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国际项目管理手册:规划、组织与控制国际项目.pdf

国际项目管理手册:规划、组织与控制国际项目.pdf

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简介:本文档为《国际项目管理手册:规划、组织与控制国际项目pdf》,可适用于项目管理领域,主题内容包含GLOBALPROJECTMANAGEMENTHANDBOOKPlanning,Organizing,andControllingInternati符等。

GLOBAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK Planning, Organizing, and Controlling International Projects David I. Cleland Editor Professor Emeritus, School of Engineering University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Roland Gareis Editor Project Management Group University of Economics and Business Administration Vienna, Austria Second Edition McGRAW-HILL New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page i Information contained in this work has been obtained by The McGraw- Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) from sources believed to be reliable. However, neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein, and neither McGraw-Hill nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that McGraw-Hill and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance of an appropriate professional should be sought. Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of Congress Copyright 2006, 1994 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 DOC/DOC 0 1 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 ISBN 0-07-146045-4 The sponsoring editor for this book was Larry S. Hager and the production supervisor was Pamela A. Pelton. It was set in Times by International Typesetting and Composition. The art director for the cover was Anthony Landi. Printed and bound by RR Donnelley. McGraw-Hill books are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please write to the Director of Special Sales, McGraw-Hill Professional, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121-2298. Or contact your local bookstore. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page ii iii CONTENTS Contributors xi Preface xiii Acknowledgments xv Part 1 State of the Art of Global Project Management 1-1 Chapter 1. The Evolution of Project Management David I. Cleland and Lewis R. Ireland 1-3 Introduction / 1-4 Types of Evidence for Historical Projects / 1-5 Project Charter / 1-6 Early Literature on Projects / 1-6 Government Literature / 1-8 Leading Projects of Antiquity / 1-8 Military Campaigns / 1-11 Summary of the Results of Historical Projects / 1-13 More Modern Projects / 1-13 Modern Project Management Practices / 1-17 Summary / 1-18 Bibliography / 1-18 Chapter 2. Project Management: A Business Process of the Project-Oriented Company Roland Gareis 2-1 Abstract / 2-1 The Project: A Social Construct / 2-2 Project Management Approaches / 2-5 The Project Management Process: An Overview / 2-9 Project Management Subprocesses / 2-12 Project Marketing: A Project Management Task / 2-19 Design of the Business Process “Project Management” / 2-21 References / 2-25 Bibliography / 2-26 Chapter 3. The Future of Project Management: Mapping the Dynamics of Project Management Field in Action Christophe N. Bredillet 3-1 Abstract / 3-1 Project Management: A Knowledge Field not that Clear / 3-2 Project Management Field in Action / 3-4 Some Noticeable Trends for the Project Management Field / 3-17 Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page iii iv CONTENTS Conclusion / 3-21 References / 3-22 Chapter 4. Total Life-Cycle System Management James V. Jones 4-1 Product Life Cycle / 4-2 An Example of the TLCSM Concept / 4-5 Operational Effectiveness (OE) / 4-5 Operational Availability (A o ) / 4-5 Operation and Maintenance Support Requirements / 4-10 Cost of Ownership (C o ) / 4-12 Making the Final Decision / 4-15 Establishing the Capability / 4-15 Through-Life Cost / 4-16 TLCSM and Sustainment / 4-16 Benefits of TLCSM / 4-18 Chapter 5. Developing Multinational Project Teams Aaron J. Nurick and Hans J. Thamhain 5-1 Managerial Challenges in Multinational Team Environments / 5-2 A Model for Team Building / 5-6 Drivers and Barriers of High Team Performance / 5-7 Keeping the Team Focused / 5-11 Building High-Performing Global Teams / 5-12 Recommendations / 5-13 A Final Note / 5-16 References / 5-17 Chapter 6. Risk Identification and Assessment for International Construction Projects John A. Walewski, G. Edward Gibson, Jr., and Ellsworth F. Vines 6-1 Research Objectives / 6-3 Development of the Ipra Tool / 6-3 Risk Assessment Workshops / 6-4 Consistency Test / 6-7 Application and Use of the Ipra Tool / 6-9 How to Assess a Project / 6-10 Philosophy of Use / 6-13 Conclusions / 6-14 Risk Management to Improve Project Performance / 6-15 References / 6-16 Appendix 6a / 6-17 Chapter 7. Program Management and Project Portfolio Management Roland Gareis 7-1 Abstract / 7-1 The Program: A Social Construct / 7-2 The Program Management Process / 7-3 Specific Features of Program Management / 7-5 Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page iv Clusters of Projects and Programs in the Project-Oriented Company / 7-12 Project Portfolio Management: Overview / 7-13 Assigning a Project or a Program / 7-14 Project Portfolio Coordination / 7-17 Project Networking / 7-21 Management of Project Chains / 7-23 Bibliography / 7-24 Part 2 Competency Factors in Project Management 8-1 Chapter 8. Competencies of Project Managers Lynn Crawford 8-3 Understanding Competence / 8-4 Project Management Competencies / 8-6 Performance-Based Competency Standards for Project Management / 8-13 Global Performance-Based Standards for Project Managers / 8-16 Assessing and Developing Competencies of Project Managers / 8-18 References / 8-20 Chapter 9. Managing Risks and Uncertainty in Major Projects in the New Global Environment Roger Miller and Brian Hobbs 9-1 The New Global Environment for Large, Complex Projects / 9-2 Understanding the Dynamics of Major Projects / 9-5 Management of Risk and Uncertainty / 9-9 Management of Anticipated Risks / 9-11 Management of Potential Emergent Risks / 9-12 Anchoring the Project Into Its Institutional Environment / 9-12 Creating a Project Concept and Organization to Enhance Governabilty / 9-13 Coping with Tradeoffs in the Management of Anticipated and Emergent Risk / 9-14 Conclusion / 9-15 References / 9-16 Chapter 10. Managing Human Energy in the Project-Oriented Company Pernille Eskerod 10-1 The Research Project / 10-3 Empirical Findings Related to Existing Theory / 10-8 Concluding Remarks / 10-12 References / 10-12 Chapter 11. Managing Project Management Personnel and their Competencies in the Project-Oriented Company Martina Huemann 11-1 The Profession of Project Manager as a Basis for Competent Project Management Personnel / 11-3 Processes to Manage Project Management Personnel / 11-8 Analysis of Project Management Competencies to Further Develop Project Management Personnel / 11-9 Potential Applications of the Mm–Project Manager Model / 11-13 References / 11-13 CONTENTS v Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page v Chapter 12. Lessons Learned: Rebuilding Iraq in 2004 Charles W. “Chick” Keller 12-1 Design of the Original Program / 12-1 Implementation of the Program / 12-6 Program Management Systems and Program Reporting / 12-16 Lessons Learned / 12-20 Conclusion: Iraqis Need to Rebuild Iraq / 12-23 Chapter 13. Project Critical Success Factors: The Project-Implementation Profile Jeffrey K. Pinto and Dennis P. Slevin 13-1 The 10-Factor Model: The Project-Implementation Profile / 13-3 Development of the 10-Factor Model / 13-4 How the Project-Implementation Profile Works / 13-7 Four-Step Process / 13-7 Illustrative Example / 13-8 Implications of Use of the PIP / 13-10 References / 13-10 Part 3 Management of Global Programs and Projects 14-1 Chapter 14. Project Management for Outsourcing Decisions Bopaya Bidanda, Ozlem Arisoy, and Ozlem Arisoy 14-3 Project Life Cyle / 14-5 Conclusion / 14-20 References / 14-22 Chapter 15. Project Quality Management in International Projects Lewis R. Ireland 15-1 International Project Quality Characteristics / 15-2 Planning for Quality in International Projects / 15-3 Specification Practices / 15-4 Drawings / 15-4 Workmanship and Worker Qualification / 15-5 Work Habits / 15-5 Training in Quality Practices / 15-6 Certification of Capabilities / 15-7 Reviewing Partners’ Qualifications / 15-7 Contractual Relationship / 15-8 Stability of a Country’s Governing Body / 15-9 Taxes and Tariffs / 15-9 Planning for International Projects / 15-10 Summary / 15-10 Chapter 16. Success Factors in Virtual Global Software Projects Dragan Milosevic, And Ozbay, and Sabin Srivannaboon 16-1 The Unique World of Global Software Projects / 16-2 The Nature of Virtual Global Software Development / 16-5 vi CONTENTS Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page vi CONTENTS vii What Makes Virtual Global Software Projects Different / 16-5 System of Success Factors / 16-9 Tactical Success Factors / 16-12 Conclusion / 16-27 References / 16-28 Chapter 17. Managing Global Projects Over a Collaborative Knowledge Framework Suhwe Lee 17-1 The Garden of Eden: The First Project / 17-1 Out of Eden / 17-2 Global Business and Its Challenges / 17-3 Complex Environment and Its Challenges / 17-4 Project Management System / 17-6 Collaborative Knowledge Framework / 17-6 Benefits / 17-14 Next Millennium / 17-14 Conclusion / 17-15 References / 17-16 Part 4 Management of the Project-Oriented Company 18-1 Chapter 18. Management of the Project-Oriented Company Roland Gareis 18-3 Abstract / 18-3 The Project-Oriented Company: A Construct / 18-4 “Management by Projects” as an Organizational Strategy / 18-4 Organizational Structure of the Project-Oriented Company / 18-6 Expert Pools, Project Portfolio Group, and Project Management Office / 18-8 Specific Business Processes of the Project-Oriented Company / 18-16 Integrative Methods of the Project-Oriented Company / 18-17 Infrastructures of the Project-Oriented Company / 18-20 Cultures of and in the Project-Oriented Company / 18-23 References / 18-25 Chapter 19. Project Portfolio Score Card Ernst Jankulik and Roland Piff 19-1 Score Cards in Project-Oriented Organizations / 19-2 Further Development of the PPSC / 19-4 Case Study / 19-10 Benchmarking the Internal Processes / 19-15 Conclusion / 19-18 References / 19-19 Chapter 20. Partnering in Projects J. Rodney Turner 20-1 Cooperative Working on Projects / 20-2 Risk Sharing on Contracts / 20-4 Types of Partnering / 20-5 Single-Project Partnering / 20-6 Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page vii Long-Term Partnering / 20-10 Cooperative Working with Other forms of Contract / 20-12 Concluding Remark / 20-13 References / 20-14 Chapter 21. Business Process Management in the Project-Oriented Company Roland Gareis and Michael Stummer 21-1 Abstract / 21-2 Business Processes and Organizations for their Fulfilment / 21-2 Business Process Management (BPM): An Overview / 21-4 Identification and Description of Business Processes in the Project-Oriented Company / 21-7 Business Process Management, Project and Program Management / 21-8 Business Process Management and Project Portfolio Management / 21-10 Organizational Design of the Process- and Project-Oriented Company / 21-12 Consequences for Personnel Management in the Process- and Project-Oriented Company / 21-13 Maturity Model of the Process- and Project-Oriented Company / 21-14 Bibliography / 21-14 Part 5 National Project Management 22-1 Chapter 22. Project Management in Austria: Analysis of the Maturity of Austria as a Project-Oriented Nation Roland Gareis and Claudia Gruber 22-3 Abstract / 22-4 The Research Project “Project Orientation (Austria)” / 22-4 Maturity Model of the Project-Oriented Company (MM-POC) / 22-6 Maturity Model of the Project-Oriented Nation (MM-PON) / 22-7 Analyzing and Benchmarking Project-Oriented Companies in Austria / 22-10 Maturity of Austria as a Project-Oriented Nation (PON) / 22-18 Conclusion / 22-24 References / 22-25 Chapter 23. A Brief Insight of Project Management in the Mainland of China Chao Dong, K. B. Chuah, and Li Zhai 23-1 A Close Look at Mainland of China / 23-3 Project Management in China / 23-4 Project Organizations in China / 23-5 Government’s Megaprojects / 23-6 Projects in other Industries / 23-7 Project-Based Software Companies in China / 23-7 The Third Eye on Project Management of China / 23-8 Empirical Study of Project Management in China / 23-10 Implications for Western Project Stakeholders / 23-15 Conclusion / 23-17 References / 23-18 Chapter 24. Project Management in Australia Brian R. Kooyman 24-1 The Genesis and Development of Project Management in Australia / 24-2 Developments in Australian Project Delivery Methods / 24-7 Two Major Australian Projects / 24-11 viii CONTENTS Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page viii CONTENTS ix Future Directions for Australian Project Management / 24-20 Acknowledgments / 24-21 References / 24-21 Chapter 25. Project Management in Romania Constanta-Nicoleta Bodea 25-1 The Business Environment in Romania: A Short Overview / 25-1 Romanian Participation in the POS Research Project / 25-8 Changes in the Maturity of Romania after the POS Project / 25-14 References / 25-15 Chapter 26. Japanese Project Management Practices on Global Projects Hiroshi Tanaka 26-1 A Characteristic Profile of Japanese Project Management / 26-1 Life Cycle of Capital Projects / 26-2 Project Management Involvement in Early Project Development Stages / 26-4 Project Strategy Development / 26-5 Project Stakeholders, Contracting Formations, and Organizations / 26-5 Project Management Methods in Global Engineering and Construction Projects / 26-9 Engineering Management / 26-11 Global Procurement Management / 26-11 Management of Multicultural Site Operations / 26-13 Project Management Involvement in the Operations and Maintenance of Built Facilities / 26-14 Project ICT Infrastructure Supporting Global Project Management / 26-14 Index follows Chapter 26 Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page ix Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page x CONTRIBUTORS Ozlem Arisoy Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Chap. 14) Murat Azim Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Chap. 14) Bopaya Bidanda Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Chap. 14) Constanta-Nicoleta Bodea Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania (Chap. 25) Christophe N. Bredillet ESC Lille, France (Chap. 3) K. B. Chuah Associate Professor, Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong (Chap. 23) David I. Cleland Professor Emeritus, School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Chap. 1) Lynn Crawford ESC Lille, France, and University of Technology, Sydney, Australia (Chap. 8) Chao Dong Ph.D, Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management, City University of Hong Kong (Chap. 23) Pernille Eskerod University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark (Chap. 10) Roland Gareis Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria (Chaps. 2, 7, 18, 21, 22) G. Edward Gibson, Jr. University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (Chap. 6) Claudia Gruber Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria (Chap. 22) Brian Hobbs Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Chap. 9) Martina Huemann Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria (Chap. 11) Lewis R. Ireland President, American Society for the Advancement of Project Management, Clarksville, Tennessee (Chaps. 1, 15) Ernst Jankulik Siemens AG Austria, Building Technologies, 1230 Vienna, Austria (Chap. 19) James V. Jones President, Logistics Management Associates, Irvine, California (Chap. 4) Charles W. “Chick” Keller University of Kansas, Edwards Campus, Overland Park, Kansas (Chap. 12) Brian R. Kooyman Managing Director, Tracey, Brunstrom & Hammond Group, Offices in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Canberra, Australia (Chap. 24) Suhwe Lee Singapore (Chap. 17) Roger Miller École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Chap. 9) Dragan Milosevic Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State, University, Portland, Oregon (Chap. 16) xi Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page xi Aaron J. Nurick Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts (Chap. 5) And Ozbay Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon (Chap. 16) Roland Piff MCE AG, Vienna, Austria (Chap. 19) Jeffrey K. Pinto Black School of Business, Pennsylvania State University, Erie, Pennsylvania (Chap. 13) Dennis P. Slevin Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Chap. 13) Sabin Srivannaboon Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon (Chap. 16) Michael Stummer Roland Gareis Consulting, Vienna, Austria (Chap. 21) Hiroshi Tanaka Yokohama, Japan (Chap. 26) Hans J. Thamhain Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts (Chap. 5) J. Rodney Turner The Lille School of Management, France, and University of Limerick, Ireland (Chap. 20) Ellsworth F. Vines Dick Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Chap. 6) John A. Walewski University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (Chap. 6) Li Zhai Associate Professor, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Chap. 23) xii CONTRIBUTORS Cleland_FM.qxd 6/5/06 2:05 PM Page xii PREFACE In the last forty years there has been a tidal wave of interest in project management as a management philosophy to use in dealing with the many ad hoc activities found in con- temporary organizations. Project management is clearly an idea whose time has come. A substantial body of theory exists in the field, reflecting the wide experience gained by practitioners in many different industries and environments. Project management is recog- nized as a principal strategy and process to deal with the inevitable change facing organi- zations. The social, political, economic, technological, and competitive changes underway in the global marketplace require that any organization wishing to survive in the face of such change needs to understand how such change can be managed. Business organizations in particular are facing awesome challenges in the intensely competitive global marketplace. Quality, productivity, costs, faster commercialization of products and services, cooperative research and development, and the dynamic changes being wrought by the “factory of the future” all can be dealt with through the use of project management philosophies and techniques. Add to these changes the continued erosion of quality to products and services that have to be designed, developed, produced, and mar- keted in global markets––the importance of a management philosophy to deal with such universal changes becomes apparent. Project management has truly become “boundaryless”––cutting across disciplines, functions, organizations, and countries. The formation of “strategic alliances” to share pro- ject risk, resources, and rewards are becoming commonplace in the management of inter- national businesses. Today, a truly domestic market does not exist; enterprise managers the world over must face the unforgiving global marketplace. Not only is the survival of enter- prises at stake, the country’s national and international competitiveness is at stake as well. In the past two decades the global economy h

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