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首页 Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture.pdf

Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture.pdf

Encyclopedia of Contemporary Fr…

上传者: 蹲墙头等红杏 2012-11-20 评分 3 0 23 3 103 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culturepdf》,可适用于外语资料领域,主题内容包含ENCYCLOPEDIAOFCONTEMPORARYFRENCHCULTUREENCYCLOPEDIAOFCONTEMPORARYFRENCHCUL符等。

ENCYCLOPEDIAOFCONTEMPORARYFRENCHCULTUREENCYCLOPEDIAOFCONTEMPORARYFRENCHCULTUREEditedbyAlexHughesandKeithReaderLondonandNewYorkFirstpublishedbyRoutledgeNewFetterLane,LondonECPEEWestthStreet,NewYork,NYThiseditionpublishedintheTaylorFranciseLibrary,RoutledgeAllrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereprintedorreproducedorutilizedinanyformorbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopyingandrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutpermissioninwritingfromthepublishersBritishLibraryCataloguinginPublicationDataAcataloguerecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataEncyclopediaofcontemporaryFrenchcultureeditedbyAlexHughesandKeithReaderpcmIncludesbibliographicalreferencesandindexFranceCivilization–EncyclopediasFrancePopularcultureEncyclopediasIHughes,AlexIIReader,KeithDCE–CIP’–dcISBNMasterebookISBNISBN(AdobeeReaderFormat)ISBN(PrintEdition)vContentsEditorialteamviListofcontributorsviiPrefacexIntroductionxiAcknowledgementsxiiiClassifiedcontentslistxivEncyclopediaIndexviGeneraleditorsAlexHughesUniversityofBirmingham,UKKeithReaderUniversityofNewcastleuponTyne,UKConsultanteditorsDavidBradbyRoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondon,UKVerenaAndermattConleyMiamiUniversity,USASusanHaywardUniversityofExeter,UKNicholasHewittUniversityofNottingham,UKBrianNelsonMonashUniversity,AustraliaIanPickupUniversityofBirmingham,UKSteveUngarUniversityofIowa,USAJanWindebankUniversityofSheffield,UKMichaelWortonUniversityCollegeLondon,UKEditorialteamviiListofcontributorsElzaAdamowiczQueenMaryandWestfieldCollegeLondonDennisAgerAstonUniversityRobertAldrichUniversityofSydneyLaurenceBellUniversityofSurreyJenniferBirkettUniversityofBirminghamMichaelBishopDalhousieUniversityCraigBluntUniversityofBirminghamSophieBoyronUniversityofBirminghamWilliamCCalinUniversityofFloridaKayChadwickUniversityofLiverpoolSusanCollardUniversityofSussexTomConleyHarvardUniversityMartynCornickUniversityofBirminghamBéatriceDamammeGilbertUniversityofBirminghamHughDaunceyUniversityofNewcastleuponTyneRichardDerderianUniversityofNorthCarolinaPhilipDineLoughboroughUniversityDavidDrakeMiddlesexUniversityDavidEllisonUniversityofMiamiElizabethEzraUniversityofStirlingPatrickffrenchUniversityCollegeLondonJillForbesUniversityofBristolCathyFowlerSouthamptonInstituteJohnnieGrattonUniversityCollegeDublinVérèneGrieshaberUniversityCollegeLondonRenateGüntherUniversityofSheffieldRonHallmarkUniversityofBirminghamSeánHandOxfordBrookesUniversityLindaHantraisLoughboroughUniversityPeterHawkinsUniversityofBristolSusanHaywardUniversityofExeterOwenHeathcoteUniversityofBradfordNicholasHewittUniversityofNottinghamLynnAHigginsDartmouthCollege(USA)ListofcontributorsviiiGillHowieLiverpoolUniversityAlexHughesUniversityofBirminghamSimeonHunterUnitedKingdomLaïlaIbnlfassiLondonGuildhallUniversityKateInceUniversityofBirminghamBrianJenkinsUniversityofPortsmouthChristopherJohnsonKeeleUniversityRogerKainUniversityofExeterDebraKellyUniversityofWestminsterMichaelKellyUniversityofSouthamptonWilliamKiddUniversityofStirlingEleonoreKofmanNottinghamTrentUniversityRaymondKuhnQueenMaryandWestfieldCollegeDavidLooseleyUniversityofLeedsLucyMcKeeverSunderlandUniversityMarkMcKinneyMiamiUniversityJeanMainilUniversityofNottinghamMargaretMajumdarUniversityofGlamorganJohnMarksLoughboroughUniversityBillMarshallUniversityofSouthamptonAnnMillerLeicesterUniversityPamMooresAstonUniversity†PeterMorrisAstonUniversityFrançoisNectouxKingstonUniversityPatrickO’DonovanUniversityCollegeCorkGeorgePaizisUniversityCollegeLondonAlanPedleyUniversityofExeterIanPickupUniversityofBirminghamGérardPouletUniversityofExeterPhilPowrieUniversityofNewcastleuponTyneKeithReaderUniversityofNewcastleuponTyne†JoReedUniversityofBirminghamMireilleRoselloUniversityofNottinghamGerardPaulSharplingUniversityofBirminghamMichaelSheringhamRoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondonMaxSilvermanUniversityofLeedsAnnieSparksRoyalHolloway,UniversityofLondonJudithStillUniversityofNottinghamixListofcontributorsWalterAStraussCaseWesternReserveUniversityAnthonySutcliffeUniversityofLeicesterValerieSwalesUniversityofPortsmouthJoeSzarkaUniversityofBathCarrieTarrThamesValleyUniversityUrsulaTiddUniversityofSalfordChrisTinkerUniversityofBirminghamDATrotterUniversityofWales,AberystwythStevenUngarUniversityofIowaJoëlleVitielloMacalesterCollege,SaintPaulKhursheedWadiaUniversityofWolverhamptonPeterWagstaffUniversityofBathFionaWarneUniversityofBirminghamColvilleWemyssMA,UniversityofStAndrewsSteveWhartonUniversityofBathNicolaWhiteKingstonUniversityCarolWilcoxSouthKentCollegeJamesWilliamsUniversityofKentatCanterburyJanWindebankUniversityofSheffieldMichaelWortonUniversityCollegeLondonxPrefaceInanagewhenFrancehasconsolidateditspositionastheleadingEuropeandestinationforEnglishspeakingholidaymakers,touristsandsecondhomeowners,retaineditsprestigeastheinternationalcapitalofgastronomy,wineproduction,chicandsexappeal,andbredfilmdirectorstorivalHollywoodandsingersongwriterswithoutequalontheworldstage,ithasalsobecomeanobjectofprofoundsuspicionformanynonFrenchcommentatorsontheintellectuallifeFrenchideasareproducedinafaddishandfashionconsciousclimate,weareoftentold,prominentphilosophersandsocialtheoristsaretreatedwithabsurdvenerationandtheirobscure,portentous,jargoninfesteddictionthreatenstorunriotthroughthehumansciences,underminingotherwisesecureBritishandNorthAmericanbastionsofclarity,goodsenseandmethodologicalrectitudeItcouldofcoursebethattheprevailingenthusiasmforFranceasasourceofpleasureiscloselylinkedtothisdistrustofFrenchideas:whilevoluptéandjouissancebelongquiteproperlyintherestaurant,thebedroomorthecinema,theyhavenoplaceinthelibraryorthelecturetheatreCoulditbethatFrenchintellectualsenjoythemselvestoomuchandtooopenlyintheeyesoftheirAnglophonedetractors,andthattheirwritingsarethereforeeasilyseenbysuchcriticsasanattempttoseduceandcorruptourimpressionableyoungInordertobeginansweringquestionsofthiskindweclearlyneedanewkindofreferenceworkonewhichtalksaboutwineandpsychoanalysis,moviemakersandmaîtresàpenser,PiafandPiagetTheentirefieldofcontemporaryFrenchcultureisalivewithmythsandcountermythsaboutFranceandFrenchnessWhilesomeoftheseareproducedathomeandthenexported,othersoriginateabroadinBritishtabloidnewspapers,say,oronNorthAmericancampusesandarethenimportedintoFranceSomuchthatisfascinatingaboutcontemporaryFranceistransmittedbygossip,hearsayandtheinsidertalkofvariousprofessionalgroupsthatithasuntilnowbeendifficultforthewouldbedemythologizertolaydownafirmfactualfoundationforhisorherenquiryThingsareevenmoreproblematicforthenewcomerBasicdocumentsareoftensurprisinglydifficulttofind,anddivisionsbetween‘high’and‘popular’culture,orbetweenthehexagonandthewiderworldoffrancophonie,haveoftenmeantthatstudentsandgeneralreadershavehadtovisitfarflungsectionsoftheirlocalreferencelibraryinordertobeginassemblingacomprehensivepictureofFrancetodayWhatKeithReader,AlexHughesandtheirteamofcontributorshaveproducedinthissplendidnewEncyclopediaisahugemultidimensionalsnapshotofaculturethathasreinventeditselfwithdizzyingrapidityinthelasthalfcenturyandshowsnosignofslowingdownTherangeoftheirbookisastonishingWithasinglemovement,thereaderisabletotravelfromtheworldofscreengoddesses(Aimée,Bardot,Deneuve)totheworldofjetsettingintellectualdemiurges(Baudrillard,Bourdieu,Derrida),fromElletoEluard,fromnuclearpowertopornography,fromagriculturetoathletics,fromthestructureofPierreReverdy’sversetothelabyrinthineandrecursivestructuresofthenewEuropeanlegislationAllthosewhostudymodernFrenchandFrancophonecultureswillbeindebttoHughesandReaderDangerousanddelectableFrancehasbeenmappedasneverbeforebetweenthecoversofthiscornucopianvolumeMalcolmBowiexiIntroductionOurEncyclopediaofContemporaryFrenchCulturereflectsthegrowinginterestinFrenchculturalstudiesthatisafeatureofthecurrentacademicandintellectualsceneItsexistenceechoes,inotherwords,thetrendtowardsabroadeningofthesyllabusforfurtherandhighereducationprogrammesinFrench,awayfromtheoncesacrosanctduooflanguageandcanonicalliterature,toincorporatesuchareasascinema,politicalandsocialinstitutions,genderbasedstudiesandcriticaltheoryMoregenerally,itwillberelevanttostudentsofareassuchasabovewhodonotnecessarilyhaveaparticularinterestinFrenchcultureperseFrenchcinemaremainsthedominantWesternnationalindustryoutsidetheUnitedStatesFrenchpoliticalhistoryandinstitutions,givenFrance’splacesinceasthefirstmodernnationstate,exerciseacontinuingfascinationfeministtheory,andcriticaltheorymoregenerally,arefrequentlynowadaysthoughtofascharacteristicallyFrenchdevelopmentsOurtextpresupposesnoknowledgeoftheFrenchlanguage,norindeedofFrance’shistoryandinstitutionsbeyondwhatmightbeexpectedoftheeducatedlayreaderofaqualitydailypaperornewsweekly,sothatitsusefulnesswillextendwelloutsidethedomainofFrenchstudiesTheEncyclopediaofContemporaryFrenchCultureisintended,aboveall,tobreaknewgroundOurproject,inproducingit,hasbeentocreateareferencevolumewhich,unlikethestandardworksofreferencethatexistwithinthecontextofFrenchstudies,bringstogethermaterialrelatingtoFrench(andfrancophone)culturedefinedinitsverybroadestsenseAreascovered,andconnected,bytheEncyclopedia’spaletteofessaytextsincludeart,cinema,economicissues,education,foodandwine,intellectuallife,linguisticissues,literature,media,music,performingarts,politicsandsociety,transport,andtechnologyWhilethechronologicalperiodtakeninbytheEncyclopediarangesfromtheendofWorldWarIIintothepresentday,wehavesoughttoweightthecontentsofmanyofouroverviewarticlestowardsthelatterHowever,somepre–materialhasbeenincludedwheredevelopmentsincontemporaryFrenchsocietywouldbedifficultorimpossibletounderstandwithoutitTheEncyclopediaiscomposedofpiecesofvaryinglengths,rangingfromfairlyextensiveshortessaystothumbnailsketchesLongerentriesare‘factsfronted’andhavelistsoftextsforfurtherreading,someofwhichareaccompaniedbyashortnoteexplainingtheircontentandorrelevanceEssaysandentriesarecarefullycross–referenced,eitherinthetextorintheseealsosectionattheendoftheentryThepurposeofthisistopermittheEncyclopedia’sreaderstopursuetheirown‘paths’throughthetextscontainedinthevolume,teasingoutconnectionsthatmightnotperhapsotherwisehavebeenselfevidentInanenterpriseofthiskind,itisimpossibletobeallinclusiveTheselectionofentriescontainedintheEncyclopediareflectsthisfact,andreflectsanumberofdecisionswhichwe,aseditors,inconsultationwithoureditorsatRoutledge,foundourselveshavingtomakeWedecided,forexample,thatitwasimportantthattheEncyclopediashouldaddressfrancophoneculture,aswellastheculturallifeofmainlandFranceanditsoverseasdépartementsandterritories(DOMTOMssuchasMartinique,GuadeloupeandLaRéunion),andthatitshouldavoiddoingsoinatokenisticmannerIssuesofspacemeant,however,thatwecouldnotengagewiththeculture(s)oflafrancophoniethetotalityofFrenchspeakingareasascomprehensivelyaswiththatofFranceitselfWeconcluded,therefore,regretfully,thatonlythosefrancophonecountrieswhicharegeographicallyclosetotheHexagoneorwhich,foravarietyofreasons,enjoycloseculturallinkswithFrance,shouldbetheobjectofscrutinyinourIntroductionxiivolumeWealsodecidedthataspectsoffrancophonecultureshouldbethesubjectoflongessaypieces,whoseinclusionanddetailwouldobviatetheneedforaproliferationofshorterentriesdevotedtoasinglefrancophonewriterartistculturalphenomenonTheinclusionomissionofentriesdevotedtopostwarwritinginFrancealsogaveuspauseforthoughtManyexcellentguidestomodernandcontemporaryFrenchandfrancophoneliteraturealreadyexist,mostnotablytherecentlyreissuedOxfordCompaniontoLiteratureinFrench(whichalso,andsignificantly,includesforthefirsttimeinitsexistenceanumberofpiecesonculturalstudiestopics)Inviewofthisfact,weelectedtobasethe‘literature’componentoftheEncyclopediaprimarilyonessaypiecesdevotedtodifferenttextualgenresforms(forexample,autobiography,committedliterature,detectivefiction,thenouveauroman,poetry,shortstorywriting,etc),ratherthantoofferacomprehensivesetofshortentriesfocusedonindividualwritersThisisnottosaythatwehavenotincludedentriesofthislattertypetheirinclusionis,however,afunctionofthecontentsofthelongeressaypiecesinwhich‘high’and‘popular’literaryformsarediscussedTheshorterindividualentriesrelatingtoliteraturehave,inotherwords,beentheobjectofsystematicselectionAnillustrationofthisisourinclusionofagoodmanyshortentriesdevotedtopostwarFrenchdramaHere,ourstrategyreflectsthefactthati)theatrerelatedmattersarethesubjectofseveralofthelongerentriesinourvolume,andii)dramaislesscomprehensively‘covered’inreferenceworksdealingwithFrenchliteraryproductionthanotherliterarygenresItisourhopethattheemphasiswhichourEncyclopediaplacesonperformingartsinFrancewillencourageresearchworkinthisarea,ofwhichtherewouldseemcurrentlytobeadearthBecause,asweexplainedabove,ourtargetreadershipstretcheswelloutsidetherealmofFrenchstudies,wehavetranslatedthetitlesofallbooksmentionedintheEncyclopedia,exceptincaseswherethetitleiseitherselfevidentoruntranslatableIfan‘official’translationexistsandisstill(asfaraswehavebeenabletoascertain)inprint,thenwehaveprecededtheFrenchtitlebyitsEnglishequivalentWehaveleftthetitlesofthefilmsintheoriginalFrench,however,exceptwhereastandardtranslation,recognizedinBritainandtheUS,existsWehaveelectednottotranslatemostfilmtitlesbecausedifferenttranslationsofthesametitleoftenexistinBritainandAmerica,andoursenseisthatincludingourowntranslationwouldservesimplytoconfusereadersTheentriesinevitablycontainnumerousreferencestoinstitutionsofvariouskindswhichitwasimpossible,forreasonsofspace,todescribeordefineThebemusedreaderwithareadingknowledgeofFrenchmayfindasinglevolumereferencework,suchasthePetitLarousseencyclopédiqueortheinvaluableQuid,helpfulinclarifyingthesePleasenotethatplacesanddatesofbirthhavebeenincludedwherevertheinformationwasreadilyavailableAlexHughesKeithReaderxiiiAcknowledgementsWeshouldliketothankallourcontributorsfortheircommitmenttothisprojectWeareparticularlygratefultothoseamongthemwhoproducedentriesdealingwiththemore‘outoftheway’areasonwhichexpertisewasnotalwayswidelyavailableColvilleWemyss,FionaCairnsandDeniseReaatRoutledgehavebeenhelpfulandlongsufferingeditors,andprovidedfirstratecounselandpracticalassistanceFinally,eachofusthankstheotherformoralsupport,constructivecriticismandendlesspatiencexivArchitecturearchitecturearchitectureunderMitterrandBercyconservationzonesLeCorbusierMalrauxactMaraisplanMontparnasseTowerPompidouCentreandtheForumdesHallesrenovationprojectsCulturalinstitutionsphenomenaAcadémieFrançaiseartsfunding(includingregional)culturalpolicyculturaltopography(Paris)iconographyLang,JacklibrariesliteraryprizesmaisonsdelacultureMalraux,Andrépublishingl’éditionyouthcultureEconomyagricultureAttali,JacquesbanksdirigismeeconomyemploymentEuropeaneconomicintegrationFourastié,JeaninformaleconomymanagementstylemanufacturingindustryminimumwagemultinationalcompaniesnationalizationandprivatizationplanningsystempublicworksregionaleconomicdevelopmentserviceindustryTapie,BernardtradetransportunionsEducationandresearcheducationministryeducation,primaryeducation,secondary:collèges,lycées,etceducation,thestateandthechurcheducationalelitism:thegrandesécolesstudentrevoltofuniversitiesFashionanddesignCardin,PierreChanel,CocoDior,ChristianfashionGaultier,JeanPaulLacroix,ChristianRykiel,SoniaSaintLaurent,YvesFilmAdjani,IsabelleAimée,AnoukArdant,FannyAutantLara,ClaudeAuteuil,DanielavancesurrecettesBalasko,JosianeBardot,BrigitteBaye,NathalieBazin,AndréBéart,EmmanuelleAlloftheentriesintheEncyclopediaarecategorizedunderthemostappropriatesubjectheading(s)SomeentriesappearundermorethanoneheadingwhererelevantClassifiedcontentslistxvClassifiedcontentslistBacker,JacquesBeineix,JeanJacquesBellon,YannickBelmondo,JeanPaulBerri,ClaudeBesson,LucbeurcinemaBinoche,JulietteBirkin,JaneBlanc,MichelBlier,BertrandBohringer,RichardBonnaire,SandrineBresson,RobertBrialy,JeanClaudeCahiersducinémaCarax,LéosChabrol,ClaudecinemacinémadebanlieuecinémadequalitéClément,RenéClouzot,HenriGeorgesCollard,CyrilDaney,SergeDelon,AlainDemy,JacquesDeneuve,CatherineDenis,ClaireDepardieu,GérardDevers,ClaireDewaere,PatrickdocumentariesDoillon,JacquesEustache,Jeanfrancophonecinema:Belgiumfrancophonecinema:NorthAfricafrancophonecinema:SwitzerlandFunès,LouisdegaycinemaGodard,JeanLucHuppert,IsabelleKarina,AnnaKieslowski,KrzysztofKurys,DianeLanglois,HenriLéaud,JeanPierreliteraryadaptationMalle,LouisMarceau,SophieMelville,JeanPierreMetz,ChristianMiéville,AnneMarieMiouMiouMnouchkine,ArianeMoreau,JeanneNationalCinematographicCentreNoiret,PhilippeNouvelleVagueOphuls,MarcelPhilipe,GérardPialat,MauricePiccoli,MichelPoiré,JeanMariePrévert,JacquesRappeneau,JeanPaulRenoir,JeanResnais,AlainRivette,JacquesRohmer,ÉricRouch,JeanSautet,ClaudeSeberg,JeanSerreau,ColineSeyrig,DelphineSignoret,SimonestarsTati,Jac

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