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首页 剑桥大学出版社英文版 托克维尔 《旧制度与大革命》

剑桥大学出版社英文版 托克维尔 《旧制度与大革命》

剑桥大学出版社英文版 托克维尔 《旧制度与大革命》

LebenDunn
2012-11-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《剑桥大学出版社英文版 托克维尔 《旧制度与大革命》pdf》,可适用于高等教育领域

ThispageintentionallyleftblankTocqueville:TheAncienRégimeAndTheFRenchRevoluTionThisnewtranslationofanundisputedclassicaimstobebothaccurateandreadableTocqueville’ssubtletyofstyleandprofundityofthoughtofferachallengetoreadersaswellastotranslatorsAsbothaTocquevillescholarandanawardwinningtranslator,Arthurgoldhammerisuniquelyqualifiedforthetaskinhisintroduction,JonelsterdrawsonhisrecentworktolayoutthestructureofTocqueville’sargumentReaderswillappreciateTheAncienRégimeandtheFrenchRevolutionforitssenseofironyaswellastragedy,foritsdeepinsightsintopoliticalpsychology,andforitsimpassioneddefenseoflibertyjonelsterhastaughtattheuniversitédeParisviii,theuniversityofoslo,theuniversityofchicago,columbiauniversity,andthecollègedeFranceheistheauthoroftwentythreebookstranslatedintoseventeenlanguages,includingUlyssesandtheSirens(),SourGrapes(),MakingSenseofMarx(),AlchemiesoftheMind(),ExplainingSocialBehavior(cambridge),Ledésintéressement(),AlexisdeTocqueville:TheFirstSocialScientist(cambridge),andL’Irrationalité()ProfessorelsterisamemberoftheAmericanAcademyofArtsandSciences,thenorwegianAcademyofScience,andAcademiaeuropaeaandisacorrespondingFellowoftheBritishAcademyarthurgoldhammerhastranslatedmorethanahundredworksfromFrench,includingTocqueville’sDemocracyinAmericaheisathreetimerecipientoftheFrenchAmericanFoundationtranslationprizeFrancemadehimachevalierdel’ordredesArtsetdeslettres,andtheAcadémieFrançaiseawardedhimitsmédailledevermeilcAmBRidgeTexTSinThehiSToRyoFPoliTicAlThoughTSeriesEditorsRaymondgeussProfessorofPhilosophy,UniversityofCambridgequentinSkinnerBarberBeaumontProfessoroftheHumanities,QueenMary,UniversityofLondoncambridgeTextsinthehistoryofPoliticalThoughtisnowfirmlyestablishedasthemajorstudenttextbookseriesinpoliticaltheoryitaimstomakeavailabletostudentsallofthemostimportanttextsinthehistoryofWesternpoliticalthought,fromancientgreecetotheearlytwentiethcenturyAllthefamiliarclassictextswillbeincluded,buttheseriesseeksatthesametimetoenlargetheconventionalcanonbyincorporatinganextensiverangeoflesswellknownworks,manyofthemneverbeforeavailableinamodernenglisheditionWhereverpossible,textsarepublishedinacompleteandunabridgedform,andtranslationsarespeciallycommissionedfortheserieseachvolumecontainsacriticalintroductiontogetherwithchronologies,biographicalsketches,aguidetofurtherreading,andanynecessaryglossariesandtextualapparatusWhencompleted,theserieswillofferanoutlineoftheentireevolutionofWesternpoliticalthoughtForalistoftitlespublishedinthisseries,pleaseseeendofbookTocqueville:TheAncienRégimeandtheFrenchRevolutionTRAnSlATedByARThuRgoldhAmmeRediTedWiThAninTRoducTionByJonelSTeRColumbiaUniversitycambridgeuniversitypresscambridge,newyork,melbourne,madrid,capeTown,Singapore,SãoPaulo,delhi,Tokyo,mexicocitycambridgeuniversityPressAvenueoftheAmericas,newyork,ny,usawwwcambridgeorginformationonthistitle:wwwcambridgeorg©translation,introduction,andeditorialmattercambridgeuniversityPressThispublicationisincopyrightSubjecttostatutoryexceptionandtotheprovisionsofrelevantcollectivelicensingagreements,noreproductionofanypartmaytakeplacewithoutthewrittenpermissionofcambridgeuniversityPressFirstpublishedPrintedintheunitedStatesofAmericaAcatalogrecordforthispublicationisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryLibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationdataTocqueville,Alexisde,–AncienrégimeetlaRévolutionenglishTocqueville:theAncienRégimeandtheFrenchRevolutionJonelsterArthurgoldhammerpcm–(cambridgeTextsinthehistoryofPoliticalThought)includesbibliographicalreferencesandindexisbn–isbn(pbk)France–history–Revolution,––causesielster,Jon,–editoriigoldhammer,Arthur,–translatoriiiTitledct–dcisbnhardbackisbnPaperbackcambridgeuniversityPresshasnoresponsibilityforthepersistenceoraccuracyofurlsforexternalorthirdpartyinternetWebsitesreferredtointhispublicationanddoesnotguaranteethatanycontentonsuchWebsitesis,orwillremain,accurateorappropriateWithgratefulacknowledgmenttoJonElster,whoreadtheentiretextofthetranslationandimproveditimmeasurably–AGixcontentsIntroductionbyJonElsterpagexiiiBibliographicalNotexxixChronologyxxxiForewordBookiicontradictoryJudgmentsoftheRevolutionatitsinceptioniThattheFundamentalandFinalPurposeoftheRevolutionWasnot,asSomehaveThought,todestroyReligiousAuthorityandWeakenPoliticalAuthorityihowtheFrenchRevolutionWasaPoliticalRevolutionThatProceededinthemannerofReligiousRevolutions,andWhyihowAlmostAllofeuropehadexactlytheSameinstitutions,andhowThoseinstitutionsWerecrumblingeverywhereiWhatWastheessentialAchievementoftheFrenchRevolutionBookiiiiWhyFeudalPrerogativeshadBecomemoreodioustothePeopleinFranceThanAnywhereelseContentsxiiWhyAdministrativecentralizationisaninstitutionoftheAncienRégimeandnot,AsSomeSay,theWorkoftheRevolutionorempireiihowWhatTodayiscalledAdministrativeTutelageisaninstitutionoftheAncienRégimeiihowAdministrativeJusticeandtheimmunityofPublicofficialsWereinstitutionsoftheAncienRégimeiihowcentralizationWasThusAbletoinsinuateitselfamongtheoldPowersandSupplantThemWithoutdestroyingThemiionAdministrativemoresundertheAncienRégimeiihowFrance,ofAllthecountriesofeurope,WasAlreadytheoneinWhichthecapitalhadAchievedthegreatestPreponderanceovertheProvincesandmostFullySubsumedtheentirecountryiiThatFranceWasthecountryWherePeoplehadBecomemostAlikeiihowmenSoSimilarWeremoreSeparateThanever,dividedintoSmallgroupsAlienandindifferenttooneAnotheriihowthedestructionofPoliticallibertyandtheSeparationofclassescausednearlyAllthemaladiesThatProvedFataltotheAncienRégimeiiontheKindoflibertytoBeFoundundertheAncienRégimeanditsinfluenceontheRevolutioniihow,despitetheProgressofcivilization,theconditionoftheFrenchPeasantWasSometimesWorseintheeighteenthcenturyThanithadBeenintheThirteenthBookiiiiiihow,Towardthemiddleoftheeighteenthcentury,menoflettersBecamethecountry’sleadingPoliticians,andtheeffectsThatFollowedfromThisiiihowirreligionWasAbletoBecomeageneralanddominantPassionineighteenthcenturyFrance,andhowitinfluencedthecharacteroftheRevolutioniiihowtheFrenchWantedReformsBeforeTheyWantedlibertiesContentsxiiiiThattheReignoflouisxviWasthemostProsperouseraoftheoldmonarchy,andhowThatveryProsperityhastenedtheRevolutioniiihowAttemptstoRelievethePeopleStirredThemtoRevoltiiionSomePracticesThathelpedthegovernmentcompletethePeople’sRevolutionaryeducationiiihowagreatAdministrativeRevolutionPrecededthePoliticalRevolution,andontheconsequencesithadiiihowtheRevolutionemergednaturallyfromtheForegoingAppendix:onthePaysd’état,andinParticularlanguedocNotesIndexxiiiintroductionTheAncienRégimeandtheFrenchRevolution(AR)isoneofthebestandbestknownworksofhistoryeverwrittenSomemightobjectthatitdoesnotreallybelongtothegenreofhistory,asitcontainsnonarrativeintheopeningsentencesofthework,Tocquevillehimselfasserts,“ThisbookisnotahistoryoftheFrenchRevolution,whichhasbeenrecountedtoobrilliantlyformetocontemplatedoingitagainitisratherastudyofthatRevolution”AshealsoexplainsintheForeword,heintendedtowriteasecondvolumethatwouldincludeanarrativeoftheRevolutionitselfhisdraftsforthatvolumeareabsorbinglyinteresting,andishallsayabitaboutthemlaterThepossibleobjectioncanbesustainedonlyifonehasaneedlesslypuristconceptionofhistoricalwritingFrenchhistoriansinthetwentiethcenturyoftencontrastedthehistoiredelalongueduréewiththehistoireévénementielle,thelongtermstudyofinstitutionalandculturalchangewiththeshorttermnarrativeofactionsandeventsARcertainlyspansalongperiod,fromcharlesviiinthefifteenthcenturytotheyearsimmediatelybeforetheRevolutionTocquevilleshows,forinstance,howaresourcefulnobilityslowlyturnedintoanimpotentaristocracy,andhowthetownsgraduallylosttheirindependenceuntilonlyahollowshellremainedinadditiontobeingastudyofthelonguedurée,ARcanbereadasaworkofstructuralanalysisandassocialscienceSincetheexpression“structuralanalysis”canbeunderstoodinmanyways,ineedtoexplainhowiuseitimagineahouseofcardssubjecttooccasionalgustsofwindAlthoughonecannottellwhenagustwillbestrongenoughtomakethestructurecrumble,norwhichcardwillbethefirsttofall,onecansaywith“moralcertainty,”beyondareasonabledoubt,thatthehousewillfallIntroductionxivSimilarly,ithasbeensaidthatthesubprimemortgagecrisiswas“anaccidentwaitingtohappen”WecanunderstandthetitleofthefinalchapterofAR–“howtheRevolutionemergednaturallyfromtheForegoing”–alongthesamelinesAsishallexplain,Tocquevillearguedthattheabsolutemonarchyhad,infact,becomeahouseofcardsTheexacttriggerofitscollapsewascontingent,butby(say)theoccurrenceofsometriggeringeventwasamoralcertaintyinalettertoWBorgiusfrom,Friedrichengelswrote,naively,“Thatnapoleon,justthatparticularcorsican,shouldhavebeenthemilitarydictatorwhomtheFrenchRepublic,exhaustedbyitsownwar,hadrenderednecessary(nötig),wasanaccidentbutthat,ifanapoleonhadbeenlacking,anotherwouldhavefilledtheplace,isprovedbythefactthatthemanhasalwaysbeenfoundassoonashebecamenecessary:caesar,Augustus,cromwell,etc”Tocquevilledidnotespousethisteleologicalformofnecessityhadhewritteningerman,hewouldhavesaidthattheoccurrenceofsomeeventthatwouldtriggertheRevolutionwasnotwendigratherthannötig–causallynecessaryratherthanneededAtthesametime,heintendedtogoon,inthesecondvolume,tostudytheparticulartriggeringeventsAsdoesanyworkofhistory,ARinvitesthequestion:didtheauthorgetitrightonanumberofspecificfactualmatters,hedidnotAsgilbertShapiroandJohnmarkoffshowinRevolutionaryDemands:AContentAnalysisoftheCahiersdeDoléanceof,TocquevilleofferedmanyunsupportedgeneralizationsaboutthegrievancebooksthatthethreeestatespreparedontheeveoftheRevolutioninhisessayonTocquevilleinInterpretingtheFrenchRevolution,FrançoisFuretfindsmanysinsofcommissionandomissioninTocqueville’streatmentoftheperiodbefore,butendorsesthefamous“Tocquevilleeffect”(seethefollowingparagraph)regardingtheimmediateprerevolutionaryperiodAsheobserves,TocquevillewassimplymuchmoreknowledgeableabouttherecentpastthanaboutthedistantpastBethisasitmay,wecanbenefitimmenselyfromARbecauseofitspowerfulcausalarguments,whichtranscendthespecifictimeandplacetowhichTocquevilleappliedthemitis,infact,aworkofsocialscienceAsistrueofotherclassicalworksofhistory,suchastheProtestantEthicandtheSpiritofCapitalismbymaxWeberorBreadandCircusesbyPaulveyne,itoffersexportablecausalmechanismsthatarebynowpartofthetoolboxofthesocialscientistThebestknownisprobablythe“TocquevilleIntroductionxveffect”–revolutionsoccurwhenconditionsareimproving,not(asmarxsometimesasserted)whentheyaregoingfrombadtoworseArelatedfruitfulideaisthatoftheineffectivenessofbothmoderaterepressionandmoderateconcessionsasresponsestosocialunrestequallyimportantinamoregeneralperspectiveistheideaof“pluralisticignorance”–theapparentconsensusthatariseswhenfewpeoplebelieveinagivendoctrine,butmostpeoplebelievethatmostpeoplebelieveit(ThisideawasalreadypresentinDemocracyinAmerica)Finally,onecancitetheideaof“secondbest”politicalsystems–oneevilcanoffsetanother,sothatifoneofthemisremoved,theoverallperformanceofthesystemwillsufferishallreturntothewaytheseideasaredeployedinARifwereadARasaworkofsocialscience,itistemptingtoasksomeslightlyanachronisticquestionsWasTocquevillearationalchoicetheoristWasheafunctionalistdidheespousemethodologicalindividualismorholismhowcanwesituatehimwithrespecttoothergreatsocialthinkerssuchasmarx,durkheim,orWeberAlthoughonecouldprobablygivereasonablymeaningfulanswerstothesequestions,ishalladdressthemonlyindirectlyinmyopinion,thecentraltaskTocquevillesetforhimselfinARwastoexplaintheRevolutionintermsofthepoliticalpsychologyoftheclassstruggleinhisanalysisoftherunuptotheRevolution,Tocqueville,likemanymarxistwriters,emphasizedthetriangularstruggleamongnobility,peasantry,andbourgeoisieunlikethem,however,hegavecenterplacetosymbolicandsubjectiveaspectsoftheconflictsratherthantoobjectiveeconomicrelationsicitesomeexamplesinthenextsectionARisalsoaworkofsocialscienceinitsextensiveuseofthecomparativemethodTocquevillewantedtoexplainnotonlywhytheRevolutionoccurredinFrancebutalsowhynosimilarupheavaltookplaceinenglandandgermanyWithinFrance,hewantedtounderstandwhyitfirsteruptedintheregionaroundParisratherthanelsewhereinhiscrosscountryaswellaswithincountryanalyses,hedeploysthepsychologicalmethodjustdescribedtoarguethateventhoughexploitationandoppressionwereobjectivelylighterintherevolutionaryareas,theburdenswereperceivedtobeheavierintheseregionsTosetoutthestructureofARanditsrelationtotheplannedsecondvolume,itmaybeusefultoadoptlawrenceStone’sterminologyinTheCausesoftheEnglishRevolution,wherehedistinguishespreconditionsIntroductionxvi(–),precipitants(–),andtriggers(–)ifweapplytheschematoAR,wecansay,inlinewithmyearlierremarks,thatthepreconditionsmadetheRevolutionpossible,whiletheprecipitantsmadeitnecessaryinthesensethatsomeeventsoractionswouldpredictablyoccurtotriggeritThepreconditions,discussedinBookii,wereestablishedovertheperiodfromtoTheprecipitants,thetopicofBookiii,developedfromtoThetriggeringevents,discussedinthenotesfortheplannedsecondvolume,occurredfromtoThepreconditionsoftheRevolutioncanbesummarizedinsomewordsspokentonapoleonbythepoetFrançoisAndrieux:“onnes’appuiequesurcequirésiste”(youcanleanonlyonwhatoffersresistance)inanutshell,TocquevilleclaimedthatthesuccessiveFrenchkingsweresosuccessfulinreducingthenobilityandthebourgeoisietoastateofpoliticalimpotencethatwhenlouisxvineededtheirhelptoresisttheRevolution,theyhadnothingtooffer:“nothingwasleftthatcouldobstructthegovernment,noranythingthatcouldshoreitup”(p)onlyintheWestofFrance,wherethenobleshadresistedthesummonsofthekingtocometothecourt,didtheycometohisassistance:“TheletterofoneintendantwhorespondedtothequeryhassurvivedhecomplainsthatthenoblesofhisprovincearepleasedtoremainwiththeirpeasantsratherthanfulfilltheirobligationsatcourtitisworthnotingthattheprovinceinquestionwasAnjou,laterknownasthevendéeThenobleswhoaresaidtohaverefusedtodotheirdutytowardthekingweretheonlyonesinFrancewhowouldlatertakeuparmsindefenseofthemonarchy”(pp–)AnimportantreasonfortheweaknessofthenobleswastheirisolationfromthebourgeoisiethatfollowedfromtheirtaxexemptionTocquevilleclaimedthat“ofallthewaysofdistinguishingmenandmarkingclassdivisions,unequaltaxationisthemostperniciousandthemostapttoaddisolationtoinequality,renderingbothincurable”(p)Becausetheywerenotsubjecttothesametaxes,thetwoclasseshadfewcommoninterestsandfewoccasionstotakeconcertedactionAlthoughTocquevilledoesnotusethephrase“divideandconquer,”itisveryclearfromhisanalysesthatthiswasthestrategyheimputedtothekings:“nearlyalltheunfortunatedefects,errors,andprejudicesihavejustdescribedoweeithertheirorigin,duration,ordevelopmenttotheskillthatmostofourkingshavehadindividingmeninordertogovernthemmoreabsolutely”(p)yetthefactthatpartycmaybenefitfromafallingoutbetweenpartiesAandBisnotbyitselfproofofintentionaldivideetimperaThereisalwaysthepossibilityofanaccidentalthirdpartybenefit,tertiusgaudensIntroductionxviiinfact,Tocquevilledoesnotofferanyproofofthemoreintentionalormachiavellianthesishisactualexplanationoftheoriginofthetaxexemptionofthenoblesreliesonaquitedifferentmechanismheassertsthatthe“cowardly”nobilityacceptedtaxexemptionasabribetoallowthekingtoimposenewtaxeswithoutcallingameetingoftheestatesgeneral“idaretoaffirmthatonthedaythenation,tiredoftheinterminabledisordersthathadaccompaniedthecaptivityofKingJohnandthedementiaofcharlesvi,allowedkingstolevyageneraltaxwithoutitsconsent,andwhenthenobilitywascowardlyenoughtoallowtheThirdestatetobetaxedprovidedthatitremainedexempt–onthatdaytheseedwassownofpracticallyallthevicesandabusesthatravagedtheAncienRégimefortheremainderofitsexistence”(p)Asanadditionalexplanatoryfactor,Tocquevillenotesthatwhencharlesviifirstestablishedthetaille(alandtax)onanationalbasis,itwouldhavebeendangeroustoimposeitonthenobles:“Whenthekingattemptedtolevytaxesonhisownauthorityforthefirsttime,herealizedthatitwouldbenecessaryinitiallytochooseonethatdidnotappeartofalldirectlyonnobles,becauseinthosedaystheyconstitutedaclassthatstoodasadangerousrivaltothemonarchyandwouldneverhavetoleratedaninnovationsoprejudicialtothemselveshethereforechoseataxfromwhichtheywereexempt:thetaille”(p)mo

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剑桥大学出版社英文版 托克维尔 《旧制度与大革命》

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