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@AI—A Modern Approach

MorrisL
2012-11-29 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《@AI—A Modern Approachpdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

ArtificialIntelligenceAModernApproachThirdEditionStuartJRussellandPeterNorvigContributingwriters:ErnestDavisDouglasDEdwardsDavidForsythNicholasJHayJitendraMMalikVibhuMittalMehranSahamiSebastianThrunUpperSaddleRiverBostonColumbusSanFranciscoNewYorkIndianapolisLondonTorontoSydneySingaporeTokyoMontrealDubaiMadridHongKongMexicoCityMunichParisAmsterdamCapeTownVicePresidentandEditorialDirector,ECS:MarciaJHortonEditorinChief:MichaelHirschExecutiveEditor:TracyDunkelbergerAssistantEditor:MelindaHaggertyEditorialAssistant:AllisonMichaelVicePresident,Production:VinceO’BrienSeniorManagingEditor:ScottDisannoProductionEditor:JaneBonnellSeniorOperationsSupervisor:AlanFischerOperationsSpecialist:LisaMcDowellMarketingManager:ErinDavisMarketingAssistant:MackPattersonCoverDesigners:KirstenSimsandGeoffreyCassarCoverImages:StanHondaGetty,LibraryofCongress,NASA,NationalMuseumofRome,PeterNorvig,IanParker,Shutterstock,TimeLifeGettyInteriorDesigners:StuartRussellandPeterNorvigCopyEditor:MaryLouNohrArtEditor:GregDullesMediaEditor:DanielSandinMediaProjectManager:DanielleLeoneCopyrightc©,,byPearsonEducation,Inc,UpperSaddleRiver,NewJerseyAllrightsreservedManufacturedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaThispublicationisprotectedbyCopyrightandpermissionsshouldbeobtainedfromthepublisherpriortoanyprohibitedreproduction,storageinaretrievalsystem,ortransmissioninanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orlikewiseToobtainpermission(s)tousematerialsfromthiswork,pleasesubmitawrittenrequesttoPearsonHigherEducation,PermissionsDepartment,LakeStreet,UpperSaddleRiver,NJTheauthorandpublisherofthisbookhaveusedtheirbesteffortsinpreparingthisbookTheseeffortsincludethedevelopment,research,andtestingofthetheoriesandprogramstodeterminetheireffectivenessTheauthorandpublishermakenowarrantyofanykind,expressedorimplied,withregardtotheseprogramsorthedocumentationcontainedinthisbookTheauthorandpublishershallnotbeliableinanyeventforincidentalorconsequentialdamagesinconnectionwith,orarisingoutof,thefurnishing,performance,oruseoftheseprogramsLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataonFileISBN:ISBN:PrefaceArtificialIntelligence(AI)isabigfield,andthisisabigbookWehavetriedtoexplorethefullbreadthofthefield,whichencompasseslogic,probability,andcontinuousmathematicsperception,reasoning,learning,andactionandeverythingfrommicroelectronicdevicestoroboticplanetaryexplorersThebookisalsobigbecausewegointosomedepthThesubtitleofthisbookis“AModernApproach”Theintendedmeaningofthisratheremptyphraseisthatwehavetriedtosynthesizewhatisnowknownintoacommonframework,ratherthantryingtoexplaineachsubfieldofAIinitsownhistoricalcontextWeapologizetothosewhosesubfieldsare,asaresult,lessrecognizableNewtothiseditionThiseditioncapturesthechangesinAIthathavetakenplacesincethelasteditioninTherehavebeenimportantapplicationsofAItechnology,suchasthewidespreaddeploymentofpracticalspeechrecognition,machinetranslation,autonomousvehicles,andhouseholdroboticsTherehavebeenalgorithmiclandmarks,suchasthesolutionofthegameofcheckersAndtherehasbeenagreatdealoftheoreticalprogress,particularlyinareassuchasprobabilisticreasoning,machinelearning,andcomputervisionMostimportantfromourpointofviewisthecontinuedevolutioninhowwethinkaboutthefield,andthushowweorganizethebookThemajorchangesareasfollows:•Weplacemoreemphasisonpartiallyobservableandnondeterministicenvironments,especiallyinthenonprobabilisticsettingsofsearchandplanningTheconceptsofbeliefstate(asetofpossibleworlds)andstateestimation(maintainingthebeliefstate)areintroducedinthesesettingslaterinthebook,weaddprobabilities•Inadditiontodiscussingthetypesofenvironmentsandtypesofagents,wenowcoverinmoredepththetypesofrepresentationsthatanagentcanuseWedistinguishamongatomicrepresentations(inwhicheachstateoftheworldistreatedasablackbox),factoredrepresentations(inwhichastateisasetofattributevaluepairs),andstructuredrepresentations(inwhichtheworldconsistsofobjectsandrelationsbetweenthem)•Ourcoverageofplanninggoesintomoredepthoncontingentplanninginpartiallyobservableenvironmentsandincludesanewapproachtohierarchicalplanning•Wehaveaddednewmaterialonfirstorderprobabilisticmodels,includingopenuniversemodelsforcaseswherethereisuncertaintyastowhatobjectsexist•Wehavecompletelyrewrittentheintroductorymachinelearningchapter,stressingawidervarietyofmoremodernlearningalgorithmsandplacingthemonafirmertheoreticalfooting•WehaveexpandedcoverageofWebsearchandinformationextraction,andoftechniquesforlearningfromverylargedatasets•ofthecitationsinthiseditionaretoworkspublishedafter•WeestimatethataboutofthematerialisbrandnewTheremainingreflectsolderworkbuthasbeenlargelyrewrittentopresentamoreunifiedpictureofthefieldviiviiiPrefaceOverviewofthebookThemainunifyingthemeistheideaofanintelligentagentWedefineAIasthestudyofagentsthatreceiveperceptsfromtheenvironmentandperformactionsEachsuchagentimplementsafunctionthatmapsperceptsequencestoactions,andwecoverdifferentwaystorepresentthesefunctions,suchasreactiveagents,realtimeplanners,anddecisiontheoreticsystemsWeexplaintheroleoflearningasextendingthereachofthedesignerintounknownenvironments,andweshowhowthatroleconstrainsagentdesign,favoringexplicitknowledgerepresentationandreasoningWetreatroboticsandvisionnotasindependentlydefinedproblems,butasoccurringintheserviceofachievinggoalsWestresstheimportanceofthetaskenvironmentindeterminingtheappropriateagentdesignOurprimaryaimistoconveytheideasthathaveemergedoverthepastfiftyyearsofAIresearchandthepasttwomillenniaofrelatedworkWehavetriedtoavoidexcessiveformalityinthepresentationoftheseideaswhileretainingprecisionWehaveincludedpseudocodealgorithmstomakethekeyideasconcreteourpseudocodeisdescribedinAppendixBThisbookisprimarilyintendedforuseinanundergraduatecourseorcoursesequenceThebookhaschapters,eachrequiringaboutaweek’sworthoflectures,soworkingthroughthewholebookrequiresatwosemestersequenceAonesemestercoursecanuseselectedchapterstosuittheinterestsoftheinstructorandstudentsThebookcanalsobeusedinagraduatelevelcourse(perhapswiththeadditionofsomeoftheprimarysourcessuggestedinthebibliographicalnotes)Samplesyllabiareavailableatthebook’sWebsite,aimacsberkeleyeduTheonlyprerequisiteisfamiliaritywithbasicconceptsofcomputerscience(algorithms,datastructures,complexity)atasophomorelevelFreshmancalculusandlinearalgebraareusefulforsomeofthetopicstherequiredmathematicalbackgroundissuppliedinAppendixAExercisesaregivenattheendofeachchapterExercisesrequiringsignificantprogrammingaremarkedwithakeyboardiconTheseexercisescanbestbesolvedbytakingadvantageofthecoderepositoryataimacsberkeleyeduSomeofthemarelargeenoughtobeconsideredtermprojectsAnumberofexercisesrequiresomeinvestigationoftheliteraturethesearemarkedwithabookiconThroughoutthebook,importantpointsaremarkedwithapointingiconWehaveincludedanextensiveindexofaround,itemstomakeiteasytofindthingsinthebookWhereveranewtermisfirstdefined,itisalsomarkedinthemarginNEWTERMAbouttheWebsiteaimacsberkeleyedu,theWebsiteforthebook,contains•implementationsofthealgorithmsinthebookinseveralprogramminglanguages,•alistofoverschoolsthathaveusedthebook,manywithlinkstoonlinecoursematerialsandsyllabi,•anannotatedlistofoverlinkstositesaroundtheWebwithusefulAIcontent,•achapterbychapterlistofsupplementarymaterialandlinks,•instructionsonhowtojoinadiscussiongroupforthebook,Prefaceix•instructionsonhowtocontacttheauthorswithquestionsorcomments,•instructionsonhowtoreporterrorsinthebook,inthelikelyeventthatsomeexist,and•slidesandothermaterialsforinstructorsAboutthecoverThecoverdepictsthefinalpositionfromthedecisivegameofthematchbetweenchesschampionGarryKasparovandprogramDEEPBLUEKasparov,playingBlack,wasforcedtoresign,makingthisthefirsttimeacomputerhadbeatenaworldchampioninachessmatchKasparovisshownatthetopTohisleftistheAsimohumanoidrobotandtohisrightisThomasBayes(–),whoseideasaboutprobabilityasameasureofbeliefunderliemuchofmodernAItechnologyBelowthatweseeaMarsExplorationRover,arobotthatlandedonMarsinandhasbeenexploringtheplaneteversinceTotherightisAlanTuring(–),whosefundamentalworkdefinedthefieldsofcomputerscienceingeneralandartificialintelligenceinparticularAtthebottomisShakey(–),thefirstrobottocombineperception,worldmodeling,planning,andlearningWithShakeyisprojectleaderCharlesRosen(–)AtthebottomrightisAristotle(BC–BC),whopioneeredthestudyoflogichisworkwasstateoftheartuntilthethcentury(copyofabustbyLysippos)Atthebottomleft,lightlyscreenedbehindtheauthors’names,isaplanningalgorithmbyAristotlefromDeMotuAnimaliumintheoriginalGreekBehindthetitleisaportionoftheCPSCBayesiannetworkformedicaldiagnosis(Pradhanetal,)BehindthechessboardispartofaBayesianlogicmodelfordetectingnuclearexplosionsfromseismicsignalsCredits:StanHondaGetty(Kasparaov),LibraryofCongress(Bayes),NASA(Marsrover),NationalMuseumofRome(Aristotle),PeterNorvig(book),IanParker(Berkeleyskyline),Shutterstock(Asimo,Chesspieces),TimeLifeGetty(Shakey,Turing)AcknowledgmentsThisbookwouldnothavebeenpossiblewithoutthemanycontributorswhosenamesdidnotmakeittothecoverJitendraMalikandDavidForsythwroteChapter(computervision)andSebastianThrunwroteChapter(robotics)VibhuMittalwrotepartofChapter(naturallanguage)NickHay,MehranSahami,andErnestDaviswrotesomeoftheexercisesZoranDuric(GeorgeMason),ThomasCHenderson(Utah),LeonReznik(RIT),MichaelGourley(CentralOklahoma)andErnestDavis(NYU)reviewedthemanuscriptandmadehelpfulsuggestionsWethankErnieDavisinparticularforhistirelessabilitytoreadmultipledraftsandhelpimprovethebookNickHaywhippedthebibliographyintoshapeandondeadlinestayedupto:AMwritingcodetomakethebookbetterJonBarronformattedandimprovedthediagramsinthisedition,whileTimHuang,MarkPaskin,andCynthiaBruynshelpedwithdiagramsandalgorithmsinpreviouseditionsRaviMohanandCiaranO’ReillywroteandmaintaintheJavacodeexamplesontheWebsiteJohnCannywrotetheroboticschapterforthefirsteditionandDouglasEdwardsresearchedthehistoricalnotesTracyDunkelberger,AllisonMichael,ScottDisanno,andJaneBonnellatPearsontriedtheirbesttokeepusonscheduleandmademanyhelpfulsuggestionsMosthelpfulofallhasxPrefacebeenJulieSussman,PPA,whoreadeverychapterandprovidedextensiveimprovementsInpreviouseditionswehadproofreaderswhowouldtelluswhenweleftoutacommaandsaidwhichwhenwemeantthatJulietolduswhenweleftoutaminussignandsaidxiwhenwemeantxjForeverytypoorconfusingexplanationthatremainsinthebook,restassuredthatJuliehasfixedatleastfiveSheperseveredevenwhenapowerfailureforcedhertoworkbylanternlightratherthanLCDglowStuartwouldliketothankhisparentsfortheirsupportandencouragementandhiswife,LoySheflott,forherendlesspatienceandboundlesswisdomHehopesthatGordon,Lucy,George,andIsaacwillsoonbereadingthisbookaftertheyhaveforgivenhimforworkingsolongonitRUGS(Russell’sUnusualGroupofStudents)havebeenunusuallyhelpful,asalwaysPeterwouldliketothankhisparents(TorstenandGerda)forgettinghimstarted,andhiswife(Kris),children(BellaandJuliet),colleagues,andfriendsforencouragingandtoleratinghimthroughthelonghoursofwritingandlongerhoursofrewritingWeboththankthelibrariansatBerkeley,Stanford,andNASAandthedevelopersofCiteSeer,Wikipedia,andGoogle,whohaverevolutionizedthewaywedoresearchWecan’tacknowledgeallthepeoplewhohaveusedthebookandmadesuggestions,butwewouldliketonotetheespeciallyhelpfulcommentsofGaganAggarwal,EyalAmir,IonAndroutsopoulos,KrzysztofApt,WarrenHaleyArmstrong,ElleryAziel,JeffVanBaalen,DariusBacon,BrianBaker,ShumeetBaluja,DonBarker,TonyBarrett,JamesNewtonBass,DonBeal,HowardBeck,WolfgangBibel,JohnBinder,LarryBookman,DavidRBoxall,RonenBrafman,JohnBresina,GerhardBrewka,SelmerBringsjord,CarlaBrodley,ChrisBrown,EmmaBrunskill,WilhelmBurger,LaurenBurka,CarlosBustamante,JoaoCachopo,MurrayCampbell,NormanCarver,EmmanuelCastro,AnilChakravarthy,DanChisarick,BertheChoueiry,RobertoCipolla,DavidCohen,JamesColeman,JulieAnnComparini,CorinnaCortes,GaryCottrell,ErnestDavis,TomDean,RinaDechter,TomDietterich,PeterDrake,ChuckDyer,DougEdwards,RobertEgginton,Asma’aElBudrawy,BarbaraEngelhardt,KutluhanErol,OrenEtzioni,HanaFilip,DouglasFisher,JeffreyForbes,KenFord,EricFoslerLussier,JohnFosler,JeremyFrank,AlexFranz,BobFutrelle,MarekGalecki,StefanGerberding,StuartGill,SabineGlesner,SethGolub,GostaGrahne,RussGreiner,EricGrimson,BarbaraGrosz,LarryHall,SteveHanks,OtharHansson,ErnstHeinz,JimHendler,ChristophHerrmann,PaulHilfinger,RobertHolte,VasantHonavar,TimHuang,SethHutchinson,JoostJacob,MarkJelasity,MagnusJohansson,IstvanJonyer,DanJurafsky,LeslieKaelbling,KeijiKanazawa,SurekhaKasibhatla,SimonKasif,HenryKautz,GernotKerschbaumer,MaxKhesin,RichardKirby,DanKlein,KevinKnight,RolandKoenig,SvenKoenig,DaphneKoller,RichKorf,BenjaminKuipers,JamesKurien,JohnLafferty,JohnLaird,GusLarsson,JohnLazzaro,JonLeBlanc,JasonLeatherman,FrankLee,JonLehto,EdwardLim,PhilLong,PierreLouveaux,DonLoveland,SridharMahadevan,TonyMancill,JimMartin,AndyMayer,JohnMcCarthy,DavidMcGrane,JayMendelsohn,RistoMiikkulanien,BrianMilch,SteveMinton,VibhuMittal,MehryarMohri,LeoraMorgenstern,StephenMuggleton,KevinMurphy,RonMusick,SungMyaeng,EricNadeau,LeeNaish,PanduNayak,BernhardNebel,StuartNelson,XuanLongNguyen,NilsNilsson,IllahNourbakhsh,AliNouri,ArthurNunesHarwitt,SteveOmohundro,DavidPage,DavidPalmer,DavidParkes,RonParr,MarkPrefacexiPaskin,TonyPassera,AmitPatel,MichaelPazzani,FernandoPereira,JosephPerla,WimPijls,IraPohl,MarthaPollack,DavidPoole,BrucePorter,MalcolmPradhan,BillPringle,LorrainePrior,GregProvan,WilliamRapaport,DeepakRavichandran,IoannisRefanidis,PhilipResnik,FrancescaRossi,SamRoweis,RichardRussell,JonathanSchaeffer,RichardScherl,HinrichSchuetze,LarsSchuster,BartSelman,SoheilShams,StuartShapiro,JudeShavlik,YoramSinger,SatinderSingh,DanielSleator,DavidSmith,BryanSo,RobertSproull,LynnStein,LarryStephens,AndreasStolcke,PaulStradling,DevikaSubramanian,MarekSuchenek,RichSutton,JonathanTash,AustinTate,BasTerwijn,OlivierTeytaud,MichaelThielscher,WilliamThompson,SebastianThrun,EricTiedemann,MarkTorrance,RandallUpham,PaulUtgoff,PetervanBeek,HalVarian,PaulinaVarshavskaya,SunilVemuri,VandiVerma,UbboVisser,JimWaldo,TobyWalsh,BonnieWebber,DanWeld,MichaelWellman,KaminWhitehouse,MichaelDeanWhite,BrianWilliams,DavidWolfe,JasonWolfe,BillWoods,AldenWright,JayYagnik,MarkYasuda,RichardYen,EliezerYudkowsky,WeixiongZhang,MingZhao,ShlomoZilberstein,andouresteemedcolleagueAnonymousReviewerAbouttheAuthorsStuartRussellwasbornininPortsmouth,EnglandHereceivedhisBAwithfirstclasshonoursinphysicsfromOxfordUniversityin,andhisPhDincomputersciencefromStanfordinHethenjoinedthefacultyoftheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeley,whereheisaprofessorofcomputerscience,directoroftheCenterforIntelligentSystems,andholderoftheSmith–ZadehChairinEngineeringIn,hereceivedthePresidentialYoungInvestigatorAwardoftheNationalScienceFoundation,andinhewascowinneroftheComputersandThoughtAwardHewasaMillerProfessoroftheUniversityofCaliforniaandwasappointedtoaChancellor’sProfessorshipinIn,hegavetheForsytheMemorialLecturesatStanfordUniversityHeisaFellowandformerExecutiveCouncilmemberoftheAmericanAssociationforArtificialIntelligenceHehaspublishedoverpapersonawiderangeoftopicsinartificialintelligenceHisotherbooksincludeTheUseofKnowledgeinAnalogyandInductionand(withEricWefald)DotheRightThing:StudiesinLimitedRationalityPeterNorvigiscurrentlyDirectorofResearchatGoogle,Inc,andwasthedirectorresponsibleforthecoreWebsearchalgorithmsfromtoHeisaFellowoftheAmericanAssociationforArtificialIntelligenceandtheAssociationforComputingMachineryPreviously,hewasheadoftheComputationalSciencesDivisionatNASAAmesResearchCenter,whereheoversawNASA’sresearchanddevelopmentinartificialintelligenceandrobotics,andchiefscientistatJunglee,wherehehelpeddeveloponeofthefirstInternetinformationextractionservicesHereceivedaBSinappliedmathematicsfromBrownUniversityandaPhDincomputersciencefromtheUniversityofCaliforniaatBerkeleyHereceivedtheDistinguishedAlumniandEngineeringInnovationawardsfromBerkeleyandtheExceptionalAchievementMedalfromNASAHehasbeenaprofessorattheUniversityofSouthernCaliforniaandaresearchfacultymemberatBerkeleyHisotherbooksareParadigmsofAIProgramming:CaseStudiesinCommonLispandVerbmobil:ATranslationSystemforFacetoFaceDialogandIntelligentHelpSystemsforUNIXxiiContentsIArtificialIntelligenceIntroductionWhatIsAITheFoundationsofArtificialIntelligenceTheHistoryofArtificialIntelligenceTheStateoftheArtSummary,BibliographicalandHistoricalNotes,ExercisesIntelligentAgentsAgentsandEnvironmentsGoodBehavior:TheConceptofRationality

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