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首页 被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲——基于国际标准的分析(The defendant litigati…

被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲——基于国际标准的分析(The defendant litigation rights and procedure of relief -- Analysis Based on the international standard).doc

被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲——基于国际标准的分析(The d…

范修能
2018-04-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲——基于国际标准的分析(The defendant litigation rights and procedure of relief -- Analysis Based on the international standard)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲基于国际标准的分析(ThedefendantlitigationrightsandprocedureofreliefAnalysisBasedontheinternationalstandard)被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲基于国际标准的分析(ThedefendantlitigationrightsandprocedureofreliefAnalysisBasedontheinternationalstandard)Onthedefendant'sproceduralrightsandproceduralremediesBasedontheanalysisofinternationalstandardsAuthor:ChenWeidongHaoYinzhongThehistoryofhumansocietyfromignorance,autocracytogradualcivilizationanddemocracyis,tosomeextent,thespeechprocessofcriminaldefendantswhograduallyhaveproceduralsubjectivityfromtheobjectoflitigationIftheestablishmentofthelegalrightsoftheaccusedandthecontinuousdevelopment,markingthecriminaljusticeintoastateofcivilization,soastominimizetheprotectionofthedefendantlitigationrightsofinternationalstandardsintheworldaregenerallyacceptedandpopularized,itreflectstheworldtrendoftheinternationalsocietyonthedevelopmentofthefieldofcriminaljusticeinparticularpayattentiontotheprotectionofhumanrightsandthemoderncriminallitigationsystem,butalsoreflectsthehumansocestsarenecessary,Andhedidn'thaveenoughmoneytopayforlegalaid,andhedidn'tpayforitThe"basicprinciples"ontheroleoflawyerssixthprovisions:nolawyersinthejudicialcasehavetherighttoobtainaccordingtothenatureofthecrimeisassignedtooneofhisexperienceandabilityofthelawyer,inordertoprovideeffectivelegalassistanceIfhedoesn'thaveenoughstrengthtopayforthiskindofservice,hedoesn'tpayopposingtherighttoselfincriminationandtherighttosilenceThisrightisintendedtoprotectthedefendant'srighttovoluntarilyorindependentlycarryoutstatementsincriminalproceedings,andtoopposeobtainingconfessionsandotherevidencebytortureorotherillegalmeansDuringthetrial,theillegalevidenceshallnotbetakenasabasisatthesametimethisrightalsoincludesthedefendanttherighttosilenceincriminalproceedings,thedefendant'ssilenceshallnotbeusedtoprovetheevidenceofguilt,notfromthedefendanttoremainsilentinthiscasederivedfromtheoppositeconclusionThethirdclauseofthefourteentharticleoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsclearlystipulatesthattheseventhisnotcompelledtotestifyagainsthimselforcompeltoconfessthecrimetherighttoobtainfreetranslationassistanceisoneofthebasicconditionstoensurefairtrialThethirdparagraphofarticlefourteenthoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsstipulatesthattheaidofinterpreterswillbefreeifhedoesnotunderstandorwillnotspeakthelanguageusedinthecourtofthesixthpartytherighttoequalprotectionofthelawArticleseventhoftheUniversalDeclarationofhumanrightsstipulatesthateveryoneisequalbeforethelawandenjoysequalprotectionofthelaw,withoutanydiscriminationEveryonehastherighttoequalprotectionsoastoavoidanydiscriminationagainstthedeclarationandanyactofprejudiceagainstsuchdiscriminationThefirstparagraphofarticlefourteenthoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsstipulatesthatallpersonsareequalbeforethetribunalandthetribunalThisrightexpressesequalitybeforethelaw,opposesanyprivilegeandopposesanydiscrimination,whichisthebasicrequirementoftheprincipleofproceduraljustice(two)therightofrelieflitigationandthereliefprocedureenjoyedbythedefendantThedefendant'srightofreliefreferstotherightofthedefendanttoactagainstthelawenforcementorganization,decideorjudge,andrequireanotherspecialorgantoreviewandchangetherightofactionTheserightsmainlyinclude:appealrightThefifthparagraphofarticlefourteenthoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsstipulatesthatallconvictedpersonsshallhavetherighttoreviewtheirconvictionandpunishmentinaccordancewiththelawbyahigherlevelcourtThisrightthatreviewbyhighercourts,canmakeupforthefirstinstancejudgmentmayappearduetothesubjectivefactorsandobjectivefactorssuchaslawprivilegemistakes,tobuildasolidbarrierforthemaintenanceofjusticeandtheunityofthelegalsystemtherightofcriminalcompensation,thatis,thedefendanthastherighttoobtaineconomiccompensationwhenheisdetained,arrestedorconvictedThisisabasicrightenjoyedbythedefendant,aminimumcompensationfortheunjusttreatmentsufferedbythedefendant,andabasicelementfortherealizationofafairtrialArticleeighthoftheUniversalDeclarationofhumanrightsstipulatesthatanypersonwhoisinfringeduponbytheconstitutionorthefundamentalrightsofthelawshallhavetherighttobecompensatedeffectivelybythecompetentnationalcourtforsuchviolationsThe"InternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrights"fourteenthparagraphsixth:inafinaldecisioninaccordancewiththepersonhasbeenconvictedofacriminaloffenceandaccordingtothenewornewlydiscoveredevidencedoessuggestthattheerroroccurred,hisconvictionwasoverturnedorpardonedthecase,becauseoftheconvictionandpunishmentshouldbeinaccordancewiththelawgetcompensation,unlessitisprovedatthattimenottoknowthefactsisnottimelydisclosureisentirelyorpartlybecauseofhisownsaketherightandrequirementofnoncustodialdetentionshallbeexaminedandamendedbythejudge,andtherightofcompulsorymeasuresandtherightofbailshouldbecancelledItisgenerallyacceptedbytheinternationalcommunitythatpersonalfreedomofcitizensisoneofthemostbasicandprimitiverequirementsinhumanlife,andisoneofthemostimportantvaluesoflegalvalueEvenifpersonalfreedomisnotguaranteed,NottomentionthedignityofhumanbeingsandtheexerciseofdemocraticrightsTherefore,theuseofcoercivemeasurestorestrictpersonalfreedomofcriminalproceedingsoftheinternationalcommunityhasbeencautious,andtheprovisionsoftheapplicableproceduresstrictly,andgivethedefendanttorequestachangeorcancellationrequestofcompulsorymeasuresandtherightofgettingtherighttobailThe"InternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrights"Ninthparagraphthirdandfourthparagraph:criminalchargesforanypersonarrestedordetainedshallbebroughtpromptlybeforeajudgeorotherauthorizedbylawtoexercisejudicialpowerofficials,andhavetherighttotrialwithinareasonabletimeorreleasePersonsawaitingtrialdetentionshouldnotasageneralrule,butreleasemaybesubjecttoensurethecourtatanyotherstageofthejudicialproceedings,andattimestoexecutethejudgmentnecessaryforAnypersonwhoisdeprivedoflibertybyarrestordetentionshallbeentitledtobringasuittothecourtsothatthecourtcandecidewithoutdelaywhetherheislegallydetainedandifthedetentionisnotlawful,theorderwillbereleased(three)thepresumptionlitigationrightenjoyedbythedefendantanditsreliefprocedureThepresumptiverightoftheaccusedreferstotherightoflitigationdeducedfromthecriminalprocedurelaw,whichistherightformthatobjectivelybenefitsthedefendantthroughendowingthelawenforcementagencywithacertainlegalobligationSuchrightsmainlyreferto:presumptionofinnocenceThepresumptionofinnocenceisaninternationallegalprinciplehasbeengraduallyformedanddevelopedonthenegativemedievalinquisitiorialsystemon,itisthebasicrequirement,beforethecourtshalldecidewhetherthedefendantisguilty,shouldbepresumedinnocentThisprinciplecontainsaseriesofproceduralrules,mainlyincluding:toprovethedefendantguiltyliabilityshallbebornebytheprosecution,andtoreachnoreasonabledoubtthedefendanttherighttosilenceandtherighttodefensewhenindoubt,itisinfavorofthedefendant(Note:WangYizhen:"foreigncriminalprocedurelaw",thirtysecondpage)Thecourt'sjudgmentonthedefendant'sguiltmustbemadethroughlegalanddueprocessThus,theprincipleofpresumptionofinnocencegreatlyimprovesthedefendant'spositioninlitigationAftertheSecondWorldWar,theprincipleofpresumptionofinnocencewasinternationallyrecognizedandstipulatedintheinternationalconventionsThefirstparagraphofarticleeleventhoftheUniversalDeclarationofhumanrightsstipulatesthatanypersonwhoisaccusedofacriminaloffenceshallbedeemedinnocentuntilhehasbeenprovedguiltybypublictrialinaccordancewiththelawThesecondparagraphofthefourteentharticleoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsstipulatesthatapersonwhoisaccusedofacriminaloffenceshouldassumeinnocenceuntilhehasbeenconvictedofguiltinaccordancewiththelawtherighttoindependent,openandfairtrialThesocalledindependenttrialreferstothejudgeatthetrialonlytoobeytheConstitutionandthelawresponsibility,notacceptinterventionobligations,anydepartmentandforcesoutsideofcourtshalljudgejudicialinterventionpublictrialisreferstotheentirecourttothepublic,thefinalcourtofcriminalresponsibilityofthedefendantmadealsotobepublic,exceptfortheexceptionsspecifiedbylawjusticereferstothejusticeintheproductionoflegaljudgment,shouldbebasedontheconclusionsestablishedaftertheprosecutoranddefendantbothfulldebateandcrossexaminationoftheobjectivefactsandevidence,thetrialjudgenottoprejudgetheoutcomeofthecasebeingFirstimpressionsarestrongestShallnotprejudiceagainstbothsidesofanyparty,thejudgeshouldalwaysremainneutralTheserightsenjoyedbythedefendantarethemostbasicstandardsfortheprotectionofhumanrightsestablishedintherelevantinternationallegaldocuments"UniversalDeclarationofhumanrights"provisionsofarticletenth:everyoneisentitledinfullequalitybyanindependentandimpartialtribunaltoafairandpublichearing,thedeterminationofhisrightsandobligationsandofanycriminalchargeagainsthimThe"InternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrights"fourteenthparagraphfirst:putforwardtoanypersonanycriminalchargesorinthedeterminationofhisrightsandobligationsinalawsuitinthecase,everyonehasthequalificationbyalawfullyestablishedcompetent,independentandimpartialcourtofjusticeandpublichearingtherighttoavoidunreasonabledelays,Thatistosay,thejudgeshouldmakepromptandpromptdecisionwhenhemakesthefinaljudgmentonthecriminalresponsibilityoftheaccusedandtheguiltydefendanttodeterminethepenalty,withoutallowingunduedelayThethirdparagraphofthefourteentharticleoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsstipulatesthatthetrialtimeshallnotbeunreasonablydelayed(third)therighttoavoiddoublejeopardy,thatis,thesameacttothedefendant,onceconvictedorinnocent,willresultinresjudicataandshallnotbetriedorpunishedagainforthesameactThisrighttomaintainthejudgmentofseriousness,authorityandstability,topreventthedefendant'srightsbecauseofrepeatedstartunfavorabletothecriminalprocedureandunstableforalongtime,avoidthedefendantandthereforesubjecttounfairtreatment,itisarightofsocialdemocracyandtheruleoflawgenerallygivesthedefendantTheseventhparagraphofarticlefourteenthoftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsstatesthatanyonewhohasbeenconvictedordeclaredinnocentinaccordancewiththelawsandcriminalproceduresofastateshallnotbesentencedorpunishedforthesameoffenceIIDuetodifferencesinhistory,culture,geographicalenvironment,socialeconomicdevelopmentlevel,socialpoliticalsystem,allofthecriminalprocedurelawofthedefendantlitigationrightsprotectionscopeandformisnotthesameAftertheamendmentofthecriminalprocedureChinesewillpunishcrimeandprotecthumanrightsorganically,giventheaccusedmoreextensivelitigationrights(Note:ChengRongbin:"Chinacriminallawcourse",pageth)Design,andacloseanduniqueprogramreliefmechanism,thisinsomewayshasfarexceededtheinternationalstandard,reflectingtheChinesegovernmentfortheprotectionofhumanrightsishighlyvaluedandmadegreateffortstopromotetheprotectionofhumanrightsSuchasChinacriminallaw:thecriminalsuspectisinterrogatedbyaninvestigationorganforthefirsttimeafterthedateortotakecoercivemeasuresmayappointalawyertoprovidelegalhelpcancelasylumreview,compulsorymeasuresandinvestigation,strengthenthestatusoflitigationofcriminalsuspectsthedefendanthastherighttoapplyforwithdrawalrightsidentificationofevidencetheimplementationofthemodeoftrial,strengthenthedefendant'sdefenseabilitythedefendanthastherighttomakeafinalstatementincourttherighttoreadorlistentothecourtrecords,andrequestforsupplementationorcorrectionhastherighttoappealtoalegallyeffectivejudgmentorrulinghavetherighttomakeacounterclaimtotheprivateprosecutorinacaseofprivateprosecutioninthecaseofthedeathpenaltytheprovisionsofthespecialreviewprocedureofdeathpenaltyandsoonaseriesofrichChinesecharacteristicsandmechanismofrightsprotection,andinjudicialpracticePlayamoreandmoreimportantroleOntheotherhand,withtheincreasinglymaturelitigationmechanismintheworld,theconvergenceofcriminalprocedurelawappearsTheinternationalstandardestablishedbytheinternationalcommunitytoprotectthedefendant'slitigationrightsisincreasinglybecomingthemostuniversalcriteriontojudgewhetheracountry'scriminalprocedurelawisfair,scientificanddemocraticSinces,theChinesegovernmenthasactivelyparticipatedinthecreationofinternationallegaldocuments(WangYizhen:referencematerialsofforeigncriminalprocedurelaw,eleventhpages)InOctober,,QinHuasun,thepermanentrepresentativeoftheUnitedNations,signedtheInternationalCovenantonCivilandpoliticalrightsonbehalfoftheChinesegovernmentattheUnitedNationsHeadquartersThisshowstheopennessoftheChinesegovernmenttoprotectinternationalstandardsofhumanrightsAlthoughChinahasmadegreatachievementsinsafeguardingandpromotingtheprotectionofhumanrights,therevisedcriminalprocedurelawbasicallyconformstotheworldtrendofthedevelopmentofcriminalprocedurelawHowever,needlesstosay,duetomanyfactors,Chinesecriminalprocedurelawontheprotectionofthelitigationrightsofthedefendant,comparedwithinternationalstandards,thereisacertaingaponsomeofthecountrieshavepledgedobligationsandourgovernmentsignedtheinternationalconventionisnotfullyreflectedinthecodeofcriminalprocedurelawTherefore,therearestillsomeproblemstobesolvedinChina'scriminalprocedurelawconcerningthedefendant'sproceduralrightsandproceduralremedies:()therighttoopposeselfincriminationisnotestablishedTheninetythirdarticleofChina'sCriminalProcedureLawstipulatesthatthecriminalsuspectshouldanswertruthfullythequestioningofinvestigatorsInaddition,thecriminalpolicyof"Leniencytothepublicandresistancetoseverity"incriminaljusticeinChinameanstosomeextentthattheaccusedbearstheresponsibilityofselfincriminationincriminalproceedingsInjudicialpractice,thenegativeinfluencebroughtbythisprovisionisthatthephenomenonofextortingtheaccused'spopulationillegallybytortureandconfessionhasbeenrepeated,anditisbecomingmoreandmoreseriousObviously,theabovephenomenoniscompletelycontrarytothebasicspiritoftheprivilegerule,whichisoneoftheloweststandardsofjusticeininternationalcriminaljusticeSowhetheritisfromtheStateshallperformtheobligationtodeterminetheinternationalconvention,orfromthecurrentgrimsituationfacedbythecriminaljusticeinChinaareconcerned,arenecessarytotherelevantprovisionsofthecriminalprocedurallawtheninetythirdadjustments,andfurtherestablishagainstforcedselfevidenceofcrimeprincipleandcorrespondinglegalrules,suchas:theestablishmentofadefendanttoobtainillegalmethodsofexportsupplytotheexclusionaryrulethedefendantshouldenjoytherighttosilenceandtherightofbodyexaminationetc(two)thedefendantshouldhavetherighttoobtaincounselatanytimeandshouldfurtherexpandtherightsofthedefenselawyerintheinvestigation,reviewandprosecutionphaseAlthoughChina'sCriminalProcedureLawstipulatesthattheninetysixtharticlestipulatesthatlawyershavetherighttointerveneintheinvestigationstage,buttherearemanyrestrictionsSuchas:theinvestigationorganshallpresentProvisionsaccordingtothecircumstancesofthecaseandneedscasesinvolvingstatesecrets,thecriminalsuspecthiredalawyerandlawyermeetswiththecriminalsuspectincustodyshallbesubjecttotheapprovaloftheinvestigationorganSothatlawyerscannotinvestigateintheinvestigationstage,cannotcheckpapers,investigatorsquestionedthelawyercannotbepresentInjudicialpractice,thelawyer'srightofmeetingisrestrictedandinterferedbymanyhumanfactorsandcannotbeeffectivelyguaranteedItisdifficulttoplayaroleThissituationisfarfromthecontentoftheinternationalstandardsestablished"meetingshouldbecarriedoutinsecrecy"and"theaccusedshouldhavefullopportunity,timeandconvenientconditionstomeetthelawyer"andsoonSinceithasbeenrecognizedthatthelawyersinvolvedintheinvestigation,theinvestigationistopreventtheabuseoftheright,promotingtheproceduraljusticeofthepowerfulmeansofrelief,itisnecessaryinthecriminalprocedurelawtoestablishthedefendantrightslawyerhelpatanytime,shouldalsofurtherexpandthelawyerrightsininvestigationandprosecutionstageofthereview,suchasgivethedefenselawyersrightofinvestigationandevidencecollection,evidencepreservation,therighttoapplyforaccesstobooksandtherighttochangethemandatorymeasuressuchastherighttoapplyforToensurethatlawyerscaneffectivelyplaytheirrole(three)theaccusedshouldhavetherighttoaskthejudgetoreviewthecompulsorymeasuresAsstatedabove,inaccordancewithinternationalstandards,thedefendantenjoystherighttoremainfreefromunnecessarydetentionandtorequirejudgestoreview,modify,cancelcoercivemeasuresandobtainbailThatistosay,thegeneralprinciplesofcriminaljusticeisnotthedefendantincustodybeforetrial,mustacceptthejudicialscrutiny,andmustnotallowcompulsorymeasureswilllimitanddeprivethepersonalfreedomofthepeopleasameansofobtainingevidenceInaddition,determinethecorepositionofjudgesincriminalproceedingsanditscommitmenttotheauthoritativefunctionoflawsuit,thejudgeofcompulsorymeasuresrelatedtopersonalfreedomreviewinfullcompliancewiththerequirementsofproceduraljustice,andisconducivetotheunityofthelegalsystemofhumanrightsprotectionHowever,Chinacriminalprocedurelawtherighttoarrestanddetentiondecision,giventobeartheaccusationfunction,theburdenoftheprocuratorialorgansandthepublicsecurityorgans,thedefendanthasnosubstantiveproceduralremedy,thelackofnecessaryrestrictionmechanismTheallocationmodeofjudicialpowermakesthejudicialoperationhaveastrongarbitrariness,whichdirectlyposesathreattothelegitimaterightsofthedefendant,andhasbredvariousmalpracticesinthejudicialpracticeTherefore,itisnecessarytoamenditThechoiceofcomparativerationalityshouldbe:thejudgeshouldexercisethepowerofexaminationbycompulsorymeasuresthedefendanthastherighttoaskthejudgetoexaminethelegalityandimpartialityofcoercivemeasures(four)thefullrealizationoftheprincipleofequalitybetweenprosecutionanddefenseshouldbeensuredItisgenerallybelievedthat,Createaformofjusticeandequaljustice(Note:PierreLeroux:"theoryofequality",theCommercialPress,edition,pagetwentysecond)Astheequalityprincipleinmoderncriminalprocedurecoremechanism,theprosecutorandthedefendantaskedbothintheproceedingsshouldbeequallitigationsubject,equalrights,realizationofthesocalled"equalityofarms"neitherpartymayexertinfluenceontheoutoftheordinaryjudgethejudgeshouldbestrictlyneutral,shouldbegivenequalattentiononbothsidesofthelitigationclaimandtheevidencethejudgehastheobligationtoensurethefullrealizationoftheequalityEspeciallywhenthewitnesstestimonyandwhenasked,whetheritisawitnessfortheprosecutionordefensewitnesses,whetherthedefendantorwitnessforthedefendantwitness,thejudgeshouldbegiventhesameopportunitiesandconditionscannotbeproved,thisthickandthinHowever,duetotheprosecutorChineseincourtbutnotbearthefunctionsofprosecutionprosecutor,ortrialsupervisor,is"standingjudge",equalityofthepartiesinthelitigationstatusishardtoprotectthesocalledjusticeneutraljudgeavoidleaningtoeithersideoftheimage,butalsounderstrictsupervisionoftheprosecutorconstantlyunderattackandgraduallylostitsindependenceandconvergencewiththeprosecutorlitigationinterests,soastobuildtheequalprincipleinmoderncriminallitigationprocedurestheoreticalfoundation,itisdifficulttoChineseincriminalprocedurelawcompletelyestablishedSo,inordertorealizetheequalitybetweenprosecutionanddefense,toChinacurrent,alsoisagreatreformationofprocuratorialsystemoriginatedfromtheformerSovietUnion,especiallytorepositiontheroleandfunctionofprosecutorsincriminalproceedings,whichisnotforthelawsuitfunctionofjudicialsupervisionandcomplaintfunctionsetupseparatecompletelyTheinstitutionalbasisfortheconstructionoftheequalityofthelitigationstructure(five)thescopeoflegalaidshouldbeexpandedAftertheamendmentofthecriminalprocedurelawChinaestablishedthelegalaidsystem,thepublicprosecutorincourtcases,thedefendantduetofinancialdifficultiesorotherreasonsdidnotappointadefender,thecourtmaydesignatealegalaidlawyertodefenditisblind,deafanddumborminorsandthedefendantmaybesentencedtodeathnotentrustedtocounselforthedefendant,thecourtshalldesignatealegalaidlawyertodefenditsComparedwiththeoriginalcriminalprocedurelaw,itisundoubtedlyofhistoricsignificance,butitstillneedstobeimprovedincomparisonwithinternationalstandardsFirstofall,shouldextendlegalassistancetothedefendantthelegitimaterightsandinterestsofthemostvulnerabletoinfringementinvestigation,publicprosecutionstagesecondly,forallthedefendantsduetoeconomicdifficultiesanddoesnotappointadefender,shouldnotbegivenlegalaid,topreventthedefendantbecauseofpovertysufferedunfairtreatment,whichisalsointhecriminaljusticeisanimportantaspectthatcannotbeignoredtheprotectionofhumanright
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被告人诉讼权利与程序救济论纲——基于国际标准的分析(The defendant litigation rights and procedure of relief -- Analysis Based on the international standard)

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