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首页 高考备考英语语法大全

高考备考英语语法大全.doc

高考备考英语语法大全

iris淼于
2019-05-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《高考备考英语语法大全doc》,可适用于综合领域

高中重点语法精讲高中英语语法现象很多。为了便于区别不同的语法现象被赋予了不同的语法概念或名称(每个语法现象对应着一个自己的“名字”)。语法概念或名称是语法现象的高度浓缩和概括准确的理解把握语法概念或名称对解决相关的语法题目起着事半功倍的作用。下面所述的重点语法问题均从语法概念或名称入手使得繁琐难懂的语法问题变得通俗易懂便于掌握。主谓一致概念透析:定义:主语和谓语动词在人称和数上保持一致。解法指南:.就近原则谓语和最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致:)两个做主语的名词或代词由either…or,neither…nor,notonly…butalso,or连接时谓语动词与最近的主语保持一致NotonlyhebutalsoIamateacherNeitherthestudentsnortheteacherknowsanythingaboutitThemanagerorhisassistantwasplanningtogo)therebeherebe结构中be动词与后面的最近的名词保持一致。ThereisapenandtwobooksonthedeskHereisaletterandabookforyou)倒装结构Heworkswellinthefactory,sodoessheTheboydoesn’tlikeplayingfootball,neithernordoeshisyoungerbrotherOnthetopofthehillstandsatemple)oneof复数名词whichthatwho(引导定语从句)谓语用复数thatwhich引导定语从句谓语动词与先行词一致。Heisoneofstudentswhodaretocatchsnake区别:HeistheonlyoneofstudentswhodarestocatchsnakeIwhoamawarmheartedman,willdowhatIcandotohelpyou就远原则谓语动词的人称和数与最远(最前面)的主语保持一致:)主语后面跟aswellas,with,togetherwith,inadditiontobesidesalongwith,includingexcept,but,notlike短语时谓语动词和最前面的名词一致Aboywithhisparentsisgoingtozoonextweek种方式说话(表示主动和动作的反复性)Hearingthegoodnews,hejumpedwithjoy(表示主动))完成式:havingdone表示主动且此动作发生在谓语动词之前。Nothavingreceivedherletter,hewroteheragain(receive发生在wrote之前且表示主动要用现在分词的完成式)done(过去分词))及物动词的过去分词:表被动表完成Withalotofbooksbought,heleftthebookstore(bought表被动表完成)Givenmoretime,Iwilldoitbetter(given表被动)Ispokeloudlytomakemyselfheard)不及物动词的过去分词:只表示完成doing(动名词))常用在特殊的动词或短语或介词之后Avoidmindfinishenjoyimaginelookforwardtoinsistoncan’thelpdoing…)动名词的复合结构:形容词词性的物主代词名词’sdoing在此结构中物主代词或名词所有格是逻辑主语。MybeinglatereallyannoyedmyteacherWouldyoumindXiaoWang’ssmokingintheroom)做主语或宾语表示经常习惯性的动作。Ilikeswimming我喜欢游泳区别:IliketoswimtodayforitwastoohotPaintingishishobby画画是他的爱好。)时态:Childrenenjoywatchinganimatedcartoon(动名词的现在时)Iregrethavingbeenunabletowritetoyouearlier(动名词的完成时)解法指南句法分析法判定是否使用非谓语动词)若句子是简单句那只能出现一个动词做谓语。若出现其他动词则要结合句意用非谓语动词的适当形式(也可能用独立主格结构)There(be)somanyproblemsneedingsolving,hefeltataloss解析:简单句谓语为feel因此前面的be动词采用适当的非谓语动词形式表示主动用being。)句子是复合句独立于句子的动词或动词短语部分采用适当的非谓语动词形式。Nothavingseenhimbefore,shedidn’tknowhewasheruncle(非谓语动词)       (复合句)形式意义整合法:确定了用非谓语动词之后根据不同的形式表示不同的意义选择恰当的非谓语动词形式。EgThese(add)tothoseare 这些和那些加起来是解析:此句为简单句谓语部分为be,所以前面的动词add要采用适当的非谓语动词形式。add为及物动词常用于addsomethingtosomething结构中所以此处应填added表被动习题精选:TheancientEgyptiansaresupposedCrocketstothemoonA)tosend  B)sendingC)tohavesentD)tohavebeensendingI'dratherreadthanwatchtelevisionTheprogramsseem CallthetimeA)togetworse B)tohavegotworseC)tobegettingworseD)gettingworseMarkoftenattemptstoescapeBwheneverhebreakstrafficregulationsA)havingbeenfinedB)tohavebeenfinedC)tobefinedD)beingfinedYourhairwantsBYou'dbetterhaveitdonetomorrowA)cut B)tocut C)cutting D)beingcutIfIhadrememberedAthewindow,thethiefwouldnothavegotinA)tocloseB)closingC)tohaveclosed D)havingclosedBinanatmosphereofsimplelivingwaswhatherparentswishedforA)Thegirlwaseducated B)ThegirleducatedC)Thegirl'sbeingeducated D)ThegirltobeeducatedWhenIcaughthimAme,IstoppedbuyingthingsthereandstarteddealingwithanothershopA)cheating B)cheat C)tocheat D)tobecheatingEuropeanfootballisplayedincountries,DitthemostpopularsportintheworldAmakingBmakesCtomakeDmadeBbyterrorists,thetallbuildingcollapsedAhavingattackedBbeingattackedCtobeattackedDhavingbeingattackedIfeellikeBalongwalkWouldyoulikewithmeAtaking,going      Btaking,togo Ctotake,togo   Dtotake,goingI’mafraidyoursuggestioncan’thelpAtheserviceoftheirshopAimproving      Binimproving      Cimprove    DforimprovingItisconsiderednogoodDwithoutunderstandingArecite        Btoberecited           Crecited         DrecitingAsadly,thelittleboyraisedhisheadandhadthetearsdownonpurposeASeentocry,fall                  BTobeseencrying,fallingCSeencrying,falling               DTobeseentocry,fallAttentionmustbepaidtoBthejewelershopAprevent,fromrobbing         Bpreventing,frombeingrobbedCprevent,toberobbed          Dpreventing,fromrobbingByouthetruth,sheknowsnothingaboutitATell         BTelling        CTotell   DToldBtotheleftandyou’llseethepostofficeAToturn    BTurning      CIfturn  DTurnChinaisaBcountrytothethirdworldAdeveloped,belongs        Bdeveloping,belongingCdeveloping,belongs      Ddeveloped,beingbelongedSixBtoninefifteenAadded,makes    Badding,makes        Cadds,make     Dadding,makeAhermotherhadcome,herfacelitupAHearing       BHavingheard    CWhenhearing     DWhensheheardCtoloudnoisesforalongtimewillhaveone’shearingAexposed,harmed             Bbeingexposed,harmedCexposing,beingharmed      Dexpose,beheardIf Aaloneonadesertisland,whatwouldyoudoAleavingyou Bhavingleftyou Cleft   DleavingTheItalianfootballteamplayedsosuccessfullyAtheRussiansAastodefeat   Bonlytodefeat Ctohavedefeated   DasdefeatingThepalace,Ddownin,wasneverrebuiltAburnt  Bhavingburnt   Ctobeburnt  DburningGenerallyspeaking,Baccordingtothedirections,thedrughasnosideeffectAwhentakingBwhentaken Cwhentotake   Dwhentobetaken  ThereseemedtobenothingDtodobutforthedoctorAleft,tosendBleaving,sendCleave,sendDleft,send独立主格结构概念导入:观察下面几个句子重点关注划线部分Theboygoestotheclassroom,(witha)bookinhand那男孩手里拿着书去教室。Anairaccidenthappenedtotheplane,nobodyalive那架飞机遭遇了空难无一人生还。Theysaidgoodbyetoeachother,onetogohome,theothertogotothebookstore他们道别后一个回了家一个去了书店。Themeetingover,theyallwenthome会议一结束他们就都回家了。Thetestfinished,webeganourholiday考试结束了我们开始放假。不难看出上面划线部分的结构是:(with)npron(逻辑主语)其他(非谓语动词形容词副词介词短语)这也就是我们要讲解的独立主格结构概念透析:定义:由名词或代词加上其他的成分(非谓语动词、形容词、副词、介词短语)构成的特殊的复合结构。理解:)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同它独立存在。)名词或代词与后面的非谓语动词形容词副词介词等是逻辑上的主谓关系。)独立主格结构一般有逗号与主句分开。)作用:作状语表原因条件方式伴随…独立主格结构细化:名词主格代词现在分词。名词主格代词与现在分词之间主谓关系。如:Thegirlstaringathim,hedidn’tknowwhattosay姑娘两眼望着他他不知道说什么好。Timepermitting,wewillgoforanoutingtomorrow如果时间允许的话我们明天去郊游。名词主格代词过去分词。名词主格代词与过去分词之间的动宾关系。如:Theproblemssolved,thequalityhasbeenimproved随着问题的解决质量已经提高了。Thesignalgiven,thebusstarted发出信号后汽车开始前进。名词主格代词不定式。名词主格代词与不定式之间是主谓关系且强调的是一次具体性的动作。如:Theteachertohelpus,wewillsucceed有老师的帮助我们就能成功。名词主格代词形容词。如:Somanypeopleabsent,themeetinghadtobecalledoff这么多人缺席会议不得不取消。名词主格代词副词。如:Heputonhissweaterwrongsideout他把毛衣穿反了。名词主格代词介词短语。如:Marywassittingnearthefire,herbacktowardsthedoor玛丽靠近火炉坐着背对着门。with名词代词宾格其他(介词短语、分词、不定式、形容词、副词、名词)Theclassroomisverybrightwith(alllightsturned)onIcan’tgoout,withalotofhomeworktodoDon’ttalkwithyourmouthfullTheteacherenteredtheclassroom,withabookinhishand习题精练:Icouldn'tdomyhomeworkwithallthatnoiseCAgoingonBgoesonCwentonDtogoon                   Candnowaytoreduceherpainandsufferingfromtheterribledisease,thepatientsoughtherdoctor'shelptoendherlifeAHavinggivenuphopeofcure  BWithnohopeforcure  CInthehopeofcure       WithalotofdifficultproblemsB,thenewlyelectedpresidentishavingahardtimeAsettled  Bsettling  Ctosettle  Dbeingsettled      HesleptwellAallthewindowsopenAwhen  Bwhile  Cwith  Dbecause Themurdererwasbroughtin,withhishandsBbehindhisbackAbeingtied  Bhavingtied  Ctobetied  Dtied               定语从句概念导入:定语:修饰名词或代词的词或短语或从句→定语从句(用一个句子来修饰名词代词)但要放在名词(名词短语)或代词的后面被修饰的名词(名词短语)或代词叫先行词。先行词和从句之间通过关联词连接→关联词:关系代词:who,whom,whose,which,that,as(what不能引导定语从句)关系副词:When,where,why注意:关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担当成分,关系代词可以做主语、宾语、表语关系副词在从句中做状语。定语从句分类: 限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句形式上不用逗号和主句隔开用逗号和主句隔开意义上是先行词不可缺少的定语不能删除是对先行词的补充说明删除后意思仍完整译法上翻译成先行词的定语“…的…”通常翻译成主句的并列句关系词的使用上A.做宾语时可省略B、可用thatC、whom可用who代替A、不可省B、不用thatC、不用who代替whom   要注意区分以下几个句子的不同()Hisbrotherwhoisnowadoctoralwaysencourageshimtogotocollege他那当医生的哥哥常鼓励他要考上大学。(他还有其他的哥哥)()Hisbrother,whoisnowadoctor,alwaysencourageshimtogotocollege他的哥哥是当医生的常鼓励他要考上大学。(他只有一个哥哥)解题方法指南:关联词的确定:a)根据先行词看是人是物还是地点b)看在后面的从句里面做什么成分意义整合:通过第一步初步定下了关联词之后结合句子的意思进一步整合确定所选关联词的准确性。分类剖析:关系代词引导定语从句:Ihaveabrotherthatwholikesplayingfootballverymuch(做主语指人)Ihaveabrother(whom)(that)Iliketoplaywith(做宾语)Ihaveabrotherwhosemotorcariswonderful(做定语)IhaveabrotherthemotorcarofwhomiswonderfulThemotorcarwhichthatbelongstomybrotheriswonderful(做主语,指物)Thisisahousethatwhichislocatedinthesouthofthecity(做主语指物)Thisisahouseinwhich(where)anoldmanlivedthreeyearsago(作状语)ThisisthemostbeautifulhousethatIhaveseen(做宾语指物)Thisisthelasthouse(that)Iwanttobuy(做宾语指物)区别:that与which.which可引导非限制性定于从句that则不能Hepassedtheexam,whichmademeveryexcited.which可用在介词的后面而that不可以ThisisthehouseinwhichLunXunusedtolive.that和which都可以指物但在下面四种情况下只能用that不能用whicha)all,everything,something,anything,much,little,few等不定代词Thereislittle(that)Icoulddoforyoub)当先行词被序数词修饰时Heisthefirstthat(who)cametotheclassroomc)当先行词被形容词的最高级修饰时Sheisthemostbeautifulgirlthat(who)Ihavemetd)当先行词被thevery,theonly,等修饰时ThisistheverydictionarythatIwanttobuye)在非限制性定语从句中用which不用thatHehadfailedintheexam,whichmadehisfatherveryangry关系代词as引导定语从句as也可用作关系代词在从句做主语、宾语、表语as单独成句(引导非限制性定语从句)Asweknow,asisknowntoall,asweexpect,asisexpected,asisnatural….先行词被same,such修饰时定语从句常用关系代词as引导Ireceivedthesamecongratulationsasyoudid区别:HewantstogetthesamebookthatyouhaveHeisnotsuchamanasIlikeAs与which引导定语从句的区别.as译为“正如正像”,which则不Asweallknow,addedtois正如我们知道的那样加等于Hemustbelying,whichcanbeguessedfromhisexpressions他肯定在撒谎这从他的表情上就可以猜出来。.as引导定语从句位置灵活而which引导的定从置于主句后面Asisknowntoall,theearthgoesroundthesun(as在句首)Wejumpedatthenewsforjoy,aswasnatural(as在句中)Hefailedtheexam,whichmadehisfatherangry(which用在句中).关系副词引导定语从句:.when引导定语从句先行词往往是表示时间的名词如time,day,hour,year等,且定语从句缺少时间状语October,wasthedaywhenthepeople’srepublicofchinawasfoundedIcan’tforgetthedaywhenImetyouinthepark区别:Igotawellpaidjobontheday(thatwhich)Iwillneverforget.where先行词是表地点的一些名词place,room,house,street且从句中缺地点状语。Thisistheplacewhereinwhichmymotherwasborn区别:Thisistheplace(thatwhich)mymotherwasbornin.why先行词通常是reason且定语从句缺少状语Thereasonwhyheislateiscleartoeveryone区别:Thereasonthathegaveforhisbeinglateisunacceptable习题精练( A )Don’ttalkaboutsuchthingsofyouarenotsureAwhichBwhatCasDthose( A )IsthisthefactoryyouvisitedtheotherdayAthatBwhereCinwhichDtheone( A )IsthisfactorysomeforeignfriendsvisitedlastFridayAthatBwhereCwhichDtheone( A )IsthisthefactoryheworkedtenyearsagoAthatBwhereCwhichDtheone( A )Thewolveshidthemselvesintheplacescouldn’tbefoundAthatBWhereCinwhichDinthat( A)ThefreezingpointisthetemperaturewaterchangesintoiceAatwhichBonthatCinwhichDofwhat( A )ThisbookwillshowyoucanbeusedinothercontextsAhowyouhaveobservedBwhatyouhaveobservedCthatyouhaveobservedDhowwhathaveobserved( C )ThereasonisheisunabletooperatethemachineAbecauseBwhyCthatDwhether( A)I’lltellyouhetoldmelastweekAallwhichBthatCallthatDwhich( B )Thattree,branchesarealmostbare,isveryoldAwhoseBofwhichCinwhichDonwhich( A )IhaveboughtthesamedresssheiswearingAasBthatCwhichDwhat( A )Hefailedintheexamination,madehisfatherveryangryAwhichBitCthatDwhat( A)We’retalkingaboutthepianoandthepianistwereintheconcertweattendedlastnightAwhich BwhomCwhoDthat( A )ThegirlanEnglishsonginthenextroomisTom’ssisterAwhoissingingBissingingCsangDwassinging( A)ThosenotonlyfrombooksbutalsothroughpracticewillsucceedAlearnBwhoCthatlearnsDwholearn( D )AnyonethisopinionmayspeakoutAthatagainstBthatagainstCwhoisagainstDwhoareagainst( B)Didn’tyouseethemanAInoddedjustnowBwhomInoddedjustnowCInoddedtohimjustnowDInoddedtojustnow( B )CanyoulendmethenoveltheotherdayAthatyoutalkedByoutalkedaboutitCwhichyoutalkedwith Dyoutalkedabout( D )IsthereanythingtoyouAthatisbelonged BthatbelongsCthatbelong Dwhichbelongs( D)“Howdoyoulikethebook”“It’squitedifferentfromIreadlastmonth”Athat Bwhich Ctheone Dtheonewhat( B )MrZhanggavethetextbooktoallthepupilsexceptwhohadalreadytakenthemAtheones Bones Csome Dtheothers( C )ThetrainshewastravelingwaslateAwhich Bwhere Conwhich Dinthat(B )HehaslostthekeytothedrawerthepapersarekeptAwhere Binwhich Cunderwhich Dwhich( D )AntarcticweknowverylittleiscoveredwiththickicealltheyearroundAwhich Bwhere Cthat Daboutwhich( C )It’sthethirdtimelatethismonthAthatyouarrived BwhenyouarrivedCthatyou’vearrived Dwhenyou’vearrived( C )ItwasintheAmericanastronautsucceededinlandingonthemoonAthatBwhichCwhen Dinwhich( A )MaythefourthisthedayweChinesepeoplewillneverforgetAwhichBwhenConwhichDaboutwhich( D )wearegoingtospendtheSpringFestivalinGuangzhou,livemygrandparentsandsomerelativesAwhichBthatCwhoDwhere( D )ThehotelduringourholidaysstandsbytheseasideAwestayedatBwherewestayedatCwestayedDinthatwestayed( A )IsitinthatfactorycarsareproducedAinwhichBwhereCWhichDthat( B )ItistheSuezCanalseparatesAsiaAfricaAwhich,toBwhere,fromCthat,fromDthat,with( D )Underthebridge,however,almostdirectlybelow,wasasmallcanoe,withaboyinitAthereBwhere Cit Dwhich( A )HeisnotafoolAsuch,asheislookedBsuch,ashelooksCas,asheislookedDso,ashelooks( C )IsthatthereasonyouareinfavoroftheproposalAwhich Bwhat Cwhy Dforthat( C )HemustbefromAfrica,canbeseenfromhisskinAthatBas Cwho Dwhat( A )Hehastwosons,workaschemistsAtwoofwhom Bbothofwhom Cbothofwhich Dallofwhom( B )I,yourgoodfriend,willtrymybesttohelpyououtAwhois Bwhoam Cthatis Dwhatis( D )Heisamanofgreatexperience,muchcanbelearnedAwho Bthat Cfromwhich Dfromwhom( A )DoyouknowthetownatallNo,thisisthefirsttimeIhereAwas Bhavebeen Ccame Damcoming( C )Idon’tlikeyouspeaktoherAtheway Bthewayinthat Cthewaywhich Dthewayofwhich(D )ThetwothingstheyfeltveryproudareJim’sgoldwatchandDella’shairAaboutwhich Bofwhich Cinwhich Dforwhich( D )ThedinnerwasthemostexpensivemealweAwouldhave Bhavehad Chadneverhad Dhadeverhad( D )DoyouknowwhichhotelAsheisstayingBsheisstayingin CisshestayingDisshestayingin( A )ThereisonlyonethingIcandoAwhat Bthat Call Dwhich( D )WhocanthinkofasituationthisidiomcanbeusedAwhich Bthat Cwhere Dinthat( C )Ihavemanybooks,someofareonchemistryAthem Bthat Cwhich Dthose( B )TheywereinterestedyoutoldthemAinwhich Binthat Callthat Dineverything( A )Theastronautdidmanyexperimentsinthespaceship,muchhelpforknowingspaceAwhichwethinkitis Bwhichwethinkareof Cofwhichwethinkis DIthinkwhichisof( C )ThegreatdaywelookedforwardtoatlastAcome Bcame Ccoming Dcomes( A )IlikethesecondfootballmatchwasheldlastweekAwhich Bwhom Cthat D名词性从句术语导航:复合句(见前非谓语动词)=主句从句a主句:在复合句中处于支配地位的句子不能独立只用作句子里的一个成分如主语、宾语、表语、同位语…b从句:相对于主句而言从属于主句,不能独立只用作句子里的一个成分如主语、宾语、表语、同位语…一般位于主句之后通过连接词与主句发生联系。概念引入:名词:)定义:表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称。)名词作用:做主语宾语表语同位语→→名词性从句:)定义:在复合句中具有名词性质的从句充当名词的作用。)名词性从句的作用:主语主语从句宾语宾语从句表语表语从句同位语同位语从句名词性从句和主句是如何发生联系的呢????→主句连接词从句→连接词:)从属连词:在句子中不做成分只起着连接作用whether,if,that  )连接代词:在句子不仅起着连接主句和从句的作用还在从句中做成分。That,Who,whom,what,which,whoever,whatever…)连接副词:起连接作用并且在句子中作状语。Where,wherever,when,whenever,why,how分类讲解主语从句:一个从句在复合句中做主语从句和主句之间由从属连词(除if外)、连接代词和连接副词。ThathegotafullmarkintheEnglishexamreallyexcitedmeWhetherwemovetoournewhomeornotisnotdecidedWhocananswerthequestionisabigproblemWherehehasbeenisstillapuzzle表语从句:一个句子放在系动词的后面做表语。系动词常为Be,look,seem,feel…除if外其他的连接词都可引导表语从句WhatmyparentsareworriedaboutiswhetherIstudyinschoolHeseemsthatheknewthetruth同位语从句:a)一个句子做同位语放在特定的名词后面(messageinformationnewswordorderfacttruthproblemadvicesuggestion)b)同位语从句作用是陈述或说明前面特殊名词的内容,在地位上与前面的名词是同等地位的。c)从句由whether,that,when,where,whichwhat(注意if不能引导同位语从句)d)分类:分隔型同位语从句紧凑型同位语从句ItisabigproblemwhenheleavesforShanghai(紧凑型)Weallknowthetruththattheearthgoesaroundthesun(紧凑型)WordcamethathewoninthespokenEnglishcontest(分隔型)宾语从句:从句做宾语。分为介宾(放在介词后面)和动宾(直接放在及物动词后面)。Whetherhecanberegisteredbytheuniversitydependsonwhether(不能用if)hecangetgoodmarks(介宾)Jane’sfacesuggestedthathewasbadlyill(动宾)注意事项句子的语序是陈述语序(所有的名词性从句都是陈述语序)句子的时态与主句相对一致(主过从过)。若从句描述的是客观真理不管主句是什么时态从句都用现在时。在and连接两个或多个由that引出的宾语从句时第一个that可以省略其他的不可省略。如:Hetold(that)IgotgoodmarksandthatIcouldbeadmittedtoafamousuniversityit作为形式宾语代表宾语从句①动词find,feel,consider,make,believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语而将that宾语从句后置Ithinkitnecessarythatwetakeplentyofhotwatereveryday我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的IfeelitapitythatIhaven’tbeentothegettogether我没去聚会,感觉非常遗憾IhavemadeitarulethatIkeepdiaries我每天写日记成了习惯Weallfinditimportantthatwe(should)makeaquickdecisionaboutthismater我们都认为对这件事马上做出决定很重要②有些动词带宾语从句时寻要在宾语与从句前加it这类动词主要有:hate,take,owe,have,seetoIhateitwhentheywiththeirmouthsfulloffood我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话Hewillhaveitthatourplanisreallypractical他会认为我们的计划确实可行Itakeitthatyouwillagreewithus我们认为你会同意我们的Whenyoustarttheengine,youmustseetoitthatcarisinneutral开启发动机时,一定要使汽车的离合器处于空挡位置解题方法指南:名词性从句中主要考察的是连接词的选择现把判断连接词的方法归纳如下:成分分析法:)首先要从整体上确定所要分析的句子属于名词性从句的哪一种。)其次主要看缺什么成分要是缺主语宾语或表语连接词要用连接代词要是缺状语就用连接副词要是不缺任何成分就用从属连词。意义整合法:运用成分分析法判断是选连接代词还是用连接副词或从属连词在此基础上运用意义整合法进行筛选。习惯成型法:)介词后不用that引导宾语从句除介词except,but,in外。that在宾语从句中做宾语可以省略。但由and或but连接两个或多个宾语从句时仅可以第一个连词that)whether和if。If不可引导主语表语同位语从句且在宾语从句中不可放在介词的后面。Whether可以引导所有的名词性从句。在引导名词性从句中常和ornot连用)Ais(are)toBwhatCis(are)toDEnginesaretomachineswhatheartsaretoanimalsit做形式主语和形式宾语(it做形式宾语常置于think,consider,find,hate,like,suppose后)doubt引导宾语从句连接词否定疑问用that肯定用ifwhetherdoubt作名词引导同位语从句肯定用whether否定疑问用thatwhat在名词性从句中可理解为:what=thethings(something)thatallthataperiodoftimethatIhateitthatyouliedtome(it为形式宾语that引导的句子为真正的宾语)Afterwhatseemedlikehours,hecameoutwithabittersmile(此处what=theperiodoftimethat)Iwilldowhat(=allthat)IcantohelpthepeopleinthequakehitareaThereisnodoubtthathewasawidelyacceptedscientist习题精练:Byouhavedonemightdoharmtootherpeople AThat    BWhat  CWhich DThisTheyhavenoideaatallCAwherehehasgone   BwheredidhegoCwhichplacehehasgone  DwherehehasgoneCleavestheroomlastoughttoturnoffthelightsAAnyone  BTheperson  CWhoever DWhoUpongraduationheaskedtobesenttoA Awhereheismostneeded  BwhereheneededCwhereheismostlyneeded DwhereishemostlyneededThesephotographswillshowyouBAwhatdoesourvillagelooklikeBwhatourvillagelookslikeChowdoesourvillagelook DhowourvillagelookslikeCanyoumakesureCthegoldring AwhereAlicehadput  BwherehadAliceputCwhereAlicehasputDwherehasAliceputNoonecanbesureAinamillionyearsAwhatmanwilllooklike  BwhatmanlooklikeCmanwilllooklikewhatDwhatlookwillmanlikeAtheGameswillbeheldinBeijingisnotknownAWhenever  BIf  CWhether    DThatItworriedherabitDherhairwasturninggreyAwhich    Bthat      Cif        DforAyoudon’tlikehimisnoneofmybusinessAWhat    BWho  CThat  DWhetherChesaidatthemeetingastonishedeverybodypresentAWhat    BThat  CThefact DThematterHeaskedDfortheviolinAdidIpayhowmuch  BIpaidhowmuchChowmuchdidIpay  DhowmuchIpaidDoyourememberAhecameYes,Ido,hecamebycarAhow      Bwhen      Cthat      DifDisafactthatEnglishisacceptedasaninternationallanguageAThere    BThis    CThat    DItSarahhopestobecomeafriendofCsharesherinterestsAanyone    Bwhomever    Cwhoever    DnomatterwhoAwecan’tgetseemsbetterthanwehaveAWhatwhat  BWhatthat    CThatthat    DThatwhatBwe’llgocampingtomorrowdependsontheweatherAIf      BWhether    CThat      DWhereItisgenerallyconsideredunwisetogiveachildDheorshewantsAhowever    Bwhatever    Cwhichever    DwheneverAcausedtheaccidentisstillacompletemysteryAWhat    BThat      CHow      DWhereItwasamatterofDwouldtakethepositionAwho      Bwhoever    Cwhom      DwhomeverIdrovetoZhuhaifortheairshowlastweeklIsthatCyouhadafewdaysoffAwhy    Bwhen      Cwhat      DwhereDhashelpedtosavethedrowninggirlisworthpraisingAWho    BTheone    CAnyone    DWhoeverThesewildflowersaresospecialIwoulddoDIcantosavethemAthat      Bwhich      Cwhichever    DwhateverDshecouldn’tunderstandwasfewerandfewerstudentsshowedinterestinherlessons  AThatwhat  BWhatwhy    CWhatbecause  DWhythatWhatthedoctorsreallydoubtisDmymotherwillrecoverfromtheseriousdiseasesoon Awhen    Bhow      Cwhether    DwhyBisnopossibilityBobcanwinthefirstprizeinthematchATherethat  BItthat    CTherewhether  DItwhetherWhenyouanswerquestionsinajobinterview,pleaserememberthegoldenrule:AlwaysgivethemoneyexactlyAhewantsAwhat    Bwhich      Cwhen      DthatThereisanewprobleminvolvedinthepopularityofprivatecarsroadconditionsneedB Athattobeimproved  Bwhichtobeimproved Cwhereimproving   D whenimprovingAreyoustillthinkingaboutyesterday’sgame Oh,that’sBAwhatmakesmefeelexcitedBwhateverIfeelexcitedabout ChowIfeelaboutitDwhenIfeelexcitedWecannotfigureoutBquiteanumberofinsects,birds,andanimalsaredyingout()Athat       Bas      Cwhy      DwhenIthinkFatherwouldliketoknowBI'vebeenuptosofar,soIdecidetosendhima  quicknoteAwhich    Bwhy      Cwhat      DhowAmoderncityhasbeensetupin CwasawastelandtenyearsagoAwhat    Bwhich      Cthat      DwhereParentsaretaughttounderstandCimportanteducationistotheirchildren’sfutureAthat      Bhow      Csuch      DsoTheroadiscoveredwithsnowIcan'tunderstandDtheyinsistongoingbymotorbike Awhy      Bwhether    Cwhen      DhowAfterYangLiWeisucceededincirclingtheearth,Aourastronautsdesiretodoiswalkinspace Awhere    Bwhat      Cthat      DhowAstorygoesBElizabethIofEnglandlikednothingmorethatbeingsurroundedbycleverandqualifiednoblemenatcourt Awhen           Bwhere       Cwhat      DthatTheotherday,mybrotherdrovehiscardownthestreetatBIthoughtwasadangerousspeed Aas      Bwhich      Cwhat      Dtha

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