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Crony.Capitalism.Corruption.and.Development.in.South.Korea.and.the~0.pdf

Crony.Capitalism.Corruption.and…

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简介:本文档为《Crony.Capitalism.Corruption.and.Development.in.South.Korea.and.the~0pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域,主题内容包含ThispageintentionallyleftblankCronyCapitalismWhyhastheliteratureonAsiandev符等。

ThispageintentionallyleftblankCronyCapitalismWhyhastheliteratureonAsiandevelopmentnotaddressedtheissueofmoneypoliticsinKoreaHowcanwereconciletheviewofanefficientdevelopmentalstateinKoreabeforewithreportsofmassivecorruptionandinefficiencyinthatsamecountryinandPoliticsiscentraltotheanswerInthisbookKangmakestwoargumentsFirst,political–noteconomic–considerationsdominatedpolicymakinginbothKoreaandthePhilippinesSecond,ifthereisabalanceofpoweramongasmallandstablesetofgovernmentandbusinesselites,moneypoliticscanactuallyreducetransactioncostsandpromotegrowthFocusingontheexchangeoffavorsforbribesbetweenstateandbusiness,Kangarguesthatpoliticsdrovepolicychoices,thatbureaucratswerenotautonomousfrompoliticalinterferenceinsettingpolicy,andthatbusinessandpoliticaleliteswrestledwitheachotheroverwhowouldreaptherentstobehadEveninKorea,corruptionwasfargreaterthantheconventionalwisdomallows–sorampantwascorruptionthatwecannotdismissitrather,weneedtoexplainitDavidKangisAssociateProfessorofGovernment,AdjunctAssociateProfessorattheTuckSchoolofBusiness,FellowattheCenterforAsiaandtheEmergingEconomies,DartmouthCollege,andanAdjunctFellowwiththeCenterforNationalPolicy,Washington,DCCambridgeStudiesinComparativePoliticsGeneralEditorMargaretLeviUniversityofWashington,SeattleAssociateEditorsRobertHBatesHarvardUniversityPeterHallHarvardUniversityStephenHansonUniversityofWashington,SeattlePeterLangeDukeUniversityHelenMilnerColumbiaUniversityFrancesRosenbluthYaleUniversitySusanStokesUniversityofChicagoSidneyTarrowCornellUniversityOtherBooksintheSeriesStefanoBartolini,ThePoliticalMobilizationoftheEuropeanLeft,–:TheClassCleavageCarlesBoix,PoliticalParties,GrowthandEquality:ConservativeandSocialDemocraticEconomicStrategiesintheWorldEconomyCatherineBoone,MerchantCapitalandtheRootsofStatePowerinSenegal,–MichaelBrattonandNicolasvandeWalle,DemocraticExperimentsinAfrica:RegimeTransitionsinComparativePerspectiveValerieBunce,LeavingSocialismandLeavingtheState:TheEndofYugoslavia,theSovietUnionandCzechoslovakiaRuthBerinsCollier,PathsTowardDemocracy:TheWorkingClassandElitesinWesternEuropeandSouthAmericaDonatelladellaPorta,SocialMovements,PoliticalViolence,andtheStateGeraldEaster,ReconstructingtheState:PersonalNetworksandEliteIdentityRobertoFranzosi,ThePuzzleofStrikes:ClassandStateStrategiesinPostwarItalyGeoffreyGarrett,PartisanPoliticsintheGlobalEconomyMiriamGolden,HeroicDefeats:ThePoliticsofJobLossMerileeSerrillGrindle,ChangingtheStateFrancesHagopian,TraditionalPoliticsandRegimeChangeinBrazilJRogersHollingsworthandRobertBoyer,eds,ContemporaryCapitalism:TheEmbeddednessofInstitutionsEllenImmergut,HealthPolitics:InterestsandInstitutionsinWesternEuropeListcontinuesonpagefollowingIndexCronyCapitalismCORRUPTIONANDDEVELOPMENTINSOUTHKOREAANDTHEPHILIPPINESDAVIDCKANGDartmouthCollegeThePittBuilding,TrumpingtonStreet,Cambridge,UnitedKingdomTheEdinburghBuilding,CambridgeCBRU,UKWestthStreet,NewYork,NY,USAWilliamstownRoad,PortMelbourne,VIC,AustraliaRuizdeAlarcón,Madrid,SpainDockHouse,TheWaterfront,CapeTown,SouthAfricahttp:wwwcambridgeorgFirstpublishedinprintedformatISBNhardbackISBNXpaperbackISBNeBookCambridgeUniversityPress(AdobeReader)ContentsListofFigurespageviiiListofTablesixAcknowledgmentsxiiiTHEPUZZLEANDTHETHEORYCOMPARINGKOREAANDTHEPHILIPPINESINSTITUTIONS:BUREAUCRATSANDRULERSMUTUALHOSTAGESINKOREABANDWAGONINGPOLITICSINTHEPHILIPPINESDEMOCRACYINTHEsANDTHEFINANCIALCRISISOFCONCLUSION:CORRUPTIONANDDEVELOPMENTIndexviiviiiFiguresTheFourTypesofCorruptionpageKoreanandPhilippineGDPPerCapitaasaPercentageofUSGDPPerCapita(–)RealInvestmentasaPercentageofGDPUSAidasaPercentageofCentralGovernmentExpenditureinKoreaandthePhilippines,–ExportsasaPercentageofGDP,–StructureofPoliticalFundsintheDemocraticEraStructureofPoliticalFundsunderMarcos:DivideandConquerTheChangingRelationshipbetweenBusinessandtheStateinthesHistoricalExchangeRatesofthePesoandtheWonixTablesKoreaandthePhilippines:AChronologypageComparisonofGNPandPerCapitaGNP,NorthandSouthKoreaNorthKoreanMilitaryActivity,–ComparativeEconomicPerformance:KoreaandthePhilippinesUSAidReceived,VariousCountries,–GrowthEffectofForeignCapitalSavingsasaPercentageofGrossDomesticProductOriginsofGNPforKoreaandthePhilippinesKoreanandPhilippineExportsbySectorOriginsofChairmenoftheFiftyLargestChaebolHighestPositionsoftheFounder’sSecondGenerationinEachChaebolGroupEducationalAttainmentofTopPhilippineOfficials,–CollegeAttendanceofVariousPhilippineElites,EducationofOfficialsattheTenLargestKoreanChaebol,EducationofHigherCivilServantsinKoreanEconomicMinistries,SpendingonEducationasaPercentageofCentralGovernmentExpenditures,KoreaandthePhilippines,–EducationalLevelsinKoreaandthePhilippines,–CabinetTurnoverinKoreaunderRheeandParkxTablesHigherCivilServiceExam,–PatternofRecruitmentandPromotionofHigherCivilServantsPatternofRecruitmentandPromotionofHigherCivilServantsunderRheeandParkGrowthofthePhilippineBureaucracyEducationalAttainmentofFilipinoHigherCivilServantsRecruitmentofFilipinoHigherCivilServantsASampleofAmericanEducatedTechnocratsintheMarcosAdministrationShiftingCompositionoftheCabinetunderMilitaryRuleFormerMilitaryOfficersasMinistersorViceMinistersFormerMilitaryOfficersamongNationalAssemblymenandCommitteeChairmenCareerBackgroundsofViceMinistersandHigher,–MinistryofTradeandIndustryAssistantViceMinistersandOfficeDirectorsandTheirPriorCareers(–)EconomicPlanningBoardAssistantViceMinistersandOfficeDirectorsandTheirPriorCareers(–)DetailsofSelectedChaebolContributionsandPoliticalFundsPassengerCarProductionCapacityinYearofIncorporationorEstablishmentoftheSubsidiaryCompaniesoftheTenLargestChaebolinBankLoansGiventoChaebolasofAugustMutualHostages,PartI:ChaebolValueAdded,–MutualHostages,PartII:DebtEquityRatiooftheTopThirtyKoreanChaebol,–GovernmentNetReceiptsinElectionandNonelectionYears,–AssetsofCommercialBanks,–FamilyOwnershipinthePhilippines,TheLopezGroup,EstimatesofElectionSpending,–EstimatesofQuasiTaxes,–EstimatesofQuasiTaxesforTenLargestChaebol,–ValueAddedtoGNPbyKorea’sFourLargestChaebol,–KoreanAutoSupplyandDemandDebtEquityRatioofKoreanChaebol,DebtEquityofPhilippineCompanies,PhilippineEconomicIndicators,–SkilledLaborinAsiaPoliticalViolenceinthePhilippines,–OwnershipConcentrationbySelectedIndustries,ShareHoldingofSelectedPhilippineConglomeratesxiTablesxiiiAcknowledgmentsIoweatremendousdebttomymentorsandcolleaguesatvariousinstitutionsaroundtheworldThisbookbeganasadissertationatBerkeleyVinodAggarwal,HongyungLee,andOliverWilliamsonwerebothengagedinmyworkandpatientwithmyprogressVinniewasasuperbadvisor:HeleftmealonewhenIneededtothink,hegavemeintenseattentionatimportantmoments,andhesupportedmeinstitutionallyandpersonallythroughouttheentiredissertationprocessIalsobenefitedgreatlyfromthesupportofmyothercommitteemembers,HongyungLeeandOliverWilliamsonHongyungLeewasmyconduittoKorea,providinginvaluableguidanceandadvicetoanovereagerstudentOliverwaspatientintryingtopushmetobemorerigorousandtothinkmoreclearlyAnumberofscholarshavebeengenerouswiththeirtimeandenergyinwadingthroughdraftsofthemanuscriptLotsofthankstoBillBernhard,VictorCha,BruceCumings,RickDoner,PaulHutchcroft,JongrynMo,GabriellaMontinola,KatherineMoon,PeterMoore,GregNoble,FrancesRosenbluth,SsangyongRyu,DickSamuels,DavidWaldner,andMeredithWooCumingsThanksarealsoduetoChunginMoon,whohasbeenverygenerouswithhistime,energy,andsupportI’dalsoliketothankcolleagueswhocommentedonvariousincarnationsoftheideasinthisbook:DennisMcNamara,AnsilRamsey,RobertBates,MikeThies,StephanHaggard,AtulKohli,DavidLake,TunjenCheng,DavidStuligross,andBarryWeingastLewBateman’sandMargaretLevi’sguidanceatCambridgehashelpedimprovethebookimmeasurablyIwouldespeciallyliketothankBobBullock:ThroughyearsofspiritedconversationsandargumentsinSeoul,Tokyo,andtheStates,Bobhasremainedthatrarestofcombinations–awonderfulfriendandadevastatingcriticxivAcknowledgmentsDartmouthprovidedboththetimeandthesupportthatallowedmetoturnanideaintoabookLindaFowler,MikeMastanduno,AnneSaadah,DeanSpiliotes,andAlexWendtwereallsupportiveandchallengingcolleaguesParticularthanksgotomyresearchassistantsovertheyears:DaveMoran(twice!),EstherLee,ArleneLim,RachelKim,AnneKanyusik,ScottyMartin,ScottLollis,HeesunByon,EunsunHwang,HyeranJo,SarahSnip,andSusanSandersThisworkwassupportedbynumerousgrantsovertheyearsAFulbrightfellowshipallowedmetospendayearinKorea,andtheSocialScienceResearchCouncilprovidedadditionaldissertationfundsthatallowedmetoconductresearchbothabroadandintheStatesAtBerkeley,aJohnLSimpsonfellowshipallowedmetocompletethedissertationTheNortheastAsiaCounciloftheAssociationforAsianStudiessupportedafurthertriptoAsiatoconductinterviewsTheDickeyCenteratDartmouthwasgenerouswithitssupport,allowingmetoreturntothePhilippines,andtheRockefellerCenteratDartmouthsupportedtripstothePhilippinesandKoreaIowemyAsiancolleaguesanenormousdebtforallowingmetoasknaivequestionsandcontinuallypesterthemIwouldliketothankKoreaUniversityforinvitingmetobeavisitingprofessorthereinandtothanktheKyungnamUniversityInstituteforFarEasternStudiesinSeoulforallowingmetospendayearintherelativelycleanairofSamchungdongduring–KyongsooLhohasbeenasteadfastmentoreversinceImethimwhenIwasanundergraduateatStanford,andIowehimadeepdebtofgratitudeInaddition,fortheirperceptiveinsightsintoKoreanlife,thankstoParkUngsuh,KimKihwan,LeeHanbin,OhYoungju,ChangSeokmyung,SongInsang,LeeDuksoo,KimKwangsoo,AhnYoungok,KimHowon,andKimChungsikFinally,manythankstoCholsooLhoforyearsofguidancethroughoutthisprojectInthePhilippinesIbenefitedenormouslyfrommyinteractionswiththeAsianInstituteofManagementAteneoUniversityprovidedmewithinstitutionalsupportandlibraryaccessFortheirinsightsintoPhilippinelife,thankstoYengFelipe,ChitoSalazar,VicentePaterno,WashingtonSyCip,RobertoOcampo,FrankieRoman,VictorVenida,PamelaDeLaPaz,TonyGatmaitan,SedfreyOrdonez,FionaPaua,andRicardoSaludoThanksespeciallytoPaulHutchcroftandRickDonerfortheiradviceInbothKoreaandthePhilippinestherewerethosewhowishedtoremainanonymous,andIthankthemfortheirtimeandinsightsMybrotherStevenChanhoandmysisterLauraChanjuwerehelpfulthroughoutthisprocess,withtheirconstantencouragementand–inthecaseofmysister–experteditorialadviceFinallyandmostimportantly,thisbookcouldneverhavebeenwrittenwithouttheunwaveringsupportofmyparentsItistothemthatIdedicatethisbookxvAcknowledgmentsYoonYoungho,“ChongTaesuwakomunton”(ChungTaesooandblackmoney),Shindonga(March,):Fromabusinessmanclosetotheinvestigation,MarchThePuzzleandtheTheoryIamconvinced,therefore,thatKoreanpoliticswillnotbereformedunlessthestandardsofthepeopleareraised,achangeofgenerationsispromoted,thecontentsofelectionsarestudied,andanopensystemfortheprocurementofpoliticalfundsisworkedoutbymeansofconsistentpolicies–ParkChungheeHaveweearnedtherighttocontinuetodemandcontinuedtrustandconfidenceinusUnlesswecanconfidentlyanswerthesequestions,wedarenotproceedNowisthetimetocutofftheinfectedpartsofsocietyfromactivepubliclife,beforetheyendangertheentirebodypolitic–FerdinandMarcosWhentheHanboSteelCompanyofSouthKoreawentbankruptinearly,aninquestdiscoveredthatatleasttwobilliondollarshadevaporatedfromitsaccounts,mostlikelyendingupinthepocketsofpoliticalorbusinesselitesUponhisarrestforbribery,Hanbo’schairman,ChungTaesoo,privatelyletitbeknownthatifthegovernmentpresseditscaseagainsthimtoovigorouslyhewouldunleashan“atomicbomb”(poktan)andimplicatebankersandpoliticianswhohadbeeninvolvedwithHanboovertheyearsChungwasconvicted,althoughthecasewasnotpursuedwithparticularvigorWhilenumerousobserversprofessedtobeshocked–Shocked!–attherevelations,inrealitysuchscandalsarearecurrentthemeinKoreanpoliticalhistory,andtheexchangeofmoneyforpoliticalinfluencehasbeennotjustanopensecret,ithasbeencommonknowledgeSinceindependencein,KoreahasseenaseeminglyendlessflowofCronyCapitalismcorruptionscandalsbringdownscoresofelitesAmongthosewhohaveservedtimeinjailorbeenexiledareformerpresidentsChunDoohwanandRohTaewoo,membersofmanypresidentialstaffs,andaslewofmilitaryofficers,politicians,bureaucrats,bankers,businessmen,andtaxcollectorsFordecadesthescholarlyliteraturelargelyignoredtheprevalenceofmoneypoliticsasinconsequentialorasperipheraltothe“realstory”ofSouthKorea:economicgrowthledbymeritocratictechnocratsandausteremilitarygeneralsGrowthwassospectacularthattherealityofcorruptionwasconcealedorwasdismissedoutofhandTherapidgrowthoftheAsianeconomiesevokedamixtureofwonderandfearSometimescalledmiracles,orTigers,countriessuchasKorea,Taiwan,Singapore,andHongKongleaptfrompovertytoricheswithinagenerationAnduntillateNovemberandthestunningfalloftheKoreanwon,observersarguedthatbettergovernmentinAsiawasaprimereasonforthatregion’sspectaculargrowthThisperspectiveheldupAsia’sseeminglyneutralbureaucracies,effectivepoliticians,andhardworkingbusinessmenascentralfactorsineconomicgrowthIncontrast,scholarshaveheldupthePhilippinesastheparadigmaticcorruptstate,typifiedbyitsformerpresidentFerdinandMarcosThePhilippinesfailedtodeveloprapidlybecauseofgovernmentmeddling,powerfulbusinesssectorsthatreapedwindfallgainsfromgovernmentlargess,andincompetentcivilservantsTheentireworldknowsaboutImeldaMarcos’s,pairsofshoesandabouttheabusesthatoccurredattheMalacañangpresidentialpalaceThePhilippines,tothisday,hasapublicimageofcronyism,corruption,andbadgovernmentretardingitsdevelopmentTheAsianfinancialcrisisoflateabruptlychangedtheWest’sviewofAsiaOvernight,KoreawaslumpedinwiththePhilippinesandroundlycriticizedforcozygovernmentbusinessrelationshipsthat–inthepiercForgoodoverviewsofthescandals,seeAhnByoungyong,“pichagumkwataekwonyokuichuakhanjanch’i”(Thedisgustingfeastofillicitfundsandpresidentialhungerforpower),Shindonga(December):andKimYongsuh,“NoTaeukusokgwaYSuisontaek”(ThedetentionofRohTaewooandKimYoungsam’schoices),SisaWolgan(December):–Forrepresentativeviews,seePeterEvans,EmbeddedAutonomy(Princeton:PrincetonUniversityPress,)AliceAmsden,Asia’sNextGiant(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress,)andChalmersJohnson,“InstitutionsandEconomicPerformanceinSouthKoreaandTaiwan,”inThePoliticalEconomyoftheNewAsianIndustrialism,editedbyFredericDeyo(Ithaca:CornellUniversityPress,),pp–ThePuzzleandtheTheoryinghindsightofinstantexperts–wereobviouslycorrupt,inefficient,andbackwardFocusedonlyonexplainingsuccessfuloutcomes,theconventionalmodelprovidednoanalyticwaytomakesenseofthecrisisCountriespreviouslyregardedasmiraclesnowwerenothingmorethanhavensforcronycapitalistswhogotrichtheeasywayTheresultwasascrambletoreinterpretthenewlyindustrializingcountriesButthependulummayhaveswungtoofar–fromexcessivepraisefortheAsianjuggernautinthestoexcessivecontemptforAsianbusinesspracticesinthesHowcanwereconcilerapidgrowthinEastAsiabeforewithreportsofextensivemoneypoliticsinthosesamecountriesinandHowdoweexplainextensivemoneypoliticsinAsiaHowdoesmoneypoliticsaffectourunderstandingofthedevelopmentalstateITheArgumentPoliticsiscentraltotheanswerInthisstudyImaketwoargumentsFirst,bothKoreaandthePhilippinesexperiencedsignificantcorruptionthroughoutthepostindependenceeraSecond,political–noteconomic–considerationsdominatedpolicymakinginbothcountriesFocusingontheexchangeoffavorsforbribesbetweenstateandbusiness,Iarguethatpoliticsdrovepolicychoices,thatbureaucratswerenotautonomousfrompoliticalinterferenceinsettingpolicy,andthatbusinessandpoliticaleliteswrestledwitheachotheroverwhowouldreaptherentstobehadEveninKorea,corruptionwasfargreaterthantheconventionalwisdomallows–sorampantwascorruptionthatwecannotdismissitrather,weneedtoexplainitAlthoughmoneypolitics–corruptionandcronyism–isgenerallyseenasinhibitingeconomicgrowth,therearecertainconditionsinwhichitcanactuallybebeneficialDevelopingcountriestypicallyhaveweakinstitutionalstructuresInthatcase,ifthereisabalanceofpoweramongasmallandstablesetofgovernmentandbusinesselites,moneypoliticscanactuallyreducetransactioncostsandmakelongtermagreementsandinvestmentsmoreefficient,evenwhileenrichingthose

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