrabouandXCussóEarthObservationTechniquesandGeographicInformationSystemsasToolsforAssessingLandUseCoverChangesinaLandscapeContextGChirici,PCoronaandMKöhlPARTII:MANAGEMENTTheProjectfortheRuralLandscapeParkinMoscheta(Tuscany,Italy)MAgnoletti,VMarinaiandSPaolettiLongtermVegetationDynamicsinSouthernScandinaviaandTheirUseinManagingLandscapesforBiodiversityRHWBradshawandGEHannonMountainLandscape,PastoralManagementandTraditionalPracticesintheNorthernPyrenees(France)JPMétailiéMaintainingCulturalandNaturalBiodiversityinEurope’sEconomicCentreandPeripheryPAngelstamContentsvRethinkingTraditionalPreservationApproachesforManagingaForestedCulturalLandscape:theCaseofMarsh–Billings–RockefellerNationalHistoricalPark’sMountTomForestRDiamant,CMartsandNMitchellWorkingForestLandscapes:TwoCaseStudiesfromNorthCarolinaGBBlankRestorationintheAmericanNationalForests:EcologicalProcessesandCulturalLandscapesNLangstonLanduseandLandscapeHistories:theRoleofHistoryinCurrentEnvironmentalDecisionsSAndersonCulturalLandscapeManagementinEuropeandGermanySWeizeneggerandWSchenkTheRestorationofForestLandscapesthroughFarmlandAfforestationMeasuresinSpainCMontielMolinaPARTIII:CASESTUDIESHistoricLandscapeRestoration:CaseStudiesofSiteRecoveryinPostindustrialSouthYorkshire,EnglandIDRotherhamComparativeInternationalResearchonAgriculturalLanduseHistoryandForestManagementPractices:theTuscanEstateofCastellodiSpannocchiaandVermont’sMarsh–Billings–RockefellerNationalHistoricalParkGLatzShapingtheLandscape:LongtermEffectsoftheHistoricalControversyabouttheVienneseForest(Wienerwald)EJohannRecoveryandValorizationofaHistoricalFruitOrchard:theKolymbetraintheTempleValley,SicilyGBarbera,MAla,DSLaMelaVecaandTLaMantiaIndexThecolourplatesectionisinsertedafterpviContentsMauroAgnolettiisassociateprofessorattheFacultyofAgriculture,UniversityofFlorence(Italy)whereheteachesthecoursesof‘landscapeanalysisandmanagement’and‘environmentalandforesthistory’HealsoteachesattheFacultyofArchitecture,andhastaughtintheUSAandinseveralEuropeancountriesHeisthecoordinatoroftheresearchgroup‘Forestandwoodlandhistory’oftheInternationalUnionofForestResearchOrganization(IUFRO)andvicepresidentoftheEuropeanSocietyforEnvironmentalHistory(ESEH)HeisthecoordinatorofthecommitteeonlandscapeoftheItalianNationalStrategicPlanforRuralDevelopment(–)andtherepresentativeforhistory,cultureandlandscapeoftheItalianMinistryofAgricultureandForestryPoliciesattheMinisterialConferencefortheProtectionofForestinEuropeHehasdirectednationalandinternationalresearchprojectsandorganizedseveralinternationalmeetingsonlandscapehistoryandmanagementwwwforestlandscapeunifiitTheEditorviiMAgnoletti,DepartmentofEnvironmentalForestryScienceandTechnology,UniversityofFlorence,ViaSanBonaventura,I,Florence,ItalyEmail:mauroagnolettiunifiitMAla,DipartimentodiColtureArboree,UniversitàdiPalermo,VialedelleScienze,Palermo,ItalySAnderson,President,ForestHistorySociety,WilliamVickersAvenue,Durham,NorthCarolina,USAEmail:stevenadukeeduPAngelstam,FacultyofForestSciences,SchoolforForestEngineers,SwedishUniversityofAgriculturalSciences,SESkinnskatteberg,SwedenEmail:perangelstamsmsksluseGBarbera,DipartimentodiColtureArboree,UniversitàdiPalermo,VialedelleScienze,Palermo,ItalyEmail:barberaunipaitIBergman,AssociateProfessor,Silvermuseet,Arjeplog,SwedenEmail:IngelaBergmanarjeplogseGBBlank,AssociateProfessor,NorthCarolinaStateUniversity,DepartmentofForestry,Raleigh,NorthCarolina,USAEmail:gblankunityncsueduRHWBradshaw,EnvironmentalHistoryResearchGroup,Geocenter–ØsterVolgrade,DKCopenhagenK,DenmarkEmail:rhwbgeusdkGChirici,geoLAB–LaboratoryofGeomatica,DipartimentodiScienzedell’AmbienteForestale,UniversityofFlorence,ViaSanBonaventura,I,Florence,ItalyEmail:gherardochiriciunifiitPCorona,DipartimentodiScienzedell’AmbienteForestaleedelleSueRisorse,UniversityofTuscia,ViaSanCamillodeLellis,Viterbo,ItalyEmail:piermariacoronaunitusitXCussó,Departamentd’Economiaid’HistòriaEconòmica,UniversitatAutònomadeBarcelona,EdificiB,CampusdelaUAB,Bellaterra(CerdanyoladelVallès),SpainEmail:XavierCussouabesRDiamant,Marsh–Billings–RockefellerNationalHistoricalPark,Woodstock,Vermont,USAEmail:RolfdiamantnpsgovRGarrabou,Departamentd’Economiaid’HistòriaEconòmica,UniversitatAutònomadeBarcelona,EdificiB,CampusdelaUAB,Bellaterra(CerdanyoladelVallès),SpainEmail:RamonGarrabouuabesContributorsviiiGEHannon,EnvironmentalHistoryResearchGroup,Geocenter–ØsterVolgrade,DKCopenhagenK,DenmarkEJohann,UniversityofNaturalResourcesandAppliedLifeSciencesVienna,Wlassakstrasse,Vienna,AustriaEmail:elisjohannutanetatMKöhl,DepartmentofWoodScience,WorldForestry,UniversityofHamburg,Leuschnerstrasse,Hamburg,GermanyEmail:weltforstwirtschaftholzunihamburgdeTLaMantia,DipartimentodiColtureArboree,UniversitàdiPalermo,VialedelleScienze,Palermo,ItalytommasolamantiaunipaitDSLaMelaVeca,DipartimentodiColtureArboree,UniversitàdiPalermo,VialedelleScienze,Palermo,ItalyNLangston,AssociateProfessor,DepartmentofForestEcologyandManagement,UniversityofWisconsinMadison,Madison,WI,USAEmail:nelangstwisceduGLatz,ViceProvostforInternationalAffairs,ProfessorofGeographyandInternationalStudies,OfficeofInternationalAffairs,PortlandStateUniversity,POBox,Portland,Oregon,USAEmail:latzgpdxeduVMarinai,DepartmentofEnvironmentalForestryScienceandTechnology,UniversityofFlorence,ViaSanBonaventura,I,Florence,ItalyCMarts,Marsh–Billings–RockefellerNationalHistoricalPark,Woodstock,Vermont,USAchristinamartsnpsgovJPMétailié,GEODE–UMRCNRS,MaisondelaRecherche,UniversitéToulouse–leMirail,Toulouse,FranceEmail:MetailieunivtlsefrNMitchell,Marsh–Billings–RockefellerNationalHistoricalPark,Woodstock,Vermont,USAnoramitchellnpsgovCMontielMolina,Complutense,UniversityofMadrid,FacultyofGeographyandHistory,andDepartmentofRegionalGeographicAnalysisandPhysicalGeography,CiudadUniversitaria,sn,EMadrid,SpainEmail:crismontghisucmesLÖstlund,AssociateProfessor,DepartmentofVegetationEcology,SwedishUniversityofAgriculturalSciences,Umeå,SwedenEmail:LarsOstlundsveksluseSPaoletti,DepartmentofEnvironmentalForestryScienceandTechnology,UniversityofFlorence,ViaSanBonaventura,I,Florence,ItalyIDRotherham,Tourism,LeisureandEnvironmentalChangeResearchUnit,SheffieldHallamUniversity,CityCampus–PondStreet,SheffieldSWB,UKEmail:idrotherhamshuacukWSchenk,InstituteforGeography,HistoricalGeography,MeckenheimerAllee,DBonn,GermanyEmail:winfriedschenkgiubunibonndeETello,Departamentd’HistòriaiInstitucionsEconòmiques,FacultatdeCiencesEconòmiquesiEmpresarials,UniversitatdeBarcelona,Diagonal,Barcelona,SpainEmail:telloubeduSWeizenegger,InstituteforEconomicGeography,Ludwigstrasse,DMunich,GermanysabineweizeneggergmxnetContributorsix‘…nowinthesethings,alargepartofwhatwecallnatural,isnotitisevenquiteartificial:thatistosay,thetilledfields,thetreesandotherdomesticatedplantsthatareplacedinorder,theriverskeptwithinboundsanddirectedtowardacertaincourse,andsuch,lackboththestateandtheappearancethattheywouldhaveinnatureInthiswaytheappearanceofanylandinhabitedforafewgenerationsbycivilizedpeople,nottosayincitiesandotherplaceswheremenlivetogether,isartificial,andmuchdifferentfromwhatitwouldbeinnature’GiacomoLeopardi(–),InPraiseofBirdsCulturallandscapesaretodayaresourcewhosepreservationrepresentsamostmoderntheme,relevanttoagreatnumberofsectorssuchasplanning,culturalheritagepreservation,ruraldevelopment,natureconservationandforestry,tocitejustafewTheroleofthelandscapeandthereforeitsperceptionhaschangedthroughtimeitisnolongerjusta‘cultural’aspect,intendedasanelitistphenomenon,isolatedfromthesocioeconomicaspect,butemergesasanessentialelementintheinterpretationofamodernapproachtosustainabledevelopment,farfromparadigmaticviews,butclosetotheneedsofalargepartofsocietyinthewholeworldItisnotusefultoreportallthemanydefinitionsusedtodescribeculturallandscapes,amatterforwhichmorethanasinglechapterwouldbeneeded,buttherearewordsthatliveinourmindsmorethanothers,alsoaffectingthewaytoviewresearchmattersInthisrespect,thedefinitiongivenbyCarlSauerinhastheadvantageofsummarizingmuchofthecoreconcept:‘TheculturallandscapeisfashionedfromanaturallandscapebyaculturegroupCultureistheagent,thenaturalareathemedium,theculturallandscapestheresult’ItisinterestingtonotethatinthosesameyearstheItalianphilosopherBenedettoCrocepromotedthefirstlawprotectinglandscapeinItaly,mostlybasedontheconceptofthepreservationofaestheticvalues,aninterestingbutverydifferentapproach,closetowhatItalyhasrepresentedsincetheendofthethcenturywhenthetravellersofthe‘Grandtour’journeyedacrossEurope,atripundertakenbymanyEuropeanmenoflettersandphilosopherstowidentheirculturalbackgroundAmoremodernconceptconsidersculturallandscapestobetheexpressionofhistoricalintegrationbetweensocial,economicalandenvironmentalfactors,influencingallaspectsofdevelopmentAccordingtotheEuropeanLandscapeConvention,landscapeconstitutesaresourcefavourabletoeconomicactivity,contributingtohumanwellbeingandconsolidationofculturalidentityAtworldlevelthereisanevidenttrendtowardsdegradationandthecreationoflessvaluablelandscapes,uptothepointthatculturallandscapesareoftenmoreendangeredthannatureTheirconservationimposeschoicesthatarenoteasilymade,alongwiththerevisionofsomepastorientationsinthefieldsofagriculture,forestryandnatureconservationTheConservationofCulturalHeritageUntilrecently,internationaldocumentsregardingsustainabledevelopmentsaidIntroduction:FramingtheIssue–aTransdisciplinaryReflectiononCulturalLandscapesMAgnolettixi©CABInternationalTheConservationofCulturalLandscapes(edMAgnoletti)littleaboutculturallandscapesTheStockholmdeclarationofandtheBruntlandReportindidnotrefertolandscape,whileAgenda()hadsomereferencetothismatter,butwithoutclearlyaddressingitIn,theFAOGIAHSproject(GloballyImportantIngeniousAgriculturalHeritageSystems)clearlyaddressedtherelationshipsbetweenagriculturalheritagesystemsandtheirlandscapeHowever,themainspecifictoolavailableatworldlevelfortheconservationofculturallandscapesissurelytheWorldHeritageConvention(WHC)ofUNESCO()AtaEuropeanleveltheEuropeanLandscapeConvention(ELC)isthemostcomprehensiveproposalapplyingtotheentireterritory,whilethePanEuropeanBiologicalandLandscapeDiversityStrategysetupfortheperiod–offersamorespecificapproach,asalsodescribedinthechapterbySchenkItisverysignificantthatculturallandscapes(CL)haveonlyrecentlybeenintroducedintotheWorldHeritageConvention()Beforethattimetheconventionwasmainlyprotectingnaturalheritageandculturalheritage,thelatterconcerningmostlymonumentsorarchitecturalassets,withemphasisplacedontheaestheticAccordingtotheWHC,culturallandscapesrepresentthe‘combinedworkofnatureandofmanTheyareillustrativeoftheevolutionofhumansocietyandsettlementsovertime,undertheinfluenceofthephysicalconstraintsandoropportunitiespresentedbytheirnaturalenvironmentandofsuccessivesocial,economicandculturalforces,bothexternalandinternal’ThethreecategoriesselectedtoclassifyCLandincludethemintheWorldHeritageList(WHL)ofprotectedpropertiesare:(i)‘aclearlydefinedlandscape’,mostlyreferringtoparksandgardens(ii)‘organicallyevolvedlandscapes’,dividedintotwosubcategories(a)‘relictandfossillandscapes’and(b)‘continuinglandscape’and(iii)‘associativelandscapes’Item(ii)morespecificallyreferstothefeaturesresultingfromtheactionofforestryandagricultureshapingtheland,whileitem(iii)ismorelinkedtotheintangiblevaluecreatedbyman–naturerelationsTherearesixcrucialculturalcriteriausedfortheinclusionofpropertiesintheWHL,whichmustalsomeetthetestof‘authenticity’tosatisfythecriterionofbeingofuniversalvalue,aswellaspossessing‘uniqueness’,‘significance’and‘integrity’AllthesecriteriasuggestthecrucialroleoflandscapeassessmentandtheimportanceofthemethodologiesusedfortheirassesmentAsstatedintherecentUNESCOworldpapern,evaluationhasalreadybecomeincreasinglydifficult,mostlybecauseoftheabsenceofcomparativestudies,an‘outstandingneed’forplaceslikeEuropecharacterizedbyan‘extraordinary’varietyoffarmedlandscapes(Fowler,)However,attentiontomethodologiesisstillneededDuringsomelecturesattheICCROMinRomein,oneoftheadvisorybodiesofWHC,itwasevidenthowthebackgroundofstudentscomingfrommanydifferentcountriesoftheworldwasbasicallywellsuitedtoanalyseproposedproperties,mostlyusingclassichistorical,archaeologicalorethnoanthropologicalresearchOntheotherhand,moderntechniquesbasedonmultitemporalanalysis,remotesensingandassessmentsoflandusechanges,togetherwithallthetechniquestodayavailableinthefieldofforestandwoodlandhistoryorhistoricalecology,necessaryforunderstandinglandscapechangesandassessingauthenticity,significance,andintegrity,weremuchlessknownandmasteredInthisrespectthisbookoffersacontributionproposingnotonlyspecificmethodsasexplainedinthefirstpartbyÖstlundandBergman,TelloetalandChiricietal,butalsopresentingcomparativeapproaches,asexplainedforTuscanyInfact,althoughdifferentgroupsofpeoplemayhavedifferentperceptionsofwhatavaluablelandscapeis,itisclearthatadynamicevaluationisneededtounderstandthetrajectoryofalandscapesystemandrecognizewhichelementshavebecomeavalueandwhichhavenot,whilesimilarmethodologiesappliedtodifferentsitesofferbetterchancestoassesslandscape,especiallywhentryingtoevaluatespecificelements(egchestnutwoods,vineyards,xiiMAgnolettiterraces,etc)thatmaypresentdifferentvaluesindifferentcontextsOntheotherhand,thisevaluationalsomeetstherequirementsoftheELCwhosespecificmeasuresrequireidentification,analysisofchangesandassessmentoflandscapesineachcountryItisalsoworthnotingthepotentialofferedbytheapproachofTelloetal,whereatraditionalculturallandscapeisalsoanalysedfromthepointofviewofenergyflows,offeringapossiblyvaluabletoolformultipleanalysis,particularlyimportantforassessingsustainabilityTheapproachofUNESCOismeanttosavespecificsitesandinfactthecriticismcomingfromtheCouncilofEurope,suggestingan‘elitist’approach,issymptomaticofthedifferentviews,perspectivesandgoalsoftheEuropeanLandscapeConvention(ELC)andWHLActually,thetwoprocessesarenotcomparableTheWHLcannotbeusedasaprimaryinstrumentforthesimplematterofthedifficultyofincludingallvaluableculturallandscapesinthelistandsubmittingthemalltoamanagementsystemasrequestedInthisrespecttheELCmightbeamorepowerfultool,addressingthemattersofpolicies,qualityobjectives,protection,managementandplanningforEuropeanUnion(EU)landscapesatnationalandregionallevel,facilitatingaprocessthatisgoingtoaffectgovernanceAsatJune,tenstateshadsigneditandmorehadsignedandratified,acceptedorapprovedThefactthatlandscapemustberecognizedandprotectedindependentlyfromitsvaluedoesnotpreventtheselectionofspecificpropertiesofspecialsignificance,alsobecausealthoughtherearemanyopportunitiestoestablishnatureprotectionareasinEurope,therearenosimilarinstrumentstoprotectculturallandscapesThissimpleconsiderationcouldopenalongdiscussionabouttheideaof‘nature’and‘culture’inmodernsocietiesHowever,fornowtheWHLrepresentstheonlychancetoprotectculturallandscapesofspecialimportance,unlessproponentsacceptasortofunclearmixturebetweennaturalandculturalvalues,alsoproposedinsomedefinitionsofWHculturallandscapesandtheEUHabitatsdirective,whereculturalvaluescouldbesavedwithintheframeworkofnatureconservation,obviousl

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