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首页 元素周期律的60分钟测试题(60 minutes of the periodic table)

元素周期律的60分钟测试题(60 minutes of the periodic table).doc

元素周期律的60分钟测试题(60 minutes of the…

何达善
2019-01-08 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《元素周期律的60分钟测试题(60 minutes of the periodic table)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

元素周期律的分钟测试题(minutesoftheperiodictable)元素周期律的分钟测试题(minutesoftheperiodictable)TrainingintheperiodiclawoftheelementsThispaperdividesthefirstvolume(choice)andthefirst(choice)twoparts,thefullscoreofpointsTheexamtimeisminutesThefirstvolume(multiplechoice,atotalofpoints)()()()()()()()OnMarch,,ChinapublishedtheChinesenameofelementRgThenameoftheelementanditsperiodAtheseventhcyclebtheseventhcycleCRheniumsixthcycleDInthefollowingelectronicform,thecorrectisHH:N:HClC:O:O:NaD:Cl:Ca:Cl:ThenumberofchargesinthefollowingionsisthesameasthenumberofelectronsintheoutershelloftheionAAlbmgCBeDHNisthevalueofavogadro'sconstant,whichisincorrectAUndernormaltemperatureandpressure,moleofmethyl(ch)containsNelectronsBmolesofacetyleneandacetaldehydegasesthataremixedwithanyproportionofacetyleneandacetaldehydeareconsumedwhentheoxygenisfullyburned,andthenumberofoxygenmoleculesisNCUndernormaltemperatureandpressure,thevolumeofNmethanemoleculesisgreaterthanLDmolNaOreactswithwater,thenumberofelectronstransferredisNThefollowingcomparisonsareincorrectAAcidic:HI>HBr>HCl>HFBAlkaline:Be(OH)<Mg(OH)<KOHCOxidation:S<O<FDReductive:O<S<ITheatomicradiusofthefollowingelementsisknownatomicNsOSiradiusrmAccordingtotheabovedata,theradiusofthephosphorusatommightbeAxmBxmcxmdxmThefourmainelementsofX,Y,ZandW,ifthecationofXandtheanionofYhavethesameelectronlayerstructureTheoxidationofthecationofWisgreaterthanthatoftheisoelectricchargeTheradiusofthenegativeionofYoftheZanionradiusisgreaterthantheequalchargeTheatomicnumberofthefourelementsisfromlargetosmallAZ>X>Y>Y>X>X>Y>ZCX>Y>Y>WDZ>X>X>WThefollowinggroupsofparticles:OH,NH,FO,Na,MgSoCH,NH,HOThecorrectcombinationofthesameprotonnumberandelectronnumberisAinbinbincindinThefollowingstatementaboutsodiumisincorrectA,metalsodiumandoxygenreaction,theconditionsaredifferent,theproductisdifferentSodiumandpotassiumalloysarenormallyliquidandcanbeusedasheatconductantsforatomicreactorsCThechemicalactivityofsodiumisverystrongAsmallamountofsodiumcanbestoredinorganicsolventsD,sodiumismoreactive,butitcan'treplacemetalintheorderofmetallicactivityintheorderofmetallicactivityAtsometemperature,wgisfullyburnedinsufficientoxygen,anditscombustionproductsimmediatelyreactwithanexcessofNaO,andthesolidmassincreaseswgInthemixtureofH,COandH,HCHO,CHCOOHInthecaseofhochCHOH,it'sconsistentwiththequestionAalldonotconformtothebonly()()()ConlySecond,multiplechoicequestions(itemthisbigitems,eachitempoints,atotalofpointsEachitemtomatch,theideaisonlyoneortwooptionsifthecorrectanswerincludesanoption,multiplechoice,thetitledifthecorrectanswerincludestwooptions,chooseoneandtherighttopoints,choosetwoandhavetherighttofourpoints,butaslongasyouchoosethewrongone,thesmalltitled)ApuresubstancecomposedoftwoatomsAmustbeAcompoundbmaybeAsinglesubstance,maybeAcompoundCItmustbeasimpleDItmustbeanallotropeMagnesiumandlithiumhavespecial"diagonal"positionrelationshipsintheperiodictable,whicharesimilarinnature,suchasthefactthattheirsinglesubstanceburnsinexcessoxygenonlytoproducenormaloxidesThefollowingstatementaboutthenatureoflithiumiscorrectAliSOisdifficulttodissolveinwaterBLIencounterconcentratedsulfuricacidnotproducing"passivation"phenomenonCLiOHisastrongbasethatissolubleinwaterandheatedDLiCOisdecomposedtogenerateLiOandCOThefollowingreactionequationsarewrittencorrectlyAaluminiumsulfatesolutionwithexcessammoniaAlhAl(OH)leftBElectrolyticsaturatedmagnesiumchloridesolutionClHOHarrowCarrowHCcalciumcarbonateandhydrochloricacidreactionCaCOhwriteCaCOHODferroussulfatesolutionaddinghydrogenperoxidesolutionwithsulfuricacidacidificationFehHOFehoTheatomicnumberofX,YandZofshortperiodelementsisincreasing,andthesumoftheoutermostelectronsofitsatomsisXisadjacenttoYandZ,andtheoutermostelectronsinZarethreetimesthenumberofelectronsintheinnershellofXandthreetimestheoutermostelectronsofYThefollowingistrueAXhydroxideissolubleinwaterandisacidicTheoxideofbyisanioniccompoundThehydrogenatedwatersolutionoftheCZisnotperishableintheairThehighestvalenceoxidefortheDXandZisaweakacidItisknownthatthorium(Th)atomcandegenerateintoanatomofanotherelementandreleaseaparticle,ThtoYThefollowingstatementontheYelementiscorrectThehighpriceofAYisnotsolubleinwaterforbothsexesThecarbonateofCYissolubleinwaterDYdoesn'thaveagaseoushydrideThefollowingstatementiscorrectAOandOareisotopesofeachother,similarinnatureBUndernormaltemperature,theNa,NO,HCOandFeoftheaqueoussolutionofpH=cancoexistinlargequantitiesCAlumandbleachareusedinthepurificationandsterilizationoftapwaterThetwofunctionsarethesame,dc(graphite,s)=C(diamond,s)ΔH>,sostablegraphitethandiamondFromthemineralogicaldata,Undercertainconditions,naturehasthefollowingresponse:ThefollowingistrueACuSarebothoxidationproductsandreductionproductsBmolesofFeSreaction,molesofelectrontransferCTheionsintheproductarepartiallyoxidizedDFeSforreducingagentonlyTheshortperiodelementsA,B,andCincreaseinsequence,andtheirtotalatomicnumberisAandCareintheperiodictablewiththemaingroup,theouterelectronnumberofBatomisequaltotheouterelectronnumberofA,andthefollowingstatementiscorrectAAtomicradiusA<B<CThestabilityofthehydrogenationofBAisgreaterthanthatofCThemeltingpointofCBishigherthanAoxideTheDAandCcanformioniccompounds(jiangsu)havetwoelementsinX,Y,atomicnumberorless,theatomicradiusislessthanY,XandX,Y,thesamenumberofelectronsintheoutermostlayersofatoms(optionofmandnarepositiveintegers)Thefollowingistrue:AIfX(OH)nisAstrongbase,thenY(OH)nmustbeAstrongbaseBIftheHnXOmisastrongacid,thenX'shydridesolubleinwatermustbeacidicCIftheelementalformofXisX,thentheelementalformofYmustbeYDIfthemaximumpositivevalueofYism,thenthehighestpositivevalueofXmustbemHgCldilutesolutioncanbeusedasascalpeldisinfectant,knownHgClmeltingpointis,moltenstateHgClcannotconductelectricity,HgCldilutesolutionisweaklyconductingability,hasthefollowingaboutHgClaccountsisnotcorrectAHgClistheelectrolyteBHgClisthesalt,whichisanioniccompoundCHgClsolidsaremolecularcrystalsDHgClissalt,whichisacovalentcompoundThefirstvolume(notmultiplechoicequestionsAtotalofpoints)()thepropertiesoratomicstructureoftheexistingpartoftheshortcycleelementareasfollows:ElementnumberElementoratomicstructureTTherearetwopairsofelectronsontheMlayerXTheoutermostelectronistwicethenumberofelectronsintheoutershellYAtroomtemperature,itisadiatomicmoleculeanditshydrideaqueoussolutionisalkalineZThehighestpositiveelementoftheelementis()theouterlayerofelementThaselectronsindifferentmotionstatesAnisotopeofelementXdatingbacktotheageofculturalrelic,thesymbolofthisisotopeis()theelementYandhydrogenformanionYH,andwritetheelectronicformulaoftheparticle(representedbythesymboloftheelement)()comparedwithelementT,thenonmetallicisstrongerthantheelement(denotedbytheelementsymbol),whichcanbeprovedbythefollowingstatementsATheelementalstateofZatnormaltemperatureandTisstableatdifferentbZCBothZandTcanreactwithsodiumhydroxidesolutionundercertainconditions()itisoneoftheimportantwaystostudythenatureofmatterThechemicalpropertiesofthemostexpensiveoxidesofT,X,Y,andZaresignificantlydifferentfromthoseofthethreeotheracids,forthereasonTheelementalX,YandZoftheshortperiodelementsoftheshortperiodelementsareallgaseousinnormalconditionsandhavethefollowingtransformationrelations(thereactionconditionsareomitted):ItisknownthatXmoleculeshavethemostcovalentbondsinthecommondiatomicmoleculeBThemoleculecontainselectrons,andthemoleculecontainselectrons()theelectronicformofXis()thelaboratorycanprepareandcollectthearmourbyusingthedeviceshownintheimagebelow(thelackofacollectiondevice,theholdingfixtures)Inthepicture,theboxisdrawnwithaschematicdiagramofadeviceforcollectinganailwithaflask(directlyinthefigureabove)Thereagentinthetesttubeis(fillinginthechemicalformula)Inthebeaker,thesolutionischangedfromcolorlesstored,andthereasonis(expressedintheequationofionization)Itis()thecombustionofphosphorusinZcanproducetwoproducts,oneofwhichistheoutermostlayerofeachatominthemolecule,whichisnotallelectronstructure()nmolreactsundercertainconditionsandproducesnmolesofbandanothercompoundThedensityofthevaporofthecompoundistimesthatofhydrogen,anditschemicalformulais(points)wereinstalledinthreeairtightcontainers:A,NaOandNaHCO,B,NaOandNHHCOC,NaOandCa(HCO),eachofwhichismoleTheyareheatedto,thefullresponsebackoutofthegas,writeeachcontainernameandmattertheamountofresidualsolidmatterA,B,C,ifyouaddthesameconcentrationofthefullamountofdiluteHSOandtheresiduecompletely,thenthevolumeofsulfuricacidwillbetakenfromlargetosmallintheorderofTheperiodiclawoftheelementsisthereferenceanswerThefirstvolume(multiplechoice,atotalofpoints)Singleitemselection(pointsforeachquestion,points)AAbAcAdAcAdAMultiplechoice(pointsforeachquestion,points)BBBBBBBBBThefirstvolume(notchoice,atotalofpoints)(points)(A)(),(point)()()Cl(point)b()HCOweaklyacidicornonoxidizingacid(theremainingpoints)itemanalysis(A)theatomsofTelementshavepairsofpairsofelectronsontheMlayerTheoutermostelectronconfigurationissp,SelementsTheatomic"outermostelectronnumberoftheXelement"istimesthenumberofelectronsintheoutershellTheelectronconfigurationisssp,Celement,whichcanbeusedtodeterminetheageoftheculturalrelicciscommonsenseThe"hydrideaqueoussolution"ofYelementisalkaline,ammonia,YisNelementZ"elementoniumis"halogen,Ftheelementcouldnotpositive,ZforClelement(points)()()()()NHCl,Ca(OH)(allreasonableanswersaregiven)It'sNH,HONH,plusOHminus()PCl()PNCl(points)()blockdiagram:"covalentcompoundacovalentcompoundb,ioniccompoundc",cmustbeammoniumsaltBreakthrough:themostcommonsinglemoleculeofdoubleatomisXmoleculewithcovalentbondXisnitrogen,thenYishydrogen,andaisammonia:themoleculecontainselectrons,andZischlorine,andbishydrogenchlorideandpropylammoniumchloride()experimentproblemassessmentoflaboratoryammoniaproduction()theelectronicstructureofthejudgment:theoutermostelectronicstructure,notalleightdingnotPCl,isPCl()informationtopicThedifficultyofthistopicisAccordingtothelawofconservationofmass,thefollowing:NPClnNHCl==nHClPnNnClnNofplusplustimesisequaltotimes,andnisequalto(pointsperblank)AmoleofNaCO,moleofNaOHBmoleofNaCOCmol,CaCO,mol,NaCOC>A>BAnalytic:inAmol,NaHCOdecompositiongeneratedmol,andmol,HOandCOmol,NaCO,ifconsidermol,COandNaOreactionhasCONaO===NaCOO,sotheconsumptionmolNaO,generatemol,NaCO,thenmol,HOandmolNaOjustcompletelyreactionmol,NaOH,becauseNaCOanddoesnotreactwithNaOH,theresultisthesame,butshouldpayattentionto,ifexcessive,CO,COcanbegeneratedandNaOHreaction,butintoHOexcess,sousuallyundertheconditionofquantitativeconsiderCOandNaOreactionconditionsThehighthreechemicalweeklytestseriesPageof

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