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首页 程序员的思维修炼开发认知潜能的九堂课

程序员的思维修炼开发认知潜能的九堂课.pdf

程序员的思维修炼开发认知潜能的九堂课

心灵海角
2012-08-30 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《程序员的思维修炼开发认知潜能的九堂课pdf》,可适用于IT/计算机领域

PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenWhatpeoplearesayingaboutPragmaticThinkingandLearningThisbookwillbethecatalystforyourfuturePatrickElderAgileSoftwareDeveloperByfollowingAndy’sconcretesteps,youcanmakeyourmostpreciousassetyourbrainmoreefficientandproductiveReadthisbook,anddowhatAndytellsyoutodoYou’llthinksmarter,workbetter,andlearnmorethaneverbeforeBertBatesCocreatorofHeadFirst,BrainFriendlyBooksI’vealwaysbeenlookingforsomethingtohelpmeimprovemylearningskills,butI’veneverfoundanythingaseffectiveasthisbookPragmaticThinkingandLearningrepresentsthebestwaytohelpyoubecomeanexpertlearner,improveyourskills,andteachyouhowtoimproveyourworkefficiencybylearningfastandeasilyOscarDelBenSoftwaredeveloperIlovebooksthatexplainthatcontextmattersThisbookdoesandhelpsyouunderstandwhyFromtheDreyfusmodel(asourceofmany“aha’s”forme)toexplainingwhyexperientialtrainingworks(thewallclimbingstory),AndywriteswithhumorandwithtactsoyoucanlearnfromreadingandorganizeyourownthinkingandlearningJohannaRothmanConsultant,authorandspeakerPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenThisisanaccessibleandinsightfulbookthatwillbeusefultoreadersinmanyfieldsIenjoyedreadingit!DrPatriciaBennerProfessorandChair,DepartmentofSocialandBehavioralSciences,UniversityofCalifornia,SanFranciscoFinishedreadingthebetalastnightIlovedthistalkatNFJS(andtheherdingracehorsesone),andtohaveitinbookformspectacularAllofthismaterialhasreallychangedmylife!MattMcKnightSoftwaredeveloperThishasbeenfun,andI’velearnedalotcan’taskformorethanthatLindaRisingInternationalspeaker,consultant,andobjectorientedexpertPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenPragmaticThinkingandLearningRefactorYour“Wetware”AndyHuntThePragmaticBookshelfRaleigh,NorthCarolinaDallas,TexasPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenManyofthedesignationsusedbymanufacturersandsellerstodistinguishtheirproductsareclaimedastrademarksWherethosedesignationsappearinthisbook,andThePragmaticProgrammers,LLCwasawareofatrademarkclaim,thedesignationshavebeenprintedininitialcapitallettersorinallcapitalsThePragmaticStarterKit,ThePragmaticProgrammer,PragmaticProgramming,PragmaticBookshelfandthelinkinggdevicearetrademarksofThePragmaticProgrammers,LLCInformationcontainedinthisbookisintendedasaneducationalaidonlyInformationisnotintendedasmedicaladviceforanyindividualconditionortreatment,andisnotasubstituteforprofessionalmedicalcareEveryprecautionwastakeninthepreparationofthisbookHowever,thepublisherassumesnoresponsibilityforerrorsoromissions,orfordamagesthatmayresultfromtheuseofinformation(includingprogramlistings)containedhereinOurPragmaticcourses,workshops,andotherproductscanhelpyouandyourteamcreatebettersoftwareandhavemorefunFormoreinformation,aswellasthelatestPragmatictitles,pleasevisitusathttp:wwwpragprogcomCopyright©AndyHuntAllrightsreservedNopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmitted,inanyform,orbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recording,orotherwise,withoutthepriorconsentofthepublisherPrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmericaISBN:ISBN:PrintedonacidfreepaperPprinting,OctoberVersion:PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenFormywifeandchildren,andforeveryonewhobecomeswhattheythinkPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCONTENTSReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCONTENTSReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenContentsIntroductionAgainwiththe“Pragmatic”ConsidertheContextEveryoneIsTalkingAboutThisStuffWhereWe’reGoingGratefulAcknowledgmentsJourneyfromNovicetoExpertNovicesvsExpertsTheFiveDreyfusModelStagesDreyfusatWork:HerdingRacehorsesandRacingSheepUsingtheDreyfusModelEffectivelyBewaretheToolTrapConsidertheContext,AgainDaytoDayDreyfusThisIsYourBrainYourDualCPUModesCaptureInsightxLinearandRichCharacteristicsRiseoftheRmodeRmodeSeesForestLmodeSeesTreesDIYBrainSurgeryandNeuroplasticityHowDoYouGetThereGetinYourRightMindTurnUptheSensoryInputDrawontheRightSideEngageanRmodetoLmodeFlowHarvestRmodeCuesHarvestingPatternsGetItRightPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCONTENTSDebugYourMindMeetYourCognitiveBiasesRecognizeYourGenerationalAffinityCodifyingYourPersonalityTendenciesExposingHardwareBugsNowIDon’tKnowWhattoThinkLearnDeliberatelyWhatLearningIsandIsn’tTargetSMARTObjectivesCreateaPragmaticInvestmentPlanUseYourPrimaryLearningModeWorkTogether,StudyTogetherUseEnhancedLearningTechniquesReadDeliberatelywithSQRVisualizeInsightwithMindMapsHarnesstheRealPowerofDocumentingLearnbyTeachingTakeIttotheStreetsGainExperiencePlayinOrdertoLearnLeverageExistingKnowledgeEmbedFailinginPracticeLearnAbouttheInnerGamePressureKillsCognitionImaginationOverridesSensesLearnItlikeanExpertManageFocusIncreaseFocusandAttentionDefocustoFocusManageYourKnowledgeOptimizeYourCurrentContextManageInterruptionsDeliberatelyKeepaBigEnoughContextHowtoStaySharpReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCONTENTSBeyondExpertiseEffectiveChangeWhattoDoTomorrowMorningBeyondExpertiseAPhotoCreditsBBibliographyIndexReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenChapterIntroductionWelcome!ThanksforpickingupthisbookTogether,we’regoingtojourneythroughbitsofcognitivescience,neuroscience,andlearningandbehavioraltheoryYou’llseesurprisingaspectsofhowourbrainsworkandseehowyoucanbeatthesystemtoimproveyourownlearningandthinkingskillsWe’regoingtobegintorefactoryourwetwareredesignandrewireyourbraintomakeyoumoreeffectiveatyourjobWhetheryou’reaprogrammer,manager,“knowledgeworker,”technogeek,ordeepthinker,orifyoujusthappentohaveahumanbrainyou’dliketocrankup,thisbookwillhelpI’maprogrammer,somyexamplesandrantswillbedirectedattheworldofsoftwaredevelopmentIfyou’renotaprogrammer,don’tworryprogrammingreallyhaslittletodowithwritingsoftwareinarcane,crypticlanguages(althoughwehaveacuriousattachmenttothathabit)ProgrammingisallaboutproblemsolvingItrequirescreativity,ingenuity,andinventionRegardlessofyourprofession,youprobablyalsohavetosolveproblemscreativelyHowever,forprogrammers,combiningrich,flexiblehumanthoughtwiththerigidconstraintsofadigitalcomputerexposesthepowerandthedeepestflawsofbothWhetheryou’reaprogrammerorfrustrateduser,youmayhavealreadysuspectedthatsoftwaredevelopmentmustbethemostdifficultendeavoreverenvisionedandpracticedbyhumansItscomplexitystrainsourbestabilitiesdaily,andfailurescanoftenPreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCHAPTERINTRODUCTIONbespectacularandnewsworthyWe’vesmashedspaceshipsintodistantplanets,blownupexpensiverocketsfilledwithirreplaceableexperiments,plaguedconsumerswithautomatedcollectionlettersfor$,andstrandedairlinetravelersonasemiregularbasisButnowthegoodnews(sortof):it’sallourfaultWetendtomakeprogrammingmuchharderonourselvesthanweneedBecauseofthewaytheindustryhasevolvedovertime,itseemswe’velosttrackofsomeofthemostfundamental,mostimportantskillsneededbyasoftwaredeveloperThegoodnewsisthatwecanfixthatrighthereandrightnowThisbookwillhelpshowyouhowThenumberofbugsprogrammersintroduceintoprogramshasremainedconstantforthepastfortyyearsDespiteadvancesinprogramminglanguages,techniques,projectmethodologies,andsoon,thedefectdensityhasremainedfairlyconstantMaybethat’sbecausewe’vebeenfocusingonthewrongthingsDespitealltheseobviouschangesintechnology,onethinghasremainedconstant:usDevelopersPeopleSoftwareisn’tdesignedinanIDEorothertoolIt’simaginedandcreatedinourheadsSoftwareiscreatedinyourheadIdeasandconceptsaresharedandcommunicatedamongateam,includingthefolkswhoarepayingourorganizationtodevelopthissoftwareWe’vespentthetimeinvestinginbasictechnologyinlanguages,tools,methodologiesThatwastimewellspent,butnowit’stimetomoveonNowweneedtolookatthereallyhardproblemsofsocialinteractioninandbetweenteamsandevenattheharderissuesofjustplainoldthinkingNoprojectisanislandsoftwarecan’tbebuiltorperforminisolationFrederickBrooks,inhislandmarkpaper“NoSilverBullet–EssenceandAccidentinSoftwareEngineering”Bro,claimedthat“thesoftwareproductisembeddedinaculturalmatrixofapplications,BasedonresearchbyCapersJonesviaBobBinderReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCHAPTERINTRODUCTIONusers,laws,andmachinevehiclesTheseallchangecontinually,andtheirchangesinexorablyforcechangeuponthesoftwareproduct”Brooks’observationputsussquarelyatthecenterofthemaelstromofsocietyitselfBecauseofthiscomplexinteractionofmanyinterestedpartiesandforcesandtheconstantevolutionofchange,itseemstomethatthetwomostimportantmodernskillsarethese:•Communicationskills•LearningandthinkingskillsSomeimprovementtocommunicationskillsisbeingaddressedbyourindustryAgilemethods(seethesidebaronthefollowingpage),inparticular,emphasizeimprovedcommunicationsbetweenteammembersandbetweentheultimatecustomerandthedevelopmentteamMassmediabookssuchasPresentationZen:SimpleIdeasonPresentationDesignandDeliveryReyaresuddenlybestsellersasmoreandmorepeoplerealizetheimportanceofsimple,effectivecommunicationIt’sagoodstartButthenthere’slearningandthinking,whichisamuchhardernuttocrackProgrammershavetolearnconstantlynotjustthestereotypicalnewtechnologiesbutalsotheproblemdomainoftheapplication,thewhimsoftheusercommunity,thequirksoftheirteammates,theshiftingsandsoftheindustry,andtheevolvingcharacteristicsoftheprojectitselfasitisbuiltWehavetolearnandrelearnconstantlyThenwehavetoapplythislearningtothedailybarrageofbotholdandnewproblemsItsoundseasyenoughinprincipleperhaps,butlearning,criticalthinking,creativity,andinventionallthosemindexpandingskillsarealluptoyouYoudon’tgettaughtyouhavetolearnWetendtolookattheteacherlearnerrelationshipthewrongwayaround:it’snotthattheteacherteachesit’sthatthestudentlearnsThelearningisalwaysuptoyouIt’smyhopethatPragmaticThinkingandLearningcanhelpguideyouthroughacceleratedandenhancedlearningandmorepragmaticthinkingThatis,platformsReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenAGAINWITHTHE“PRAGMATIC”WhatAreAgileMethodsThetermagilemethodswascoinedatasummitmeetinginFebruarybyseventeenleadersinsoftwaredevelopment,includingthefoundersofvariousdevelopmentmethodologiessuchExtremeProgramming,Scrum,Crystal,and,ofcourse,ourownpragmaticprogrammingAgilemethodsdifferfromtraditionalplanbasedmethodsinanumberofsignificantways,mostnotablyineschewingrigidrulesanddiscardingdustyoldschedulesinfavorofadaptingtorealtimefeedbackI’lltalkaboutagilemethodsoftenthroughoutthebook,becausemanyoftheagileideasandpracticesfitinwellwithgoodcognitivehabitsAgainwiththe“Pragmatic”FromtheoriginalThePragmaticProgrammer:FromJourneymantoMasterHTtoourPragmaticBookshelfpublishingimprint,youwillnoticethatwehaveacertainpreoccupationwiththewordpragmaticTheessenceofpragmatismistodowhatworksforyouSobeforewebegin,pleasebearinmindthateveryindividualisdifferentAlthoughmanyofthestudiesthatI’llreferencehavebeenconductedonlargepopulations,somehavenotI’mgoingtodrawonalargevarietyofmaterialrangingfromhardscientificfactprovenwithfunctionalMRIscansofthebraintoconceptualtheories,aswellasmaterialrangingfromoldwives’talesto“Hey,Fredtriedit,anditworkedforhim”InmanycasesespeciallywhendiscussingthebraintheunderlyingscientificreasonsareunknownorunknowableButdonotletthatworryyou:ifitworks,thenit’spragmatic,andIwillofferithereforyourconsiderationIhopemanyoftheseideaswillworkforyouOnlydeadfishgowiththeflowButsomefolksarejustplainwireddifferentlyyoumaybeoneofthemAndthat’sOKyoushouldn’tfollowanyadviceblindlyEvenmineInstead,readwithanopenmindTrythesuggestions,anddecidewhatworksforyouReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenCONSIDERTHECONTEXTWhatIsWetwarewet•ware||wet|we(e)r|:etymology:wetsoftwareNoun,humorousHumanbraincellsorthoughtprocessesregardedasanalogousto,orincontrastwith,computersystemsThatis,usingthemodelofacomputerasananalogytohumanthoughtprocessesAsyougrowandadapt,youmayneedtomodifyyourhabitsandapproachesaswellNothinginlifeiseverstaticonlydeadfishgowiththeflowSo,pleasetakethisbookasjustthebeginningI’llsharethepragmaticideasandtechniquesI’vefoundinmyjourneytherestisuptoyouConsidertheContextEverythingisinterconnected:thephysicalworld,socialsystems,yourinnermostthoughts,theunrelentinglogicofthecomputereverythingformsoneimmense,interconnectedsystemofrealityNothingexistsinisolationeverythingispartofthesystemandpartofalargercontextBecauseofthatinconvenientfactofreality,smallthingscanhaveunexpectedlylargeeffectsThatdisproportionateeffectisthehallmarkofnonlinearsystems,andincaseyouhadn’tnoticed,therealworldisdecidedlynonlinearWhenwetrytopickoutanythingbyitself,wefindithitchedtoeverythingelseintheuniverseJohnMuir,,MyFirstSummerintheSierraThroughoutthisbook,you’llfindactivitiesordifferencesthatseemtobesosubtleorinconsequentialthattheycouldn’tpossiblymakeadifferenceTheseareactivitiessuchasthinkingathoughttoyourselfvsspeakingitoutloudorsuchaswritingasentenceonapieceofpapervstypingitintoaneditoronthecomputerAbstractly,thesethingsshouldbeperfectlyequivalentButtheyaren’tReporterratumthiscopyis(Pprinting,October)PreparedexclusivelyforEdwinChenEVERYONEISTALKINGABOUTTHISSTUFFThesekindsofactivitiesutilizeverydifferentpathwaysinthebrainpathwaysthatareaffectedbyyourverythoughtsandhowyouthinkthemYourthoughtsarenotdisconnectedfromtherestofthebrainmachineryoryourbodyit’sallconnectedThisisjustoneexample(andwe’lltalkmoreaboutthebrainlaterinthebook),butithelpsillustratetheimportanceofthinkingaboutinteractingsystemsEverythingisinterconnectedInhisseminalbookTheFifthDiscipline:TheArtandPracticeoftheLearningOrganizationSen,PeterSengepopularizedthetermsystemsthinkingtodescribeadifferentapproachofviewingtheworldInsystemsthinking,onetriestoenvisionanobjectasaconnectionpointofseveralsystems,ratherthanasadiscreteobjectuntoitselfForinstance,youmightconsideratreetobeasingle,discreteobjectsittingonthevisiblegroundButinfact,atreeisaconnectionofatleasttwomajorsystems:theprocessingcycleofleavesandairandofrootsandearthIt’snotstaticit’snotisolatedAndevenmoreinteresting,you’llrarelybeasimpleobserverofasystemMorelikely,you’llbepartofit,whetheryouknowitornotTIPAlwaysconsiderthecontextPutacopyofthatuponyourwalloryourdesktop,inyourconferenceroom,onyourwhiteboard,oranywhereyouthinkaloneorwithothersWe’llbereturningtoitEveryoneIsTalkingAboutThisStuffAsIwasmullingovertheideaofwritingthisbook,IstartedtonoticethatalotofpeopleindifferentdisciplinesweretalkingaboutthetopicsinwhichIwasinterestedButthesewereinverydifferentanddiverseareas,includingthefollowing:•MBAandexecutiveleveltraining•Cognit

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  • 心灵海角 你背时啊

    2012-08-31 00:49:14

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    2012-08-31 00:29:37

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程序员的思维修炼开发认知潜能的九堂课

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