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网络、群体与市场.pdf

网络、群体与市场

爪爪
2012-10-19 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《网络、群体与市场pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

Networks,Crowds,andMarkets:ReasoningaboutaHighlyConnectedWorldDavidEasleyDeptofEconomicsCornellUniversityJonKleinbergDeptofComputerScienceCornellUniversityCambridgeUniversityPress,Draftversion:June,ContentsPrefaceiOverviewAspectsofNetworksCentralThemesandTopicsIGraphTheoryandSocialNetworksGraphsBasicDefinitionsPathsandConnectivityDistanceandBreadthFirstSearchNetworkDatasets:AnOverviewExercisesStrongandWeakTiesTriadicClosureTheStrengthofWeakTiesTieStrengthandNetworkStructureinLargeScaleDataTieStrength,SocialMedia,andPassiveEngagementClosure,StructuralHoles,andSocialCapitalAdvancedMaterial:BetweennessMeasuresandGraphPartitioningExercisesNetworksinTheirSurroundingContextsHomophilyMechanismsUnderlyingHomophily:SelectionandSocialInfluenceAffiliationTrackingLinkFormationinOnLineDataASpatialModelofSegregationExercisesCONTENTSPositiveandNegativeRelationshipsStructuralBalanceCharacterizingtheStructureofBalancedNetworksApplicationsofStructuralBalanceAWeakerFormofStructuralBalanceAdvancedMaterial:GeneralizingtheDefinitionofStructuralBalanceExercisesIIGameTheoryGamesWhatisaGameReasoningaboutBehaviorinaGameBestResponsesandDominantStrategiesNashEquilibriumMultipleEquilibria:CoordinationGamesMultipleEquilibria:TheHawkDoveGameMixedStrategiesMixedStrategies:ExamplesandEmpiricalAnalysisParetoOptimalityandSocialOptimalityAdvancedMaterial:DominatedStrategiesandDynamicGamesExercisesEvolutionaryGameTheoryFitnessasaResultofInteractionEvolutionarilyStableStrategiesAGeneralDescriptionofEvolutionarilyStableStrategiesRelationshipBetweenEvolutionaryandNashEquilibriaEvolutionarilyStableMixedStrategiesExercisesModelingNetworkTrafficusingGameTheoryTrafficatEquilibriumBraess’sParadoxAdvancedMaterial:TheSocialCostofTrafficatEquilibriumExercisesAuctionsTypesofAuctionsWhenareAuctionsAppropriateRelationshipsbetweenDifferentAuctionFormatsSecondPriceAuctionsFirstPriceAuctionsandOtherFormatsCommonValuesandTheWinner’sCurseguannanHighlightCONTENTSAdvancedMaterial:BiddingStrategiesinFirstPriceandAllPayAuctionsExercisesIIIMarketsandStrategicInteractioninNetworksMatchingMarketsBipartiteGraphsandPerfectMatchingsValuationsandOptimalAssignmentsPricesandtheMarketClearingPropertyConstructingaSetofMarketClearingPricesHowDoesthisRelatetoSingleItemAuctionsAdvancedMaterial:AProofoftheMatchingTheoremExercisesNetworkModelsofMarketswithIntermediariesPriceSettinginMarketsAModelofTradeonNetworksEquilibriainTradingNetworksFurtherEquilibriumPhenomena:AuctionsandRippleEffectsSocialWelfareinTradingNetworksTraderProfitsReflectionsonTradewithIntermediariesExercisesBargainingandPowerinNetworksPowerinSocialNetworksExperimentalStudiesofPowerandExchangeResultsofNetworkExchangeExperimentsAConnectiontoBuyerSellerNetworksModelingTwoPersonInteraction:TheNashBargainingSolutionModelingTwoPersonInteraction:TheUltimatumGameModelingNetworkExchange:StableOutcomesModelingNetworkExchange:BalancedOutcomesAdvancedMaterial:AGameTheoreticApproachtoBargainingExercisesIVInformationNetworksandtheWorldWideWebTheStructureoftheWebTheWorldWideWebInformationNetworks,Hypertext,andAssociativeMemoryTheWebasaDirectedGraphTheBowTieStructureoftheWebCONTENTSTheEmergenceofWebExercisesLinkAnalysisandWebSearchSearchingtheWeb:TheProblemofRankingLinkAnalysisusingHubsandAuthoritiesPageRankApplyingLinkAnalysisinModernWebSearchApplicationsbeyondtheWebAdvancedMaterial:SpectralAnalysis,RandomWalks,andWebSearchExercisesSponsoredSearchMarketsAdvertisingTiedtoSearchBehaviorAdvertisingasaMatchingMarketEncouragingTruthfulBiddinginMatchingMarkets:TheVCGPrincipleAnalyzingtheVCGProcedure:TruthTellingasaDominantStrategyTheGeneralizedSecondPriceAuctionEquilibriaoftheGeneralizedSecondPriceAuctionAdQualityComplexQueriesandInteractionsAmongKeywordsAdvancedMaterial:VCGPricesandtheMarketClearingPropertyExercisesVNetworkDynamics:PopulationModelsInformationCascadesFollowingtheCrowdASimpleHerdingExperimentBayes’Rule:AModelofDecisionMakingUnderUncertaintyBayes’RuleintheHerdingExperimentASimple,GeneralCascadeModelSequentialDecisionMakingandCascadesLessonsfromCascadesExercisesNetworkEffectsTheEconomyWithoutNetworkEffectsTheEconomywithNetworkEffectsStability,Instability,andTippingPointsADynamicViewoftheMarketIndustrieswithNetworkGoodsMixingIndividualEffectswithPopulationLevelEffectsAdvancedMaterial:NegativeExternalitiesandTheElFarolBarProblemCONTENTSExercisesPowerLawsandRichGetRicherPhenomenaPopularityasaNetworkPhenomenonPowerLawsRichGetRicherModelsTheUnpredictabilityofRichGetRicherEffectsTheLongTailTheEffectofSearchToolsandRecommendationSystemsAdvancedMaterial:AnalysisofRichGetRicherProcessesExercisesVINetworkDynamics:StructuralModelsCascadingBehaviorinNetworksDiffusioninNetworksModelingDiffusionthroughaNetworkCascadesandClustersDiffusion,Thresholds,andtheRoleofWeakTiesExtensionsoftheBasicCascadeModelKnowledge,Thresholds,andCollectiveActionAdvancedMaterial:TheCascadeCapacityExercisesTheSmallWorldPhenomenonSixDegreesofSeparationStructureandRandomnessDecentralizedSearchModelingtheProcessofDecentralizedSearchEmpiricalAnalysisandGeneralizedModelsCorePeripheryStructuresandDifficultiesinDecentralizedSearchAdvancedMaterial:AnalysisofDecentralizedSearchExercisesEpidemicsDiseasesandtheNetworksthatTransmitThemBranchingProcessesTheSIREpidemicModelTheSISEpidemicModelSynchronizationTransientContactsandtheDangersofConcurrencyGenealogy,GeneticInheritance,andMitochondrialEveAdvancedMaterial:AnalysisofBranchingandCoalescentProcessesExercisesCONTENTSVIIInstitutionsandAggregateBehaviorMarketsandInformationMarketswithExogenousEventsHorseRaces,Betting,andBeliefsAggregateBeliefsandthe“WisdomofCrowds”PredictionMarketsandStockMarketsMarketswithEndogenousEventsTheMarketforLemonsAsymmetricInformationinOtherMarketsSignalingQualityQualityUncertaintyOnLine:ReputationSystemsandOtherMechanismsAdvancedMaterial:WealthDynamicsinMarketsExercisesVotingVotingforGroupDecisionMakingIndividualPreferencesVotingSystems:MajorityRuleVotingSystems:PositionalVotingArrow’sImpossibilityTheoremSinglePeakedPreferencesandtheMedianVoterTheoremVotingasaFormofInformationAggregationInsincereVotingforInformationAggregationJuryDecisionsandtheUnanimityRuleSequentialVotingandtheRelationtoInformationCascadesAdvancedMaterial:AProofofArrow’sImpossibilityTheoremExercisesPropertyRightsExternalitiesandtheCoaseTheoremTheTragedyoftheCommonsIntellectualPropertyExercisesPrefaceOverthepastdecadetherehasbeenagrowingpublicfascinationwiththecomplex“connectedness”ofmodernsocietyThisconnectednessisfoundinmanyincarnations:intherapidgrowthoftheInternetandtheWeb,intheeasewithwhichglobalcommunicationnowtakesplace,andintheabilityofnewsandinformationaswellasepidemicsandfinancialcrisestospreadaroundtheworldwithsurprisingspeedandintensityThesearephenomenathatinvolvenetworks,incentives,andtheaggregatebehaviorofgroupsofpeopletheyarebasedonthelinksthatconnectusandthewaysinwhicheachofourdecisionscanhavesubtleconsequencesfortheoutcomesofeveryoneelseMotivatedbythesedevelopmentsintheworld,therehasbeenacomingtogetherofmultiplescientificdisciplinesinanefforttounderstandhowhighlyconnectedsystemsoperateEachdisciplinehascontributedtechniquesandperspectivesthatarecharacteristicallyitsown,andtheresultingresearcheffortexhibitsanintriguingblendofthesedifferentflavorsFromcomputerscienceandappliedmathematicshascomeaframeworkforreasoningabouthowcomplexityarises,oftenunexpectedly,insystemsthatwedesignfromeconomicshascomeaperspectiveonhowpeople’sbehaviorisaffectedbyincentivesandbytheirexpectationsaboutthebehaviorofothersandfromsociologyandthesocialscienceshavecomeinsightsintothecharacteristicstructuresandinteractionsthatarisewithingroupsandpopulationsTheresultingsynthesisofideassuggeststhebeginningsofanewareaofstudy,focusingonthephenomenathattakeplacewithincomplexsocial,economic,andtechnologicalsystemsThisbookgrewoutofacoursethatwedevelopedatCornell,designedtointroducethistopicanditsunderlyingideastoabroadstudentaudienceatanintroductorylevelThecentralconceptsarefundamentalandaccessibleones,buttheyaredispersedacrosstheresearchliteraturesofthemanydifferentfieldscontributingtothetopicTheprincipalgoalofthisbookisthereforetobringtheessentialideastogetherinasingleunifiedtreatment,andtopresenttheminawaythatrequiresaslittlebackgroundknowledgeaspossibleDEasleyandJKleinbergNetworks,Crowds,andMarkets:ReasoningaboutaHighlyConnectedWorldCambridgeUniversityPress,Draftversion:June,iiiPREFACEOverviewThebookisintendedtobeusedattheintroductoryundergraduatelevel,andassuchithasnoformalprerequisitesbeyondalevelofcomfortwithbasicmathematicaldefinitionsataprecalculus

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