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首页 叔本华杂喻 仁爱的德行(Schopenhauer the virtues of miscella…

叔本华杂喻 仁爱的德行(Schopenhauer the virtues of miscellaneous benevolence).doc

叔本华杂喻 仁爱的德行(Schopenhauer the vi…

宋洪生
2018-02-03 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《叔本华杂喻 仁爱的德行(Schopenhauer the virtues of miscellaneous benevolence)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

叔本华杂喻仁爱的德行(Schopenhauerthevirtuesofmiscellaneousbenevolence)叔本华杂喻仁爱的德行(Schopenhauerthevirtuesofmiscellaneousbenevolence)Schopenhauer:Txtloveyumiscellaneousvirtuesisamountainfox,youtoldmewhatall,standingintheplacenearesttoyou,lookyousmiletoothers,eveniftheheartisallthepainjusttoputyoureveryactandeverymoveapanoramicviewDazzlingwhite,letmeunderstandwhatispurehurtSchopenhauer:YuYuAuthor:Schopenhauerarticlesource:reprinthits:updatetime:Inafamiliarfields,Istandinarelentlesspaceontheplace,lookingahead,theripecropsdensedenseset,upright,earfullnessSuddenly,theyseeaclustersofflowersthatariotofcolours,withadelicateflowerriotouswithcolourleaves,carefreeandcontentinlong,looksverybeautiful,theythinkagain,whatistheuseTheyarenotonlyaresultofweedstrains,becausenoonesurvivederadicationOfcourse,inthisvastfields,itisdifficulttoseesomeflowersItisasymbolofpoetryandartInsociallife,itiselegant,useful,andnotentirelywithoutfruitButitsfunctionisnotasgoodasthatofwildflowersinthefieldTwoTheworldisreallycharmingandbeautifulscenery,theimagecontrast,isvulgar,orleavethemalone!FliesshouldbeasymbolofaudacityandrecklessnessAllanimalwereshunned,peoplearenotclosetoitwhentheyfled,butthefliesarefallingonthenoseTwoEuropeChinese,whentheyfirstwalkedintothetheaterdoors,oneonthestagedevice,andimmediatelysaidtounderstanditsworkingprincipleanotherdespitethelanguagebarrierwouldliketounderstandthestoryFromthetwoofyou,youwillknowwhatanastronomerisandwhataphilosopherisThewisdomthatremainsintheoryandcannotbepaidislikeatwoleafrose,brightlycoloredandfragrant,butleavesitsseedswhenitwithersWell,roseshavethorns,butthornsdon'tallrosesTheappletree,anordinarygraceful,fullofhoneysuckleBehindtheappletreewasatallfirwithaslightlydarktaperinghead"Lookatmybrilliantflowers,tensofthousandsofthem,"theapplesaidtothefir"Youcan'tcomparewithmeItwon'tbeyourdarkgreenneedles"""Yes,"repliedthefir,"however,thewinterapproaching,youhavewhattoshowoff,butIstill"Once,whenIcollectedunderanoaktree,foundinapieceofgrassstrewnatrandom,butasmallsaplings,adarkgreen,leafygreenWhenItouchitwhenittonesaidfirmly:"leaveme,IamnotsuitableforyouIlikethegrassonlyspecimens,naturehasgivenayearoflife,Iamanacorn"Forthosewhohavefarreachinginfluence,childhood,youth,oradulthood,andeventhewholelifeistoliveinthepublic,seemstobeverysmall,veryordinaryButifheweretostarthisownbusiness,hewouldneverdiewiththemassesHewhotreasurestimewillforgivehimWhenonesitsonaballoonandfliesintothesky,hedoesnotfeelelevated,butfeelsthegroundissinkingOnlythesubtletruthwillcometolightYourestimateofaperson'sstatureisofteninfluencedbythedistanceyouhavewithhimHowever,ifyouconsiderhisbodyormentalstate,thereareboundtobetwodiametricallyopposedsituationsWhenyoulookatapersoninthedistance,youwillthinkheisverysmallAtthesamedistance,youwillfeelthatanotherpersonisverytallThenaturalbeautyofGoddecorateeveryoneofherworks,wasbornlikepearsorplumsontheskinlayerofsoftandveryfragrantbloomsPaintersandpoetssparenoeffortinthepursuitofthiskindofbeauty,andshowthemfromtheirworks,anddedicatethemtoussothatwecanenjoytheminourleisuretimeBeforewebegintounderstandlifeitself,wehavebeenimmersedinthisbeautyOncethedayafterwitnessingthebeautyofnature,ithasallgone,becauseartistshavealreadyexhaustedthiskindofbeauty,wehaveenjoyedInfact,theworldisoftenpresentedinaveryvulgarform,whichisneitherinvitingnorevenannoyingLet'sgoandfindthebeautyourselves!Maybethefactthatwedonotneedalargeandrushtoenjoythiskindofbeauty,shouldnotbesosubtlepictureperfect,norshouldsuchaperfectpoem,everythingshouldbetheirowneyestoobservenature,thosedarlingdon'tseeitthatway,theyarenotintheartwiththehelpofpretastingbeautyjoy,nottooearlytocapturethebeautyoflifeAroundtheMainzCathedral,isahouse,theytightlyaroundthecathedral,sothatpeoplecanhardlyfindaplacewhereitcanbeapanoramicviewoftheworld,perhapsthisisthesymbolofallgreatorbeautifulthingsThechurchshouldbeheldareligiousceremony,butpeopleinthelateritwillbeusedinabovehavenothingtodowiththeservicetoobtainalmsandrelieffromthechurchtoholdpeoplefromallsidesfromtheirattempttohindertheroleofthechurch,destroyedtheinfluenceofthechurch,whichwasnotwhattogetexcitedoveralittlethingBecauseofscarcity,lackofpeople,toseizeallcansatisfypersonaldesires,butwithoutexception,eventhoseforthemselvesandnotfortheneedsofthepeopleandthethingsthatexist,andthisisalsotrueThen,madeaspecialexplanationanddemonstrationofpublicinstitutions,thatis,regardlessofthesizeoftherichandthepoor,nomatterisbuiltinwhattime,canmaintainandpromotetheconstructionofhumanknowledgeonthatpieceofland,canalsobesaidthathumanbeingsbecomenobleintellectualachievementsalsogethelpNomatterwheretheseinstitutions,peoplesoonhopetopursuethespecialpurposestepclosertothem,thesepeoplereallytemptedbydesire,attemptedtostealbelongstoeveryone'sinterests,inordertomeettheirvulgarandvileanimalinstinct,infact,invariousfieldsofknowledgewillbetheexistenceofsuchtheswindlerTheychangetheirfacesatdifferenttimesaccordingtodifferentcircumstances,butinrealitytheydonotknowanythingabouttheknowledge,onlywantthefurofknowledge,andserveforhisselfishanddespicablepurposeTheheroseemsmightySamson,heroesarealwaysaffectedbynumerouslivingbeingsofdeception,untilhefinallylostpatience,hewillbewiththenumerouslivingbeingsdie,orlikeLilliput'sgreaver,bycountlessvillainsintippingAmotheraskedherchildrentoreadAesop'sfables,hopingtoeducateandenlightenthemButsoon,theybringbackthebook,inwhicholderchildren(heismorematurethanotherchildren)said:inmyopinion,thisisnotwhatweseethebook,itistoonaivetoostupid,forourchildrenatthisage,whodonotbelievethatthefoxandthewolfwillsay,thisbookisreallynotsuitableforustoreadFromtheseyounghopes,wecanseetheprogressoftherationalfigureofthefutureInacoldwinter,aporcupinetokeepwarmandhuddledtogether,whentheyarethornsbuttheirsting,theyimmediatelyspread,butthecoldweatherandthattheyhaveonceagainpushedtogether,againseparatelyAftersorepeatedly,theyfinallyknowornottoleavetoofar,butalsocannotsqueezeapieceSimilarly,socialneedsalsobringhumanbeingstogetherlikeaporcupine,buthumanbeingsareinherentlypricklyanddifficulttolivewith,whichrepelspeoplefromeachotherFinally,itwasfoundthatthedistancetheycouldtoleratewasonlymoderate,That'sapolitegentleman'sagreementOnlywhensuchanagreementisviolatedwilltherebearudewarning,whichiscalled"estrangedfromeachother"byanEnglishman'swarning"Onlyinthisway,thewarmthoftheneed,althoughonlyasmallsatisfaction,butitwillnothurttheothersideAwarmpersonisalwaysaloneritdoesneitherstingnorstingSchopenhauer:thevirtueofbenevolenceAuthor:Schopenhauerarticlesource:reprinthits:updatetime:Therefore,justiceisthefirstessentialmotonoriAncientphilosophersalsorecognizeditasavirtue,buttieditwiththreeothersortsofillchosenvirtuesCharityhasnotyetbeenlistedasavirtuePlatonhimselfwasamongthehighestinmoralscience,butheonlytouchedvoluntary,disinterestedjusticeLovedoesinpracticeandinfacthasalwaysbeentherebutitislefttoChristianityinthisrespectcanseeitsgreatestcontributionintheoryissummarized,anddeliberatelyadvocatesbenevolence,notonlyregarditasakindofvirtue,butasthecrownofallvirtueandeventotheenemytoloveOfcourse,we'rejustthinkingofeuropeBecauseinAsia,onethousandyearsago,notonlyprovidesapersontoteachandtheneighbor'sinfinitelove,andpeoplehavebeeninpractice:"Veda"(Veda)arewelldescribedandinthe"law"(DharmaSastra),"historybiography"(Itihasa)and"Purana"(Purana)alsocontinuetoappearthiskindoftraining,nottomentionShakyaMuniBuddha'spreachingMoreprecisely,weshouldadmitthat,amongtheGreeksandRomans,canseesignsoflovetaughttopersuadepeopleforexample,inthedefinitionofCicero"theoryofgoodandevil"(DeFinibus)fifth,Volume,accordingtoYangBradley(Iamblichos)canbethe"PythagoreanAdamsbiography"(DeUitaPythagorae)ofPythagorasinthethirtythirdchapter,thereareMytasknowistoexplainhowIderivethevirtueofbenevolencephilosophically,basedontheprinciplesIhaveputforwardInthefifthpartofthischapterhasprovedthatthepainofothersitselfcandirectlyintomyownmotives,theonlyreasonisthatIonlyseethemwithemotion,althoughitsrootsisstillshroudedinmysterylayersandwearealreadyseeingthisonewiththeinitialstageoftheprocessisnegativeThesecondstageisdistinctfromthefirststagebecausetheactionsproducedfromthisphasehavepositivecharacteristics,becauseatthistimecompassiondoesnotmerelypreventmefromharmingmyneighbor,butmotivatesmetohelphimAccordingtooneaspectofmydirectandsharpandprofoundsenseofparticipation,ontheotherhand,theseriousandurgentdanger,Ifeelthismotivation,(pleasenotethatitiscompletelypureandmoral)forcedmetomakeasmallsacrifice,toeachother'sneedsoreviltocopewithwhatIseethismayincludeasacrificemyphysicalstrengthorenergyconsumption,myproperty,freedomorevenlossoflifeSointhisdirectlywiththeotherstastethepain,thisisnotbasedonanyargument,alsodonotneedwhatarguments,itisfoundthatthekindnessandloveofGodandloveofthesimpleroots,inotherwords,themoralbehaviorruleisthis:"doyouforcetohelpallthepeople"allthoseproducedaccordingtotherulesofaction,knownastheethicsmoralobligation,orcalledloveobligation,imperfectobligationThisdefinitionofbehaviorarisesentirelyfromdirectparticipation,canbesaidtobetheinstinctweseethepaincausedbysympathyinotherwords,theminimum,whilethebehaviorwecansaythatithasthemoralvalue,thatistosay,todeclareitnoselfishmotives,andwhenistherefore,tomeettheinnerconscienceitmakesusfeelgood,canbecalledsatisfaction,,Thespectator(don'tmakehimfeelashamedguilty)akindofdeepknownandundeniableJiaXu,respectandreverence,itmustbecausedbysympathyAccordingtoPlatoteachings,justiceitselfincludingwisdom,perseveranceandotherkindsofmoralrestraintForAristotle,justiceisalsotheheadofallmoralityandthelatteristhatvirtuemanifestsitselfinmainformsofjuxtaposition:wisdom,justice,consolidationandrestraintButifthereisanyothermotiveforacharitableact,ifitisnotmalicious,itmustbeselfishorselfishBecauseasthebasicsourceofallhumanbehavior(seethefifthchapter),namelyegoism,evilandsympathysocanaffectpeopleofeverykindofmotivationisdividedintocategories:()theirownhappiness()themisfortuneofothers()otherpeople'shappinessThen,ifagoodmotivedoesnotbelongtotheabovethirdcategories,itnaturallyfallsintothefirstorsecondcategorySometimesitcanbeclassifiedintosecondcategoriesforexample,ifIdosomethingforsomeone,isanotherpersoninordertomakemeangryorhostilemakethelattermorepainor,maybeusedtohumiliateathirdrefusedtogivehelpor,finally,istomakepeoplesufferfrommeButthemotiveforsuchgooddeedsisusuallyderivedfromthefirstkindThefactisthat,wheneverIdosomethinggood,Iconsidermyownhappiness,nomatterhowfarawayitmaybeorhowindirectthatis,wheneverIhavetorepaytheinfluenceofideologyinthisworldorintheafterlife,ortowinthehighlyrespected,hopetoinfluencethecharacterofreputationor,whenIconsidernowIhelppeoplemayalsohelpmeoneday,oryoumightgivemesomebenefitsandservicesorfinally,whenI'mthisthought,thatIshouldobeytherulesofnobleandcharitablepractice,becauseImayalsohavethechancetobenefitfromInanutshell,unlessmymotivationissimplynottoknowmyneighborshaveanulteriormotivetogetassistancefromdangerorgetridofhispain,suchapuresubjectivedesire,itisselfish,selfishIfsuchapurposeinfactitcompletelylostsubjectivity,reallyismypurpose,then,ifandonlyifatthattime,Ihavegivenlove,love,lovetoprovethatGodexists,Christianityhasbeenpreachedtopersuadepeopletolove,thisisagreatachievementofitsspecialItshouldbenotedthatinthisregard,oneofthefourGospelsinitaboutlovecommands,plussomeinstructions,forexample,"donotletyourlefthandknowwhatyourrighthandisdoing",andsoon,infact,isestablishedonthebasisoftheconclusionIhaveconsciousnessThatis,ifwhatIdoisamoralvalue,then,mymotivationmustbeentirelybythesufferingofothers,withoutanymoreIthoughtnaturallyarousedAndinthesameplace("Matthewsixth:)weseethatitshowsabsoluteauthenticity,boastoftheircharity,"hasfullyreceivedtheirreward:Godcompletelylosttheirreward"Inthisrespect,however,theVedasalsoshowusamorenoblelessonTheyhaverepeatedlydeclaredthatthosewhowantanykindofrewardfortheirownworkarestillwanderinginthedarkroad,groping,notyetmaturetothepointofliberationIfanyoneasksmewhathecandowithcharity,mysincereansweris:"yougivealltherelieftothepooronlyalittle,andabsolutelynothing"Ifyouarenotsatisfied,feelthatnotenoughisyourpurpose,thenyouwanttheoriginalisnotcharity,butmakeadealandyouhavemadethemawayButifyoucareaboutisthathewillfeelthepressureofpovertyisrelativelysmall,soyouhavereachedyourdestinationyouhaveeasedhispain,andyoucanfullyunderstandthatyougivetogetbigreturns"Butitwasnotmyowntroubleortrouble,andIcouldnotbeinfluencedbyitHowcoulditbecomeasifitweremyowndifficulty,andwhatmotivatedmetoactlikethatAsIhaveexplained,thisisbecause,althoughthedifficultyfromvisualorauditoryexternalintermediaryopinion,isjustsomethingotherthanmyownbutIknowitisthevictimofthedifficultiesIfeelthedifficultieslikemyself,Iamnotactuallyinhere,butinhimtheredifficultTherefore,Calderon(Calderon)hadsuchalongtimeago:"BecauseIneverknew"Betweenthepainandthepain,What'sthedistance"Theworstisnotalwaystrue,NOsiempreelpeorescierB,to,Jorn,II,P)However,asaprerequisitefortheabove,andtosomeextent,Ihavebecomethesameasothers,andthusthebarriersbetweenselfandnonselfaretemporarilybrokenIfandonlyifatthattime,Iputhisinterests,hisneeds,hismisfortune,hispainintomyowninterests,needs,andsufferingatthattime,myimpressionoftheexperiencehedisappeared,Icannotseeit,andI'mcompletelydifferentindifferentstrangersbutIsharehimdisaster,althoughhehasliterallynoskinenclosureonmynervesOnlyinthiswaycanhisgriefbecomemymotiveforhisdisasterotherwise,IshallbeinfluencedonlybymyownmotivesIrepeat,theprocessismysteriousBecausetheprocessisrational,itcannotbeexplaineddirectly,anditscauseisbeyondexperienceButthat'swhathappenseverydayEveryonefeltthisactionorprocessofhishearteventhehardestheartselfishpeople,heisnotawareofthispointLifeeveryday,weseeitinasmallrangeofsingleactionnomatterwhattime,thereisalwayssomeone,nothowmanyfalsethinkingunabletorestraintheemotions,willhelppeople,sometimesinordertogiveassistance,hehadneverbeenseeninthepast,evenwillingtotakegreatrisks,hedidso,anddidnotconsiderwhatelsethingsjustbecausehesawgreatgriefanddistressofanotherpersonThisprocesshasalsobeendemonstratedinawiderange,nobleBritishnationalsinthelongtermandmanyfiercedebate,blackslavestoitscolonialwithtwentymillionpoundsransom,makepeople'spraiseandjoyintheworldCauseifanyonerefusestoacknowledgethisgrandnobleactioniscompassion,ratheritisattributedtotheChristianwordspleaserememberhim,allinthe"NewTestament",evennotawordaboutagainstslavery,butintheactualperiodofslaveryiswidespreadfurther,aslateasInAmerica,whendiscussingthisproblem,thereisapersonwiththehelpofAbrahamJacobslaveryasanexample,anattempttopleadhiscase!Themysteriousinnerprocessoractualeffectineachindividualcase,canbelefttotheethicschaptersectionstoanalyze,withthetitle"moralobligation"and"loveobligations"and"incompleteobligations"orothernomatterwhatthenamecanbeAlloftheseroots,thisisafoundation,haspointedouthere,becausethefirstcommandmentto"doyouforcetohelpallthepeople"iscausedbytherootandfoundationitiseasytoderivealltheotherthingsrequiredfromthereasfrom"withoutprejudicetoany"myprinciplesfirsthalfcanbededucedalltheobligationsofjusticeEthicsis,infact,theeasiestscienceofallButthisisonlyourhope,becausetoconstructtheirownethicsistheboundendutyofeveryperson,andhisownbasicrulestousehiddeninmyheartforeachcasetoformulaterulesofactionbecausealmostnoonehasenoughleisuretimeandpatiencetolearnreadymadeethicssystemAlltheothervirtuesandvirtuearefromjusticeandbenevolencesproutthereforethesetwovirtuescalledtraditionalethicsisappropriate,andrevealitsoriginalsolaidthecornerstoneofmoralphilosophyThewholeethicalcontentoftheOldTestamentisjustice,andbenevolenceisthewholeethicalcontentofthenewtestamentLoveisaneworder(John,thirteenth,),whichincludesallthevirtuesofChristianity,accordingtoPaul(Bookthirteenth,,,andRome)

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