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首页 语言学后半部分总结

语言学后半部分总结.doc

语言学后半部分总结

黄明功
2019-06-17 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《语言学后半部分总结doc》,可适用于外语资料领域

TypesofmorphemesFreemorphemeandboundmorphemeFreemorpheme:mayoccuralone,makeupwordsbythemselvesEg,dog,nationBoundmorpheme:theymustappearwithatleastonedifferentmorphemeEg,dogs,nationalRoot,affixandstemRoot:isthebaseformofawordthatcannotbefurtheranalyzedwithoutdestroyingitsmeaningAffix:prefix,suffixandinfixStem:isanymorphemeorcombinationofmorphemestowhichaninflectionalaffixcanbeadded,sobothfriendinfriendsandfriendshipinfriendshipsarestemsInflectionalaffixandderivationalaffix屈折词缀和派生词缀First,inflectionalaffixesaregenerallylessproductivethanderivationalaffixesDerivationalaffixesoftenchangethelexicalmeaningSecond,inflectionalaffixesdonotchangethewordclassofthewordtheyattachsuchasflower,flowers,whereasderivationalaffixesmight,astherelationshipbetweensmallandsmallnessThird,thatwhetheroneshouldaddinflectionalaffixesornotdependsveryoftenonotherfactorswithinthephraseorsentenceatstakeHowever,derivationalaffixesaremoreoftenbasedonsimplemeaningdistinctionsMostinflectionalaffixesaresuffixes,however,derivationalaffixescanbeeitherprefixes,suffixes,orbothatthesametimeTheinflectionalwayofformationInflectionindicatesgrammaticalrelationsbyaddinginflectionalaffixes,suchasnumber,person,finiteness,aspectandcaseThederivationalwayofformationDerivation,initsrestrictedsense,referstotheprocessofhownewwordsareformedItcanbefurtherdividedintotwosubtypes:thederivationaltype(derivation)andthecompositionaltype(compound)"derivation"hereisacovertermbothforthederivationandforthecompoundCohesionisaconcepttodowithdiscourseortextratherthanwithsyntax,itreferstorelationsofmeaningthatexistwithinthetext,anddefinesitasatextDiscoursaltextualcohesivenesscanberealizedbyemployingvariouscohesivedevices:conjunctions,ellipsis,lexicalcollocation,lexicalrepetition,reference,substitution,etcSynttoacticrelationpositionalrelation,orwordorder,referstothesequentialarrangementofwordsinalanguageEg,thedogran(ranthedogx)relationofsubstitutability,itreferstoclassesorsetsofwordssubstitutableforeachothergrammaticallyinsentenceswiththesamestructureanditreferstogroupsofmorethanonewordwhichmaybejointlysubstitutablegrammaticallyforasinglewordofaparticularsetrelationofcooccurrence,meansthatwordsofdifferentsetsofclausesmaypermit,orparticularpartofasentenceMetaphorEg:timeismoney(xisy)xistargetdomainYissourcedomainontologicalmetaphor:meansthathumanexperienceswithphysicalobjectsprovidethebasisforwaysofviewingevents,activities,emotions,ideas,etc,asentitiesandsubstancesEg,inflationisanentityStructuralmetaphor:playsthemostimportantrolebecauseitallowsustogobeyondorientationandreferringandgivesusthepossibilitytostructureoneconceptaccordingtoanotherThismeansthatstructuralmetaphorsaregroundedinourexperienceEg,argumentiswarOrientionalmetaphor:isgroundedinanexperientialbasis,whichlinktogetherthetwopartsofthemetaphorOrientionalmetaphorsarebasedonhumanphysicalandculturalexperienceEg,happyisupsadisdownMetonymyInthecognitiveliterature,isdefinedasacognitiveprocessinwhichthevehicleprovidesmentalaccesstothetargetwithinthesamedomainMetonymyinthecognitiveliteratureismodeledasidealizedcognitivemodels(ICMs)WehavethreeICMsinontologicalrealms:signICMs,referenceICMsandconceptICMsAtheoryoftheillocutionaryactThreesenses:,whenwespeakwemoveourvocalorgansandproduceanumberofsounds,organizedinacertainwayandwithacertainmeaningWhensomebodysays"Morning!",wecanaskaquestionlike"whatdidhedo"insteadof"whatdidhesay"andanswercouldbethatheproducedasound,wordorsentence"morning!"theactperformedinthissenseiscalledalocutionaryact言内行为,wenotonlyproducesomeunitsoflanguagewithcertainmeanings,butalsomakeclearourpurposeinproducingthem,theweintendthemtobeunderstood,ortheyalsohavecertainforcesthesecondsenseinwhichtosaysomethingistodosomething,andtheactperformedisknownasanillocutionaryact言外之意,thethirdsenseinwhichtosaysomethingcanmeantodosomethingconcernstheconsequentialeffectsofalocutionuponthehearerBytellingsomebodysomethingthespeakermaychangetheopinionoftheheareronsomething,ormisleadhim,orsurprisehim,orinducehimtodosomethingThislocutionaryactiscalledaperlocutionaryact言后行为CP原则(thecooperativeprinciple)Fourcategoriesofmaxims:Quantity:makeyourcontributionasinformativeasisrequireddonotmakeyourcontributionmoreinformativethanisrequiredQuality:trytomakeyourcontributiononethatistrue(donotsaywhatyoubelievetobefalseorthatyoulackadequateevidence)Relation:berelevantManner:beperspicuous(avoidobscurityofexpressionavoidambiguitybebriefbeorderly)

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语言学后半部分总结

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