关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Osprey Raid 012 Roughshod Through Dixie – Grier…

Osprey Raid 012 Roughshod Through Dixie – Grierson’s Raid 1863 (2010).pdf

Osprey Raid 012 Roughshod Throu…

smartguy 2012-09-27 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《Osprey Raid 012 Roughshod Through Dixie – Grierson’s Raid 1863 (2010)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ROUGHSHODTHROUGHDIXIEGrierson’sRaidMARKLARDASFirstpublishedinGreatBritaini符等。

ROUGHSHODTHROUGHDIXIEGrierson’sRaidMARKLARDASFirstpublishedinGreatBritaininbyOspreyPublishing,MidlandHouse,WestWay,Botley,Oxford,OXPH,UK–rdSt,Suite,LongIslandCity,NY,USAEmail:infoospreypublishingcomOspreyPublishingLtdAllrightsreservedApartfromanyfairdealingforthepurposeofprivatestudy,research,criticismorreview,aspermittedundertheCopyright,DesignsandPatentsAct,,nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrical,chemical,mechanical,optical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthecopyrightownerInquiriesshouldbeaddressedtothePublishersPrintISBN:PDFebookISBN:Pagelayoutby:Bounfordcom,Cambridge,UKIndexbyMargaretVaudreyTypesetinSabonMapsbyBounfordcom,Cambridge,UKDBEVsbyAlanGillilandOriginatedbyPPSGrasmereLtd,Leeds,UKPrintedinChinathroughWorldprintACIPcatalogrecordforthisbookisavailablefromtheBritishLibraryTHEWOODLANDTRUSTOspreyPublishingissupportingtheWoodlandTrust,theUK'sleadingwoodlandconservationcharity,byfundingthededicationoftreesAUTHOR’SACKNOWLEDGMENTSIwouldliketothankJaneEvans,thelibrarianattheEnterprisePublicLibrary,whogenerouslyprovidedhertimetoobtainarchivalmaterialsabouttheappearanceofEnterprise,MississippiatthetimeoftheAmericanCivilWarIwouldalsoliketothankKayJorgensonofTheArtillerymanmagazine,andJimBenderforhelpwithinformationaboutandaphotooftheWoodruffgunAUTHOR’SNOTEThefollowingabbreviationsindicatethesourcesoftheillustrationsusedinthisvolume:MOA–TheMakingofAmericaArchives,CornellUniversityLOC–LibraryofCongress,Washington,DCAC–Author’sCollectionOthersourcesarelistedinfullDEDICATIONThisbookisdedicatedtomyfriendsattheHelenHallLibraryinLeagueCity,TXLibrariansarearesearcher’sbestfriendsFORACATALOGUEOFALLBOOKSPUBLISHEDBYOSPREYMILITARYANDAVIATIONPLEASECONTACT:OspreyDirect,coRandomHouseDistributionCenter,HahnRoad,Westminster,MDEmail:uscustomerserviceospreypublishingcomOspreyDirect,TheBookServiceLtd,DistributionCentre,ColchesterRoad,FratingGreen,Colchester,Essex,CODWEmail:customerserviceospreypublishingcomwwwospreypublishingcomOspreyPublishingAccesstothisbookisnotdigitallyrestrictedInreturn,weaskyouthatyouuseitforpersonal,noncommercialpurposesonlyPleasedon’tuploadthispdftoapeertopeersite,emailittoeveryoneyouknow,orresellitOspreyPublishingreservesallrightstoitsdigitalcontentandnopartoftheseproductsmaybecopied,storedinaretrievalsystemortransmittedinanyformbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,recordingorotherwise(exceptaspermittedhere),withoutthewrittenpermissionofthepublisherPleasesupportourcontinuingbookpublishingprogrammebyusingthispdfresponsiblyCONTENTSINTRODUCTIONORIGINSINITIALSTRATEGYTHEPLANTHERAIDANALYSISCONCLUSIONBIBLIOGRAPHYINTRODUCTIONTheUnionpatrolrodecautiouslynorthofBatonRougeItwasMay,Earlierthatday,picketsoutsideBatonRougehadstoppedasleepingcavalrymanthatapproachedtheirlinesThemanclaimedtobeanofficerfromanIllinoiscavalryregimentButtherewerenoIllinoisunitsintheUnionArmy’sDepartmentoftheGulfThoseregimentscamefromMassachusettsorNewYork,withafewLouisianaregimentsraisedfromlocalloyalistsTheriderhadspunawildstory,claimingthathisbrigadehadriddenthelengthofMississippi,fromTennesseetoLouisianaHeconvincedtheofficercommandingUnionforcesinBatonRouge,GeneralChristopherAuger,therewassomethingbehindhisstoryConfederateforcesnorthofthelineheldbyUnionforcesinLouisianaweremovingaroundfranticallySomethinghadstirredthemupWildrumorswereflyingaroundAugersenttwocompaniesofcavalrytoinvestigateunderCapitanGodfreyoftheFirstLouisianaCavalry(US)Astheyapproachedaplantationinthedebatablegroundbetweenthelines,Godfreysawacolonelcomeoutoftheplantationhouse,wavingahandkerchiefThecolonelintroducedhimselfasBenjaminGrierson,commandingtheFirstBrigadeoftheCavalryDivision,ArmyoftheTennesseeThepreviousnighttheunithadbrokenthroughthelastConfederateforcesbetweenthebrigadeandUnionheldBatonRougeRatherthanriskblunderingintofriendlyfire,Griersonhaltedthemarchattheplantation,threemilesfromtheConfederateandsixmilesfromtheUnionlinesScoutssenttomakecontactwithUnionforcesincludedtheunfortunateorderlywhohadfallenasleep,tobecarriedtotheUnionpicketsbyhishorseItwashardlysurprisingthatthemanhadfallenasleepThebrigadehadspentdaysbehindenemylines,andspentvirtuallythelasthoursawakeinthesaddleTheyweredeadontheirfeetWhilewaitingforrepresentativesfromAuger’sgarrison,Grierson,aformermusicteacherandbandleader,kepthimselfawakebyplayingapianointheparloroftheplantationhouseAsaresultoftheraidBenjaminGriersonbecameacelebrityintheNorthHereafrontpageillustrationthatappearedinHarpersWeeklydepictsahighlyromanticizedGriersonasacavalier(LOC)IntroductionGodfreystillinitiallyfoundthestoryGriersonrelatedhardtocreditGrierson,thetwocavalryregimentswithhim,andabatteryoflightguns,hadstartedfromLaGrange,TennesseeThevariousdetachmentshadriddenthroughovermilesofConfederateterritory,destroyedtomilesofrailroadtracks,severalbridgesandculverts,andcuttelegraphlinesatnumerousplacesYetGibsonwassoonconvincedGriersonandhismenhadcomefromIllinois–theiraccentmadethatclearTherewasalsoalotofphysicalevidenceInadditiontotheIllinoistroopers,thecolumnhadnearlyrunawayblackslaves,overvehicles,frombuggiestolumberwagons,andConfederateprisonersAswell,Grierson’sforcehadmorehorsesandmulesthanithadstartedwith,collectedoverthelengthofMississippiFornow,GriersonandhismenwantednothingmorethantosleepItwasawishthatwastobedeferredWhentheyfinallyreachedBatonRouge,GeneralAugerinsistedonavictoryparadeGrierson’smenmadeanimpromptuparadethroughthestreetsofBatonRougeTheyworetheirtravelstaineduniforms,somuddyanddustythatitwashardtotelltowhicharmytheybelongedManyofthetroopershadexchangeduniformsforcivilianclothingandhatsalongtheway–theyhadleftLaGrangewithnospareclothingButthemenwerecheeredbyhastilygatheredcrowds,andserenadedbytheregimentalbandsofthecity’sgarrisonTheSixthIllinoisCavalryledtheparade,followedbytheartillery,theConfederateprisoners,andtheSeventhIllinoisCavalryBehindthesoldierscametherunawayblacks,leadingthehorsescapturedintheraidThewheeledvehiclestakenbroughtuptherear,drivenbymorerunawaysWhenGriersonandhismenfinallyarrivedatBatonRouge,mosthadnotsleptsincedawn,MayTheywerepersuadedtoparadethroughthetownbeforetheyateandfinallyrested(MOA)Grierson’sRaidThebrigadewasfinallyallowedtosleepWhentheywokeupthenextmorning,theydiscoveredthattheyhadbecomenationalheroesBenjaminGriersonandhisFirstCavalryBrigadehadjustpresentedtheUnioncausewithavictory–thefirstclearvictoryafterafrustratingsixmonthsfilledwithdefeatandstalemateGriersonandhismenhadcaughttheimaginationoftheNorth,andGriersonbecameaherooftheillustratedpressHewaslionizedasanewAchillesHisbrigadewasfêtedthroughLouisiana,honorsfollowed,andapromisedyetlongdelayedpromotiontobrigadiergeneralfinallycamethroughPerhapsthecelebrationstruckGrierson,amodestnondrinkerwithadiffidenttemperament,asexcessiveCertainlyhewasfrustratedbytheimmediateaftermathoftheraidGriersonwantedaswiftreturntotheArmyoftheTennessee’scavalrydivisionOneofthebrigade’sthreeregimentswasbackatLaGrange,havingbeendetachedtodrawoffpursuingConfederatesInstead,NathanielBanks,commandingtheDepartmentoftheGulf,hungontoGrierson’stroopersasiftheywerealuckytalismanItwouldbemonthsbeforeGrierson’sbrigadewasreunitedYettheexcessivecelebration,thehonors–evenBanks’viewofthebrigadeasagoodluckpiece–wereunderstandableGrierson’sRaidwasthemostsuccessfulUnioncavalryraidoftheCivilWar–possiblythemostsuccessfuloneithersideFornotonlyhadGrierson’sbrigadecutthroughMississippi,butalsopursuitofthecolumnhaddrawnoffthousandsofConfederatetroopsinTennessee,Mississippi,Louisiana,andAlabamaWhiletherebelswerevainlyseekingGrierson,UlyssesGrantmovedhisarmysouthofVicksburg,landingatGrandGulfBythetimethedistractedConfederatescouldturntheirattentiontotherealthreat–Grant’sArmyoftheTennessee–itwassolidlypositionedontheMississippi’seastbank,impossibletodislodgeFromthereGrantwouldmarchnorthandinvestVicksburg,capturingitonJuly,Grierson’sRaidwasnotonlymateriallysuccessful,butitachieveditsoverarchingstrategicobjectiveIntroductionVicksburganditsdefensesORIGINSRaid,ride,androadshareacommonrootInOldandMiddleEnglishthewordswereofteninterchangeableGeorgeMacDonaldFraserusedthatambiguityinthetitleofhisnovelTheCandlemassRoad–aboutaborderraidthattookplaceonCandlemassDayToridewastoraidBythetwentiethcenturytheterm“raid”definedapinpointstrikewithfixedobjectives,intricatelyplannedandmeticulouslytimedYettheclassiccavalryraidsoftheAmericanCivilWarusedtheoldermeaningoftheword“raid”ACivilWarcavalryraidwaslessachoreographedprecisionstrikethanathingoflooseobjectivesandimprovisationCavalryservedthreemajorfunctionsintheCivilWar–reconnaissance,security,andmobilityItwasusedtoscoutoutthelocationoftheenemytoseizecriticalpiecesofterrain,holdingituntilinfantrycouldreinforceitandtocounterenemyreconnaissanceandattemptstoseizeterrainCavalrywasalsousedtostrikedeepintoenemyterritory,todestroysuppliesandtransportationCivilWararmieswereofasizeunprecedentedinAmericaTheyconsistedoftensofthousandsofmen–occasionallyinexcessof,soldiers–withaccompanyingdraftanimalsandbaggagetrainsAstrikeagainstvulnerablesupplylinesanddepotscouldforceanarmytoretreatwithoutbattleGranthadbeenforcedtowithdrawhistroopsprobingtowardVicksburgafterConfederatecavalryunderGeneralEarlVanDornraidedanddestroyedhissupplydepotatHollySprings,MississippiJEBStuart,RobertELee’scommanderofcavalryintheConfederateArmyofNorthernVirginia,wasamasteratemployingcavalrytoconfusetheenemyaboutLee’sintentionsStuart’sridearoundGeneralGeorgeMcClellan’sArmyofthePotomacinSeptembernotonlystruckatMcClellan’ssupplylines,itservedtodemoralizeUnionforces,underminedMcClellan’sreputationwithhissuperiors,andforcedtheYankeearmytocommitmoretroopstoguardtheirrear,andsendfewertothefrontAcavalryraidservedtofocusenemyattentionontheraiders,anddistractattentionawayfromacampaign’smainthrustStuart’sfirstridearoundtheArmyofthePotomac,duringthePeninsularcampaigninJune,servedAcontemporarypaintingofaCivilWarUnioncavalrymanbyEdwinForbesForbeswasemployedbyFrankLeslie’sIllustratedWeekly,theCivilWar'sversionofthetelevisionnews(LOC)Originsnorealmilitarypurpose,butitunnervedMcClellan,distractinghisattentionfromthemainConfederatearmyatacriticalpointduringthebattleJohnHuntMorganandhisConfederatecavalrystruckdeepintoKentuckyfromTennesseeinJuly,ultimatelycrossingtheOhioRiverintoIndianaWhileunsuccessfulindrawingforcesawayfromGrant,besiegingVicksburgorGeneralGeorgeMeade’sArmyofthePotomac(thenchasingLeeinPennsylvania),theraidforcedtheUnion’sArmyoftheCumberlandtoreactThisdelayedtheUnionpushtoKnoxvilleImprovisationwasinherentinthenatureofaCivilWarcavalryraidAnydeepraidbalancedonaknife’sedgebetweentriumphandignominyCavalrymovedfast,butlackedbothhittingpowerandstayingpowerInfantryfiringrifledmusketsoutrangedcavalryfiringcarbinesInpreparedpositions,onsteadyground,regularinfantryfirewouldnotonlybemoreaccuratethanmountedmenfiringfromhorseback,buthadgreatereffect,sincetheyfiredaheavier,harderhittingballYetmilitiaorgarrisonsoldiers–thetroopscavalryraidersweremostlikelytoencounterduringaraid–oftenthrewawaythoseadvantagesduetoalackofdiscipline,readiness,orsteadinessIfchargedbeforetheycouldorganize,theyoftenscatteredIfcavalry,however,hesitatedorgavethemtimetocoalesce,theycouldbeasdangerousasregularsAsuccessfulraiddependeduponacommander’sabilitytoknowwhentoattackimmediatelyandwhentowithdrawinstantlyAsuccessfulcommanderalsohadtorecognizewhenanopportunitypresenteditselfunexpectedlyorwhenwhatseemedtobeanopportunitywasinsteadatrapHadtheintendedtargetdepartedearly,leavingtheobjectivebarrenWhatdidyoudoifyoucameacrossanunscheduledpacktrainShouldyoutakethetimetoreprovisionyourunitfromthecapturedsuppliesordestroythemandmoveonWhendidyourestyourmenandhorsesandwhenwasitmoreimportanttopressondespitefatigueTheseandnumerousotherquestionsaroseduringanyraidGuessrightandyoubecameaheroGuesswrongandyourcommandwouldbetrapped,withsurrenderanddisgracetofollowCriticaltosuccesswascontinuedmovementAslongasacolumnwasonthemove,theenemycouldnotconcentrateuponitLosemomentumandyoucouldloseyourentirecommand,asoneenemyunitpinnedyoudownandotherssurroundedyouwhiledeepinenemyterritory,withouthopeofresupplyorreinforcementSuccessfulcommandersknewhowtomaintainprogress,whilemisleadingtheoppositionabouttheirintentionsAtfirst,theCivilWarcavalryraidseemedwhollyownedbytheConfederateStatesofAmericaMenlikeStuartandMorgan,aswellasotheroutstandingConfederatecavalryleaderslikeBedfordForrestandJohnSingletonMosbyvirtuallydefinedcavalryandthecavalryraidduringtheCivilWarTherewereseveralreasonsforgreaterConfederatesuccesswithcavalrythanthatexperiencedbytheUnion,especiallyattheoutsetofthewarTheConfederatestatesweremoreagriculturalthantheurbanizedstatesoftheUnionGoodscouldtravelbywateryearroundinmostoftheSouth,reducingdependencyonroadsTheSouthernroadnetworkwaslessdevelopedthanthatoftheNorthAlargerpercentageoftheConfederacy’spopulationwasrural,andthebadroadsmeantthattravelwasbestdoneonhorsebackIntheNorth,amuchlargerpercentageofthepopulationwasurbanIfyoutraveledbyhorseatallinthecity,yourodeinacarriage,onahorsedrawnstreetcar,oratthereinsofawagon,haulinggoodsNorthernwintersalsomadewatertravelproblematicandsogoodsweremovedbysledgeorwagonTherewasaneedformoreandbetterroadsThatmeantthateveninthesummer,NorthernfarmersweremorelikelytobetravelingbywagonthanonhorsebackThisgavetheSouthamuchlargerpooloftrainedriderstodrawuponatthewar’sonsetTherewasalsoaculturaladvantageSouthernsocietywasmorearistocraticthanthatoftheNorth,withtheaverageSouthernwhitemaleviewinghimselfasacavalier,anheirtothechivalrousknightThecultofthehorsewasgreaterintheSouthtooEquinesports,suchasracing,weremoredeveloped,andstockbreeding–includingracehorses–playedalargerpartinthelivesoftheSoutherngentryWhiletwothirdsofallWestPointgraduatesthatsawserviceduringtheCivilWarremainedloyaltotheUnion,thisratiowasreversedwithcavalryGrierson’sRaidofficersNearlypercentoftheUnitedStatesArmy’scavalryofficersresignedtheircommissionswhentheCivilWarbegan,andservedintheConfederatearmyThisleadershipedgegaveSoutherncavalryanotherinitialadvantageoverNortherntroopersatthestartofthewarAfinaladvantagepossessedbytheSouthwasproblemswithinitialcavalrydoctrineintheUnionArmyAtfirsttheNorthernarmyviewedcavalryasasourceofpickets,guards,messengers,andorderliesCavalrywascloselytiedtothearmy,anddeployedinsmall,decentralizedunitsItwasnotuntilafterthefirstyearofthewarthattheUnionbeganfieldingcavalryindivisionalunits,andcentralizingcavalry’suseByUnioncavalryhadmadesignificantqualitativestridesDoctrinehadimproved,albeitmainlyasareactiontoConfederatesuccessAyearormoreofexperiencewithhorseshadturnedYankeecavalrymen–eventhoseinitiallyunfamiliarwithriding–intohorsemenTheUnion’ssuperiorlogisticandorganizationalskillsbegantotellWhileConfederatecavalrymenwereexpectedtobringtheirownmounts,theNorthernArmysuppliedthehorsesBythestartoftheUnion’sacquisitionandbreedingprogramswerebeginningtogiveUnionhorsemensuperiormountsEvenmoreimportantly,theUnionwasbeginningtodevelopcavalryofficersthatcouldmatchtheirSoutherncounterpartsCommandingcavalrywasasmuchanartasascienceandgreatcavalryofficerswereborn,notmadeSomeofthemostgiftedcavalryofficersintheCivilWar–onbothsides–hadlittleornoprewarexperiencewithcavalryBedfordForresthadbeenaslavetrader,Mosbyalawyer,andMorganamerchantPhilipSheridanandJamesHWilson,twoofthemostsuccessfulUnioncavalryleaders,hadbeenofficersbeforethewar,butSheridanhadbeenaninfantrymanandWilsonanengineerIn,NewYear’sDaywasprimarilynotedasthedayLincoln’sEmancipationProclamationwouldtakelegalforceButitalsomarkedanotherchange:itwastheyearthatYankeecavalrywouldmatureWhileSheridanandWilson’sachievementsascavalrymenlayinthefuture,evenasendedBenjaminGrierson’sreputationwasemergingHisachievementshadalreadyattractedtheattentionofhissuperiors,whomarkedhimastherighttypeofmantoleadadeepcavalryraidBeforetheyearwashalfover,notonlywouldaUnioncavalryunitconductasuccessfulraid,itwoulddoitonascalethatsurpassedConfederateachievementsOriginsINITIALSTRATEGYByearlyspringofGeneralUlyssesSGrantandtheUnion’sArmyoftheTennesseehadbeentryingtotakeVicksburgforoversixmonthsGranthadattemptedtotakethecityfromthenorth,andtheeastThenavyhadsteameduptheMississippiRiverfromNewOrleanstoattackthecityfromthewestEachattempthadbeenstymied,mostrecentlyaDecemberattemptbyWilliamTSherman’sXVCorpstocaptureVicksburgviaHayne’sBluff,northofVicksburgAfterthatrepulse,GrantdecidedthattheonlywaytofullyinvestVicksburgwouldbetoattackitfro

用户评论(0)

0/200

精彩专题

上传我的资料

每篇奖励 +1积分

资料评分:

/16
仅支持在线阅读

意见
反馈

立即扫码关注

爱问共享资料微信公众号

返回
顶部

举报
资料