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首页 英语定语从句

英语定语从句.doc

英语定语从句

能在一起就是安好
2018-08-06 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语定语从句doc》,可适用于领域

英语定语从句英语谚语欣赏Hewhoknowsnothingbutpretendstoknoweverythingisindeedagoodfor–nothing不懂装懂一事无成It’sthefirststepthatcosts千里之行始于足下Hethatmakeshimselfasheepshallbeeatenbythewolf甘当小绵羊迟早要喂狼一、概念:()定语从句:在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。()先行词:被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词短语或整个主句。()关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词分为关系代词和关系副词。()关系词的作用:)先行词和定语从句之间连接主从句)替代先行词)在从句中作句子成分(可以做主语宾语表语定语状语)二、句子结构:主句(先行词)关系代词副词从句npron定语从句三、定语从句分类:定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰限制作用若去掉它先行词不能明确表示其所指对象先行词和定语从句之间无逗号非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充说明作用先行词和定语从句之间有逗号隔开非限制性定语从句相当于并列句、状语从句等。Hehastwosons,whoworkinthesamecompany(Hehasonlytwosons)他有两个儿子他们在同一家公司上班。Hehastwosonswhoworkinthesamecompany(Perhapshehasmorethantwosons)他有两个在同一家公司上班的儿子。四、定语从句三步:第一找出先行词第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语)第三选择合适的关系词。五、关系词分类:分类关系词先行词作用who人主语、宾语、关系代词whom人宾语whose人物定语that人物主语、宾语、表which物主、宾、表、定when时间状语关系副词where地点状语why原因状语六几个关系代词的基本用法:that:可指人或物在定语从句中作主语宾语表语。(指人时相当于who或whom指物时相当于which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句不可置于介词后作宾语)如:Aletterthatwhichiswritteninpencilisdifficulttoread(主语)DoyouknowthegentlemanthatwhospokejustnowYoucantakeanything(that)youlike(宾语)Whatisthequestion(thatwhich)theyaretalkingaboutHereistheman(whowhomthat)youwanttoseeShe'snolongerthegirl(that)sheusedtobebefore(表语)Ourhometownisnolongertheone(that)itusedtobe=Ourhometownisnotthesameasitusedtobe=Ourhometownisdifferentfromwhatitusedtobe。=Ourhometownisnotwhatitusedtobewhich:指物在定语从句中作主语宾语表语定语。如:Thebookwhichthatwasonthedeskwasboughtbymyfather(主语)Thebook(whichthat)Iboughtyesterdayisveryinteresting(宾语)ThefactoryinwhichhisfatherworksisfarfromhereHewasproud,whichhisbrotherneverwas(表语)Tomspentfouryearsincollege,duringwhichtimehelearnedFrench(定语)Hemaybelate,inwhichcaseweoughttowaitforhimwho,whom,whose:who:主格,在从句中作主语在口语或非正式用法中作宾语只可指人whom:宾格在从句中作宾语只可指人whose:属格在从句中作定语可指人也可指物。Ilikethestudentswhothatworkhard(主语)Allwhoheardthestorywereamazed(代词如he,they,any,those,all,one等后多用who)Chaplin,forwhomlifehadoncebeenveryhard,wasasuccessasanactor(宾语)He'samanfromwhomweshouldlearn=He'saman(whomwhothat)weshouldlearnfrom比较:HeisthestudentwhomyouthinktobeworthyofyourpraiseHeisthestudentwhoyouthinkisworthpraisingAchildwhoseparentsaredeadiscalledanorphan(指人)I'dlikearoomwhosewindowfacessouth(指物)=I'dlikearoomofwhichthewindowfacessouth=I'dlikearoomthewindowofwhichfacessouthThereisateapotshapedlikeaChineseduck,outofwhosemouthteaissupposedtocome关系代词作介词宾语:关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时,介词可放于从句之首,也可放于从句之末但以放于句首较为正式(介词前置必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词who和that用作介词宾语时,介词必须放在句末)Thisisthebookforwhichyouasked=Thisisthebook(thatwhich)youaskedforDoyouknowthepersonwithwhomIshookhands,=Doyouknowtheperson(whomwhothat)IshookhandswithThebeginningofagriculturewasabigstepinhumanprogresswithwhichnothingcouldcompareuntilourinformationageInthedarkstreet,therewasn'tasinglepersontowhomshecouldturnforhelpIsthisthefactorytowhichyoupaidavisitlastweekIsthisfactorytheonetowhichyoupaidavisitlastweekThisisthegirlwhomtheyarelookingafter(介词after与look构成固定词组不可前置。lookat,lookfor,lookafter,takecareof等)as的用法:(as引导定语从句,在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语)如为限制性的多用于thesame„asthesameassuch„as„asmanymuchasso„as等结构中。如:※Ihavethesamebookasyou(have)我有一本和你的一样的书。Herattitudetohimwasquitethesameasithadalwaysbeen(关系代词as和指示代词same连用,在从句中用作表语,先行词是same)Whydidn'tyoumentionthatinfaceofthepolicejustnowIthoughtitwassuchaminordetailaswashardlyworthmentioningWewillonlydiscusssuchproblemsashavesomethingtodowithourowninterestsDon'tdosuchthingsasyouarenotsureaboutThereisnosuchplaceasyoudreamofinallthisworld比较:IliveinthesamehousethatheusedtoliveinI'mwearingthesameshirtasyouworeyesterday比较:Hereissobigastoneasnoonecanlift(定语从句)Hereissobigastonethatnoonecanliftit(结果状语从句)如为非限制性的多单独引导一个定语从句这种定语从句可置于句首句中或句尾译为"正如这一点"。(动词常为know,see,expect,pointout,etc)Asweallknow,smokingisharmfultoone'shealth(as作宾语)=Asisknowntoall,smokingisharmfultoone'shealth(as作主语)=It'sknowntoallthatsmokingisharmfultoone'shealth=Smokingisharmfultoone'shealth,asweallknow(as作宾语)=Smoking,asweallknow,isharmfultoone'healthHewasaforeigner,asIknewfromhisaccent(宾语,先行词是前面整个句子)七、关系副词引导的定语从句:When指时间在定语从句中作时间状语。其先行词是表时间的名词(如:time,day,week,tear,month,etc)HecamelastnightwhenIwasoutWewillputoffthepicnicuntilnextweek,whentheweatherwouldbebetter注意:先行词为"时间名词"可用when引导定语从句when在定语从句中作状语还可以用which或that引导which或that在从句中作主语或宾语。比较:Istillrememberthedaywhenonwhichmybrotherjoinedthearmy(作状语)Nextmonth,whenyouwillbeinyourhometown,isjustaroundthecornerIstillrememberthedayswhichthatwespenttogether(作宾语)Nextwinterwhichthatyou'llspendinHarbin,I'msure,willbeexcitingIshallneverforgetthedaywhenShenZhouwaslaunched,whichhasagreateffectonmylifeThereareoccasionswhenjokingisnotpermissibleWhere指地点在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词如:place,school,factory,room,etcThisistheplacewhereIwasbornIliveintheroomwhereinwhichheusedtolive注意:先行词是"地点名词"定语从句可用where引导还可用which或that引导whichthat在从句中作主语或宾语。比较:※Thisisthefactorywhereinwhichheworkedlastyear(作状语)ThetreatmentwillcontinueuntilthepatientreachesthepointwherehecanwalkcorrectlyandsafelyIthinkyouhavegottothepointwhereachangeisneeded,oryouwouldfailGovernmentreports,legalpapersandmostbusinesslettersarethemainsituationswhereEnglishisusedHe'sgothimselfintoadangeroussituationwherehe'slikelytolosecontroloftheplaneThesmallmountainvillagewherewespentourholidaylastmonthliesinwhattheplacewhichisnowpartofHubeiThisistheparkwhichthattheyvisitedlastyear(作宾语)Nothavingbeentherebefore,hesimplyhadnoideaabouttheplace,whicheveryonesaysisworthvisitingWhy指原因在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为reason时可用forwhich指代当关系词在从句中作主语或宾语时则用which或that引导。如:Thereasonwhyforwhich(that)hedidn'tattendthemeetingwasthathewasillIdon'tbelievethereason(thatwhich)hegaveme(作宾语)Haveyouaskedhimthereasonthatmayexplainhissuccess(作主语)Ex)HewaslateThat'sbecausehegotuplateHegotuplateThat'swhyhewaslate(表语从句)(thereason)whyforwhichhewaslate(定语从句)当先行词为way时定语从句常用that,inwhich,或how引导that常可以省略。way后的定语从句的引导词不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语时则用which或that引导。如:Thisistheway(that)inwhichIdosuchthings比较:Pleasedotheexperimentintheway(thatwhich)Ihaveshownyou八限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别:形式上非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。语法上非限制性定语从句一般不用that语义上限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密对先行词起限定修饰作用是指特定的人或物不可省略否则意义就不完整非限制性定语从句是对主句或主句的一部分进行补充或说明若省略从句原句意思仍然完整。ThisisthebookIlikebest这就是我最喜欢的那本书。Beijing,whichhasbeenChina'scapitalformorethanyears,isrichinculturalandhistoricrelics北京是中国八百年之久的古都它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。翻译时限制性定语从句可译为一句(较短的一般译为"的"字结构)而非限制性定语从句可译为两句。(见上句翻译)比较:Hehasasister,whoisamusicianHehasasisterwhoisamusician、非限制性定语从句用法:)先行词可以是整个主句也可以是主句的一部分还可以是一个词或词组限制性定语从句先行词一般是词或短语。)主从句之间有逗号)关系代词和关系副词在任何情况下都不能省略)Who(主、宾)which(主、宾)不能用that代替也不能互相替换。)在“介词whichwhom”引导的从句结构中介词不能移到从句的后面。)引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词指人时用who,whom,whose,指物时用which,whose关系副词whenwhere,why,etcHestudiedhardatschoolwhenhewasyoung,whichleadstohissuccessinhislaterlifeTom'sfather,whoarrivedjustnow,isafamousscientistTheysetupaseparatestateoftheirown,wheretheywouldbefreetokeepNegroesasslavesHewasproud,whichhisbrotherneverwas九、几个易混淆的关系代词的比较:thatwhich:在定语从句中which和that在指代事物时一般可以互换使用但并非在任何情况下都是这样这里介绍宜用that,而不宜用which的情况:先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,theone等,WeshoulddoallthatisusefultothepeopleThere'snothingthatcanbesaidaboutitDoyoumeantheonethatwasboughtyesterday先行词被only,any,few,little,no,just,very,oneof等词修饰时。TheonlythingthatwecoulddowastowaitThat'stheverywordthatiswronglyusedThelastplace(that)wevisitedwasthechemicalworksYoucantakeany(=whichever)seatthatisfreeIhopethelittlethatIcanwillbeofsomehelptothem比较*Thisisoneofthebestnovelsthatwerepublishedlastyear*Thisistheonlyoneofthebestnovelsthatwaspublishedlastyear先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。WhenwetalkaboutWuxi,thefirstthatcomesintomindisTaiLakeThisisthethirdfilmthathasbeenshowninourschoolthisterm先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。ThisisthebestthatcanbedonenowThemostimportantthingthatshouldbedonerightnowishowtostophimfromgoingon先行词既有人又有物用which和who都不适合这时宜用that如:ThewriterandhisnovelthatyouhavejusttalkedaboutisreallywellknownTheriderandhisbikethathadrunoveranoldwomanwereheldupbythepolice被修饰词为数词时YesterdayIcaughttwofishandputtheminabasinofwaterNowyoucanseethetwothatarestillalive如果有两个从句其中一个关系代词已用which,另一个关系代词宜用that以避免语言的单调或重复。Edisonbuiltupafactorywhichproducedthingsthathadneverbeenseenbefore疑问词是who或which关系代词宜用that以避免重复。WhichisthebookthatyoulikebestWhoisthemanthatisstandingatthegate主句是Therebe结构修饰其主句的定语从句宜用that作关系代词如:Thereisstillaseatinthecornerthatisstillfree被修饰成分为表语时或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用thatThat'sagoodbookthatwillhelpyoualotMyhomevillageisnolongertheplace(that)itusedtobe定语从句中宜用which而不宜用that的情况:当关系代词的前面有介词时但当介词放在从句末尾时可以用that替代。AzooisaparkinwhichmanykindsofanimalsarekeptforexhibitionIsthistheroominwhichMrWhitelivesIknowtheman(whomwhothat)youlivewith在非限制性定语从句中Crusoe'sdog,whichwasarenowveryold,becameillanddiedMoreandmorepeoplearebeginningtolearnEnglish,whichisbecomingverypopularinourcountry(which指代主句)在一个句子中有两个定语从句其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了that,另一个宜用whichLetmeshowyouthenovelthatIborrowedfromthelibrarywhichwasnewlyopentousAtthestationIboughtsomemagazinesthatmighthelpmetopassthetimeonthetrainandwhichIcouldpassontootherswhenIfinishedthem当关系代词后面带有插入语时Here'stheEnglishgrammarwhich,asIhavetoldyou,willhelpimproveyourEnglish先行词本身是that,宜用whichWhat'sthatwhichsheislookingat先行词是those复数名词Ashopshouldkeepastockofthosegoodswhichsellbest(B)whothat:who和that指代人时有些情况宜用who,而不宜用that先行词为指人的anyone,anybody,those,all,any,few,those,one,ones,they,he,people时如:ThepersonIwanttolearnfromistheonewhostudieshardandworkswellAnyonewho(=Whoever)failedtocometothemeetingyesterdaymustgivehisreasonThosewhoarenotfitfortheirworkshouldleaveofficeatonceIdon'tliketheones(=those)whotalkbigPersonswhoarequarrelsomearedespised在Therebe结构中修饰主语的定语从句宜用关系代词who指代人如:ThereisagentlemanwhowantstoseeyouThereareseveralstudentsinourclasswhoarestillnotsureabouttheuseofattributiveclauses当先行词有较长的后置定语时如:ImetaforeignerintheparkyesterdayafternoonwhocouldspeakChineseverywell一个句子中带有两个定语从句其中一个定语从句的关系代词是that,另一个则宜用who,以免重复如:Thestudentthatwaspraisedatyesterday'smeetingisthemonitorwhoisverymodestandworksveryhardwhose名词=ofwhomthe名词:whose做前置定语和名词连接紧密可以直接修饰名词。ofwhom做后置定语和名词连接不紧密要修饰独立的名词而名词必须有冠词(戴帽子)因此要用thenameofwhom(介词提前只适用于不及物动词介词宾语的情况)aswhich:)相同点两者引导非限制性定语从句时可指代主句中的部分或整个句子的内容在从句中做主语宾语或表语位于主句之后有时可互换。Themeetingwasputoff,aswhichwasexactlywhatwewantedHewasadoctor,aswhichIknewfromhismanner)不同点位置的不同:which引导的定语从句只置于所限制的句子后as位置较灵活也就是说as可置于所限制的句子前面插在句子中或放在句子后。如:Hewaslateagain,whichmadehisteacherveryangryJack,asyouknow,isanhonestman或Jackisanhonestman,asyouknow或Asyouknow,Jackisanhonestman先行词的不同:as引导非限制性定语从句时其先行词多为一个句子which引导非限制性定语从句时其先行词可以是一个词一个短语或一个句子。Hewasproud,whichhisbrotherneverwas(先行词是一个词)Shewasverypatienttowardsthechildren,whichherhusbandseldomwasHewasproud,whichIdislikeverymuch(先行词是一个句子)Heisanhonestman,asisknowntoallHewasaforeigner,asIknowfromhisaccentas一般译为"正如""就像""这一点"asweallknowasyouknowasisknowntoallasyouseeaswecanseeashasbeenexpectedaswehaveimagined在非限制性从句中which后的be动词不可省as而后的be动词可以省略。Shetoldmeshewonthematch,whichwasalieThematerialiselastic,as(was)showninthefigurewhich在非限制性定语从句做主语时可用各类动词做谓语而as做主语时谓语常用系动词如be,seem,become等一般不用其他行为动词。Hesawthegirl,whichdelightedhimHedidn’tsayanythingatthemeeting,aswhichseemedverystrangeas常用“正如”含义常用的结构有asweknow(众所周知)asoftenhappens(正如常发生的那样)asisoftenthecase(情况常常如此)asweallcansee(正如我beannouncedexpectedknownimaginedmentionedsaidshownreported等。这些结构常放句首偶尔也可以放句中或句末。Asisknowntoall,ChinaisadevelopingcountryKatewaslateforschool,asoftenhappened“介词关系代词(介宾代物)”中关系代词只能用which。TheTravelAgency,withwhichourcompanyhasbeendealingforseveralyears,hasopenedfornewbranchesAirisamixtureofgases,ofwhichoxygenformspercent从句中的谓语动词是否定形式时常用which。HecanwritealetterinEnglish,whichIcannotMetalwillbearbeatingwithahammer,whichastonewillnot在非限制性定语从句关系代词代表前面主句中的宾语从句时常用which。Hesaidhehadpassedtheexam,whichwasuntrue十、关系代词的省略:一般情况下that,which,whom作宾语可以省略(一)但以下情况不能省略:关系代词whichwhom在从句中作介词的宾语并且介词位于关系代词前时不能省略。I’llneverforgetthedayonwhichIjoinedtheclubthat,which,who在从句中做主语时不能省略。Whoistheboythatistalkingwithourteacher(二)关系代词不用作宾语也可以省略的情况:、that在定语从句中作表语时。例如:Sheisall(that)ateachershouldbe她具备一个老师应该具备的所有条件。、that在从句中作补语时。例如:I'mnotthefool(that)youthoughtme我不是你以前所认为的那个傻子了。Heisthenicestteacher(that)thestudentsconsiderhimintheirschool他就是学生认为学校中最好的那个老师。、作状语时的省略。)当先行词是reason,且在定语从句中作原因状语时,可以用关系副词why或关系代词that,也可以省略。例如:Thereason(whythat)hefailedwashislaziness他失败的原因是因为他懒惰。ThatisthereasonIdidit那就是我做那件事的原因。)当先行词是way,且在定语从句中作方式状语时,关联词可用inwhich或that,也可以省略。例如:Theway(inwhichthat)thesecomradeslookatproblemsiswrong这些同志看待问题的方式是错误的。Thatwastheway(inwhichthat)sheworkedtheproblemout她就是用那种办法解决问题的。)当先行词是time时,关联词可用when,that或省略。例如:Thesecondtime(that)Isawhimwasin我第二次见到他是在年。Idon'tknowtheexacttime(whenthat)thesportsmeetingwilltakeplace我不知道运动会举办的确切时间。)当先行词是place时,关联词可用where,that或省略。例如:Theplace(wherethat)wewillhaveourpicnicisnotdecidedyet我们举行野餐的地点还没定下来。Thisistherightplacehewasborn这儿就是他的出生地。(注意:句末不可用介词in)(三)关系代词虽作宾语,却不能省略的情况:、在介词whomwhich结构中,whom,which不能省略。例如:DoyouknowanyshopsnearbyinwhichIcanbuyflowers你知道附近有可以买到花的商店吗Thatistheheadmasterwithwhommyfatherwastalkingjustnow刚才和我爸爸交谈的那个人是校长。、在非限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词也不能省略。例如:MrGreen,whomyouknow,isthetallestinourschool格林先生是我们学校里最高的,你也认识他。Theelephantislikeaspear,asanyonecansee大象像长矛,任何人都知道。、在thesameas,suchas,asas,thesamethat结构中,as,that即使作宾语,也不能省略。例如:Ihaveboughtthesamebikeasyou(have)(指同类用as)我买了一辆和你的一样的自行车。ThisisthesamebookthatIreadthedaybeforeyesterday这就是我前天读过的那本书。(关系代词that如要换成as,则指与我读的书一样,而不是同一本。)、当and,but,or等连词连接两个或两个以上的定语从句修饰一个先行词时,关系代词第一个可省略,第二、第三个等不可省略。例如:Thisisthebook(which)IreadyesterdayandwhichIfoundveryinteresting这就是我昨天读的那本书,它很有趣。Youhavemanypeoplearoundyou(whom)youalwaysturntoandwhomyouwillneverforget你身边有很多人,你经常向他们求助,你永远不要忘记他们。【训练题汇总】EX用定语从句完成下列句子。(Thisisthemostbeautifulforest(我所见过的)(DouPoTang(陡坡塘)Waterfall,(位于贵州省的),ismeterswideandmetershighEX用适当的关系词填空Haveatry!!!IwillneverforgetthedayIfirstwenttoschoolIwillneverforgetthedaywespentinBeijingThehousewevisitedisbeingrepairednowThehouseLuxunoncelivedisbeingrepairednowEx选择适当的代词填空注意非限制性定语从句和单句的比较。IamreadingHarryPorter,isaninterestingbookHefailedintheexammadehisparentsangryHefailedintheexam,madehisparentsangryHehastwosonsBothofareteachersHehastwosons,bothofareteachersEX思考:用五种方式(定语从句)翻译句子这是他工作的工厂。ThisisthefactoryheworksThisisthefactoryheworksThisisthefactoryheworksinThisisthefactoryheworksinThisisthefactoryheworksinEX思考:介词关系代词的情况)介词关系代词的情况(ThemanwhomyouspokewasascientistThecityshelivesinisfaraway介词关系代词的情况()ArethesetwosentencesrightThemanwhowhomyouspoketowasascientistThecitythatwhichshelivesinisfaraway介词关系代词的情况()ArethesetwosentencesrightThemantowhowhomyouspokewasascientistThecityinthatwhichshelivesisfaraway结论:介词关系代词的情况()下面两句中的介词能提前吗IsthisthewatchthatyouarelookingforTheoldmanwhomIamlookingafterisbetter结论:Sumup:介词关系代词介词关系代词引导的定语从句,关键是判断介词的选择方法一:根据从句中动词与先行词习惯搭配方法二:根据从句中动词与先行词的逻辑关系注意:关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时从句常常由“介词关系代词”引出。此时关系代词只能用which或whom不可用that或who代替。Ex:介词关系代词的使用Doyoulikethebookshespent$Doyoulikethebookshepaid$DoyoulikethebookshelearnedalotDoyoulikethebooksheoftentalksHedugaholehecouldgotwaterfromthelakeThereisatalltreeoutside,standsourteacherChinahasalotofrivers,thesecondlongestistheYellowRiverThemanIspokeonthephonelastnightisverygoodatswimmingHepaidtheboy$forwashingtenwindows,mosthadn’tbeencleanedforatleastayearEXPracticeAlettertoTom我收到了你上周的来信谢谢你寄的照片我常常想起我们一起度过的时光你还记得那个湖吗我们在那还照过一张相呢和我们一起玩的那些朋友还好吗我昨晚做了梦在梦里我们在上次去的那家电影院呢(另外,我买到了你要的那本英语书周末有时间我将把书寄给你(DearTom,IhavereceivedtheletteryoupostedlastweekThanksforthephotosyousentIoftenthinkofthetimewespenttogetherDoyoustillrememberthelakewherewehadapicturetakenHowarethechildrenwhoplayedwithusIhadadreaminwhichwherewewerestayinginthecinemawhichthatwewenttolasttimeBesides,Ihaveboughtthebook(thatwhich)youneedOntheweekendwhenIamfree,IwillpostittoyouBestwishes,

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