下载

1下载券

加入VIP
  • 专属下载券
  • 上传内容扩展
  • 资料优先审核
  • 免费资料无限下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 Osprey Vanguard 046 The Renault FT Light Tank (1…

Osprey Vanguard 046 The Renault FT Light Tank (1988).pdf

Osprey Vanguard 046 The Renault…

smartguy
2012-08-18 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Osprey Vanguard 046 The Renault FT Light Tank (1988)pdf》,可适用于人文社科领域

OSPREY·VANGUARDStevenZalogaColourplatesbyPeterVAIGUARDSERIESEDITOR:~••IARTINWJ~DROWTextbySTEVENJZALOGAColourplatesbyPETERSARSONOSPREYPUBLlSHI:IGLO~DONPublishedinIgSbyOspreyPublishingLtdMembercompanyoftheGeorgePhilipGroupLongAcre,LondonWCEgLP©CopyrightMOspreyPublishingLtdThisbookiscopyrightedundertheBerneConventionAllrightsreservedAparthomanyfairdealingforthepurposeofprivatestudy,research,criticismorrcvicw,aspermittedundertheCopyrightAct,,nopartofthispublicationmayIx·reproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmiw·dinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,electrical,chemical,me<:hanical,optical,photocopying,ret:ordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermisSionofthecopyrightownerEnquiriesshouldbeaddressedtothePublishersBritishlibraryCalqloguinginPublicalionDalaZaloga,StevenJTheRenaultFTLighttankIArmouredcombatvehiclesRenaulttanks,FT,toITitleIIISeries'IISarson,PeterFilmsctinCreatBritainPrintedthroughBookbuildersLtdHongKongAuthor'sNoteTheauthorwouldliketoexpresshisthankstomanyfriendswhowereinstruillentalinthepreparationofthisbookOsearIkunaRoyowaskindenoughtoprovideextensivedetailsoftheSpanishuseoftheFTtankJanllszIlagnuskiprovideddetailsoftheFTinPolishandSovietservicelustProbstsuppliedmanyrarephotos,andinformationontheuscoftheFTintheBalticStatesPierreTouzinandGeorgeHalinprovidedanumberofrarephowsArtist'sNoteReadersmaycaretonotethattheoriginalpaintingsfromwhichthecolourplatesinthisbookwerepreparedareavailablrforprivatesaleAllreproductioncopyrightwitatSQ('vcl"isretainedbythepublisherAllenquiriesshouldbeaddreCdto:PeterSarsonCobhamRoadJournmouthDorsetTht'publishersregn·tthatthey("alleTHerintonocorrespondenceuponthismallrrBackgroundandConceptionTheRenaultITwastheworld'sfirstmoderntankhpioneeredlhebasicconfigurationthattankshavefollowedfromto{oelay:themaingunwasplacedinafullytravcrsibleturret,thedriverinfront,theturretinthecentreandtheenginetolherearItwasproducedinlargernumbersthananyolhcTlankoftheGrcalWarNlos!FirstWorldWartanksvanishedanddeservedlysoafterTheRenaultITremainedinservicetoformtheseedafoundwhichmostoftheworld'slargesttanksforces"erebuilt:inFrance,theUnitedStates,andtheSovietUnion,aswellasinmanysmallerarmiesItwaswidelyusedinthecolonialwarsandcivilwarsof,hcinlerwaryears,andevensawcombatonmanyofthefrontsoftheSecondVorld'larTheRenaultFTwasthebrainchildofGenJeanBaptisteEstienne,thefatheroftheFrenchlankforct'Estiennewasavisionary,enamouredofnewtt'cnnolog:icsBeforethewarhepioneeredtheuseofindirectfiretacticsforfrenchartillery,andwastheinspirationfortheuscofaeroplanesforartilleryspotting,Asayoungcoloneloftheartilleryint,EstienncconvincedtheFrenchArmythatarmouredtractorscouldhelpsolvethestalemateof•t••trenchwarfareESlicnnewasputinchargeofanewbranchoftheFrenchanillery,thearlillerie'd'assaulorartilleriespeciale,HeoutlinedtherequirementsforthefirstFrenchtank,whichresultedintheSchneiderCAIcliard'assoulinTheSchneiderprovedtobeabillerdisappointmentforEstienneandtheFrenchArmyEstiennehadassumedthatitwouldbeasurpriseweapon,andthatitwouldfaceonlyGcrmanmachint:gunsandriflefireHowever,BritainhadalsobeenworkingonsimilararmouredvehiclesTherewaslillietechnicalcoopenllionbetweentheAlliesandtheBrili~htankswereemployedincombatinSeptembert,monthsbeforetheFrenchwerereadyInresponsetotheirappearancetheGermanArmybegantodevelopcoulllermeasure~,notablybymovinglightartilleryupintotheforwardtrenchlineswhenatankattackseemedImmInentThefirstuseoftheSchneidertanksatBerryauTheinidalproductionmodeloftheRenaultITu~edthislyl"'ofcastturret,Thisvenionis,,distinguish"b~ebythec"stsUp<'rstructurefrontinthedriver'sare"Thilltyp<'ofturretcouldonlymountthemmHotchkiss"fodide''heavymachinegun,andwa~quicklysUI"'rcededbythe'omnibu'turret",Wchcouldbelinedwith"ith"rgunormachinegunThispaMicularITW"IIoneoflhoseprovidedtotheUSArmy,(Nation"lArchives)•~"'­~•~•••••••••ThepuotyofthR~DauhFTdifferedfromth,productionv"hid""ill"'anyIallde,ail•ThelurnlcupolawasinlrgralthelurretC'OOlOting,IlndwallnodifiedonIh,productionlInkstoincludemu"hroomcoverrorbellernlJlllion(Ruh)RaconAprilwasadisasterOftankstakingpart,werelenbehindthebattlefieldeitherbrokendown'damagedofthese,werecomp!t::telyburntoutTheproblemshadbeenbothtechnicalandtacticalTheAchillesheeloftheScluwidcrwasitsfueltanks,whichwerelocatedintheforwardsectionofthetankWhenhitbyartillery,theywereeasilyruptured,sprayingtheinsideofthelankwithpetrolwhichthenquicklyexplodedThefightingatBerryauBachadalsohighlightedthelackofpropertankinfantrycoordination,ThiswasimprovedbuttheSchneiderchar('assoulneverbecameadecisiveinfluenceinthetrenchfightingduetoitssmallnumbersandtechnicaldeficiencies,EsLienne'sunorthodoxmethodsingainingapprovaIfortheconstructionoftheSchneiderledtoagreatdealofresentmentinthehallsofthe,••II~••miJitaryindustri<lbureaucracyinParis,Esticnne'lrivalsinIheStrviaTechniqlleAlliomobilt'decidedbuilda'proper'tankEsLienne'svehiclehadashortmmhowitzer:theirswouldhaveamorepowerfullongbarrelledlungunEstiennc'shadtvomachineguns:theirswouldhavefourOnpaper,thenewchar('assOIltStChamondwasmuchmortimprcssiwthanlhesmallerScluwidcrIlowe"er,ithadbeendesignedbyengineerswithnoapprt"CialionoftrenchwarfareItsufferedfromscrioU!technicalproblems,andwasderisivelyreferreda!an'elepbantthelegsofagazelle'LikethrSchneider,itservedilldwindlingnumbersthroughthebilterfightinginthesummerof,TheLightTankIdeaFollowingtheconstructionofthefirstSehneidlrsinthespringofI,Estiennebeg:lIlconsideringlongtermrequirementslortheArtillerieSpecialt(''all'structionoftheSchneiderhadmadeESlicnncawarroflheindllslrialroadblocksinbuildingavastflertofarmouredvehiclestooverwhelmtheGermantrenchesFrenchmilitaryfactorieswereina•••(,",)Thestandardmod,,oftheRenaultFTdispensedwithtbe",froDlliuperstructur"infavourof~ionpl"rrivetedarmourplateThisvehideisfinedwiththefirsttypeofomnibulorr!,tnadeofflalarmourplateItisa"h"renoarmedwiththe:PuteauI",mg>n(NadoruolArchiv")''••(Below)Renaollwanledd,vo:loparoundturrelfortheIThonk,hoping","curbeUerballi"li"protectionThisotnnibu!Iturret,madeofca~tandforged",,,e)plate,waStheIhirdandfinalroundturr,,'ddoped(ortheRenaultFTIIwumanufaclun:dbytheAcieie",PaulGirodinUgine(NationalArchiy"",)d~pcratestatethemassmobilisationofskilledmanpowerin'I,andtht,horrendouslossoflifeinthefiI'bttwoyear'!ofthewar,hadleftthefanorieswithoutaskilledworkforceArmourplatewasatapremium,asw('l'ehighpoweredenginesTheSchneiderfacilitiesvereovertaxedproducingtheirfirsttanks,whichwerenOIcompleteduntilWhatwasneededwasasmall,cheaparmoul'edmacilin('gunvchicle,tailoredtothelimitationsoftheFrenchwartimeindustriesInJlily,EstienncraisedtheissuewiththcaulamanufacturerLouisRenaultatachancemettingintheHotelChtridgt'Renaulthadcarlierrefusedbecomeinvolvedinthemediumlankprogramme,citinghisfirm'slackofcxperienc('withtrackt"<ivehiclesandcommitmentstootherprogrammcsBUlRenauhasintriguedbythelighttankidea,andagreedtobegindesignsludiesofsuchavehicleThenewvehicle,ascalledacharmilraillturmachjnegun"chickAwoodenmockupofthecharmilraillturwascomplctedinOctoberandshowntoESlicnneHecouldnotconvincetheDircrtorof~IotorServices,Genlourret,toauthoriseproductionsoon~o'cmber,heweill,(''hishcadtoGenJoffre,thecommanderinchiefJonrewasanI,••=rOn",ofIh'"mOredilllincI"'"aspecl!!of'",nchlanJ:sduringth",Gr",alWrIiIh",U"'"ofplayingcardynlbol"toditinguih•ubuniliIh",pad",onacircl",Indical'"lankllofIh",'Mctio,'CompanyTh",ptnnanlonthecupolaindical,Ih",tYJM'oftank,redforeloe"O"ndblu",foreloitI"·••AllhoughthefT'"armourwasproofapinmachine"andIinarl'U",hillcouldknockofTplonth",insid",of!litrnourpial"''',Aar,sult,ITCr"wllworeth",,,,,,ung•,prolectiv",ra«lIlak!!,aalsousedhyritihtankcn(Natio,)Archi",)oldfriendofl::stienne,andsupponcdhisrequestfor,ofIhcs(''ehiclesOnNO'emberh(wrotetotheUndcrSecl'culr)ofStateforWarAlbertThomasallthissubjectThomaswasonlywillingtoallowtheconstructionofasin~tprototypeashewasnotH'r)elllhusedbyth~projectand,hisobstructionoverthenextfewmonthsconsiderablydelaYl'dtheprogrammeThomasauthorisedIheflr<prototypeon'Decemberwiththestipulationthatitbtcomplctedby:Iarch'RenaultandScrrehadalreadybeenworkingonIhedesignasapersonalprOJectOnDecemberRenaultshowedarefined,fullscale''oodenmockuptotheConsultatirCommitteeoftheAssaultAnilleryGenMourretfeltthatthecelllreofgravitywastoofttl'totherearandthetanktoolightanOlhermembersuggcstedthatventilationwasinadequateandwouldresultinasphyxiationofthecrewaftertenminutesoffiringOneyoungarmyofficercomplimentedtheeleganceofthedesignbutsarcasticallyreferredtoitasa'tharmanlJoujou'Oacharmingtoy'oflittlccombatutilit)'However,theremainderofthecommitteedidnotagr(Oe,andonthebasisofaseventothree'ote,thecommiU('eacceptedthedesignandapprovedtheproductionofaninitialbatchofcharsmilraillrursThisvehiclesoonbecamelabelledtheRenaultfrThereissomeconfusionastotheoriginofthedesignationITforthistankIthasbeenincorrectlydcscribrdasanabbreviationforJaiblelOllIage(lighteight)orjranchiJsfurdeIranchifs(trenchcrosser)In(,ct,however,itwassimplyaRenaultproductd('!ignationgiventosequemialordertoallRcnaultautomobilesandvehicleslikeAG(thellarneTaxi,EG(artillerytractorFU(heavylorry),etcOfficially,itbecameknonasthechartigerRmaultFTmodlle'',whiehhassometimesledtotheunofficialabbreviation'F'r·'ThelootankorderofDecembertwasamendedinFebruarytotanksThefirstcharmilrailieurprototypewascompletedattheendofJanuaryandputthroughtestsattheRenaultfactoryatBillancourtESliennehadtheprototypescmtotheArlilimeSplciaJecentreatChamplieuforfurtherteststocorrectanyremainingproblemshewasawarethatrecentpoliticalchangescoulddoomhisproject,andhewasinsistcntthattheellarmitraiileurshouldbeperfectedbeforeitsofficialtrialsinAprilBureaucraticDelaysInthewakeofthehorriblcbloodlettingaroundVerdunin,GenJoffrewassacked,tobereplacedbyGenRobertNivelleEstiellnclosthisprotector,andGenMourrctcominuedtomakeknownhislackofenthusiasmforthecheaplittleRenaullcharmilrailJeurNivclle,anartilleryofficerlikeESliennc,didnotsharehisenthusiasmforthenewbranchoftheartilleryrorceAsaresultofhisApairofAm"ricanRenaultFTa'Var"nn""durin"th"ArAonn"For"",figbtinAonOC:lober''TheAmericllnfollowedtheFrnocbpan"rnofph'rmllClrdmarkin""bUIcarriedthemDOtheIurrelid,ad~raddislndiiduallurrelnumberThilankifiuedwithanomrubuluwithmlIun(NationalArc:hh·,)•Acolumnledby"clUI"CanO"wilbGirodlurretofAS,'·BeL,~Rqt,while,"upportingUSIroopin,heArgonnFor""fiShlingnrarMonlC"cononOClobc:r',(NationalArchiveI)experiencesaroundVerdun~ivcllewishedtoplacegrcalcremphasisontheproductionoftractorsforlowingheavyartillery,andnotontanksAsaresultAlbertThomas,asthet>tinistcrofArmamenLS,informedRenaultthaiprioritywastobegiventothecompletionoranexistingcontraCIforartillerytractorsattheexpenseofthelankprogrammeThomaswasveryunhappywithESlicnne'sproposaltobuildathousandoftheRenaultcharmitraifltllr,(<'dingitwouldcompletelydisruptthealreadyovertaxedFrcnchwarindustryHowever,theConsultauveCommiltccoftheAssaultArtillerysupportedESlienneenthusiastically,andonAprilvotedfortheproductionof,moreRenaultFTtanksTheyevenmanagedtowinoverGenNivclle,whoreversedhisearlierdecisiononAprilii,nowgivingprioritytotankproductionTheofficialtrialsofIheprototypewcrcconductedatMarlyon'''AprilTheRenaultvehiclewasjudgedclearlysuperiortIrexistingSchneiderandStChamondtanhEsticnncsuggestedthatsomcofthetanksmightbrfittedwithasmallmmgunderivedfromthemmmodN~TRinfalllrygunThiswoukrequireredesignoftheturretSeveralcOmmillefmembersfeltthattheaccommodationfortIrmachinegunnerwastoosmallandcramped,au!wouldleadtoasphyxiation:itwouldbedifficultkIasoldieroverSflfiintalloperateinthetuntlOn'AprilAlbertThomasreceivednCI'<~jsomeofthccriticismsoftheRenaultrrfrOll!disgruntledopponentsoftheprojcnandusedthisasanexcusetosuspendthep!annl'dproductionyetagainHeclaimedconcernthatasingksoldifrcouldnotoperatethe(Urretweaponbutlitsuggestionthatanothermattbeaddedtothetuntlimpliedprolongeddelayswhilethetank"'completelyredesignedHehadalsoheardthatsonrobserverswantedthetanktocarry,rounds«machinegunammunitioninsteadofthe:allowedinthecurrentdesign!EstienneandRenaultwhowasalreadygeariIfupproducethetankwerefuriouso'ertbtdeci~ionDuringtheeourseofthetrialstheNivclleoifcnsin'hadbeenlaunchedontheChemindesDames,anditwasanuttcrfailureEsticnncwasevenmoreconvincedofthcnctdformasscsoflighttankstoovercomethetrenchwarstalemateThomas,aprominentsocialistandacorrespondentforI'Jumaniti,wasinvitl'CItoRussiatocelebratetheoverthrowoftheTsrandtheaccessiontopowerofKcrcnsky'ssocialistProvisionalGovernmentWhileThomaswasoutofFrance,Esticnnc~ta~('danotherseriesoftrialsforthebencfitofanumberofofficerswhohadfoughtontheChemindesDamesduringthefirstFrenchtankactionsonAprilTheirenthusiasticreactiontotheRenaultFTcollvinct::dcvcnGenilourrctthatithadreachedasufficientstageofdcvelopmentforproduction,andThomas'sorderswcreagainrevokedtwasalsodccidedthatoftheJ,tanksonorder,wouldbearmedwiththenewmmgunandwilhthemmHotchkissmachinegun~dar'KN,,TSFtoaradiotank",rionorth,Rultrr,fiurdwitha£",t"rradioinafi"t:dupt:rltructur>,,Wteno,o"uiypopularwi,hthetoopdue',hed,lica,u,,,,orth,radio,andheprop"nsityor,h,antenna(nutlittedhere)nbcom,rouledinroliageThiaparlicular",hid,itAmtricanbuihe><ampleonth,Sil<TonTankchasisByth('timethatThomasreturnedtoFrance,repercussionsfromtheNivellcoffensiveprevellledfurtherinterferenceintheRenaultJ~rtankprogramme•EnterPetainOnApril'theFrenchArmylaunchedlheillfatedi'ivclleoffensiveontheChemindesDamesAsmentionedearlier,thisbattlealsomarkedthefirstuseofFrenchtanksncarBcrryaulacTheGermanArmyhadlearnedthek"SSOnsfromtheiroriginalencounterswithBritishtanks,andtheFrenchchllrswereasunsuccessfulastheoffen~i'eitselfButthebattlehadfarmoreprofoundeffectsontheFrenchArmythanonitsinfantlankforceThescluandcringofanother,casualtiessosoonaftertheconclusionofthebloodyVerdunfightingwastoomuchfortheaveragepoilutobear:hisfightingspirithadfinallybeensapPl'CIThefailureoftheNivelleoffensivetriggeredaseriesofdisturbancesintheranksoflhearmy,culminatinginthegreatmutinyofMayInthewakeofthecrisi~,commandofthearmyfelltoGellPhilippePetainon'~tay'PetainwasofavcrydifferentsortfromprcviouscommandersinchiefUnlikemost!',·cnchofficersofthelimc,heasnodiscipleofGrandmaisonandhisobscssion"ithoffensivetacticsandthemythicallfanlJitaftoftheFrenchsoldierHistourofeommandduringtheVerdunfightinghadconvinccdhimofthebankruptcyofGrandmaison'sinfluences,epitomisedbythemindlessslogan'L'lll((lrt,taldace,loujoursI'audact'Toretain,amoreappropriatesloganforthenatureoftacticsintheageofthemachinegunwas'firepowerkills'Appalledbythecaliousll('SS•ofmanystaffofficerstowardstht·massivelossesofinfantrymen,hesearchedforIletacticstoovercomethedominanceofdefensivemachinegunandartilleryfireAsaresultofthemutiny,Petainlimitedlheactivit)oftheFrenchArmytoaseriesofsmalllocalaclionswhiletryingLarebuildmoraleduringthesummcrandautumnof''TankswereusedonasmallscaleinseveraloftheseoperationsLICoIGeors"sPallonJrcommandedth,woAmric:anFTballalionin,hStdbeforebeingwlodedlIihreinfron'ofcllrcowithGirodturr'"alIhLangrulankcntreinIhlurnmrof''(NationalArchiv)PetainquicklyappreciatedthatthenewlankI,eveniftheydidnotIi·cupIheextravagantdaioooftheirad'ocatt·~likeEstienlle,wcrce~importantmoraleboostersforthedisheartcnedinfantryAstheFrench:finisteroftlunitionslatnquipp('cJ:'TherearetVO~indsofinfantrymenwhohavegoneintoactionwithtanks,andmenwhohavt'notandtheformcrneverwallttogolntractionwithollttanksagain'Phain

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

评分:

/50

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利