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首页 牛津高中英语语法复习(模块1-4)

牛津高中英语语法复习(模块1-4).doc

牛津高中英语语法复习(模块1-4)

xinyi1322 2012-08-10 评分 0 浏览量 0 0 0 0 暂无简介 简介 举报

简介:本文档为《牛津高中英语语法复习(模块1-4)doc》,可适用于高中教育领域,主题内容包含牛津高中英语语法复习(模块)语法复习一:定语从句(一)定义)在复合句中(一个句子的某一成分由句子承当),修饰某一名词或代词从句叫定语从句或形容词从句符等。

牛津高中英语语法复习(模块)语法复习一:定语从句(一)定义)在复合句中(一个句子的某一成分由句子承当),修饰某一名词或代词从句叫定语从句或形容词从句在句中起定语的作用)被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词antecedent)Themanwholivesnexttousisapoliceman先行词关系代词定语从句)YoumustdoeverythingthatIdo先行词关系代词定语从句(二):关系代词的作用连接主句和从句代表被修饰的先行词在定语从句做一个句子成分egThisistheroomwhichIlivedinlastyear先行词关系代词定语从句(三):定语从句中有关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that,as关系副词when,where,why等引导定语从句(四):用关系代词还是用关系副词关系代词起代词的作用,关系副词起副词的作用,因此同样的先行词,选用什么样的关系词,要由它在定语从句中担任的逻辑作用来决定关系代词词行先行词充当成分who人主,宾,表Whom人宾That人物主,宾,表Which物主,宾,表As物主,宾Whose=ofwhomofwhich人物定语关系副词When=atinonduringwhich时间状Where=atintowhich地点状Why=forwhich原因状that在口语中可以代替关系副词以上三者状Thisistheplacewherewework(vi)(关系词所做的成分关键是有从句中的动词来决定的)Thisistheplacewhichwevisited(vt)种类先行词关联词例句说明定语从句(人)在从句中做主语或宾物在从句中做主语或宾语whowhichThisisthedoctorwhosavedtheboy'slife这就是救了孩子生命的医生SheisthenewstudentwhomIwanttointroducetoyou她就是我要介绍给你的新学生Pleasepassmethebookwhichislyingonthetable请递给我摆在桌上的那本书ThenovelwhichTomboughtisveryinteresting汤姆买的小说很有意思Canyoulendmethemagazineaboutwhichyoutalkedyesterday你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给我吗who在从句中做主语whom在从句中做宾语,口语中who可以代替whom,也可以被省去,但做介词宾语时只能用whomwhich在从句中做主语which充当宾语时可以省去which做介词宾语不可省定语从句人或物的whoseTheprofessorwhosedaughterteachesyouEnglishisDrWilliams那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语Theprofessor,thedaughterofwhomteachesyouEnglishisDrWilliamsThebikewhosebrakewasdamagedhasnowbeenrepaired那辆坏了闸的自行车现在已经修好了=Thebikethebrakeofwhichwasdamagedhasnowbeenrepairedwhose在从句中做定语指某人的也可以用…ofwhom代替whose指物时也可以用…ofwhich代替whose人或thatThewomanthatisplayingthepianoisMissZhang正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是张小姐I'dliketoseethefilmsthatarejustonshow我想看那些刚上映的电影that指人做主语that指物做主语种类先行词关联词例句说明物all,littlemuch和some,anyevery,no构成的合成代词人或物thatthatTheytalkedforaboutanhourofthingsandpersonsthattheyrememberintheschool他们谈起他们所记得起的学校里的人和事,谈了大约有半个小时I'lltellyouall(that)Iknowaboutit我要告诉你我所知道这件事的一切情况Isthereanything(that)Icandoforyou有什么我可以帮助做的事吗I'vebroughteverything(that)youneed我把你需要的东西都拿来了ThisisthebestfilmthatIhaveseen这是我看过的最好的一部电影Thefirstplacethatwe'llvisitisBeijingLibrary我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆先行词分别表示人和物,关系代词要用that,不用who或which先行词表示物,关系代词用that不用which,在从句中做宾语可省去如果先行词是人时,关系代词不受制约,用that或who(whom)均可先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时定语从句用that引导定语从句人或物thatHeistheonlypersonthatisbelievable他是唯一可靠的人Johnistheverypersonthatshewantstosee约翰正是她要见的人WhoisthemanthatistalkingwithTom正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁Whichofthebooksthatyouboughtiseasytoread你买的那些书中哪一本容易读先行词被theonly,thevery,thesame等修饰时用关系代词that当主句以who,which开头的特殊疑问句时,定语从句要用that时间whenHecameatatimewhenweneededhimmost他在我们最需要的时候来了We'llneverforgetthedaywhenthePeople'sRepublicofChinawasfounded我们永远不会忘记中华人民共和国成立的那一天在定语从句中作时间状语注:先行词是time,minute,moment,nexttime很少用关系副词when,可用that但通常省去地点whereThisistheroomwhereheputupforthenight这就是他渡过夜晚的那房子在定语从句中作地点状语原因理由whyIknowthereasonwhyshestudiessowell我知道她学习好的原因在定语从句中作原因状语Thisistheplacewherework(vi)(关系词所做的成分关键是有从句中的动词来决定的)Thisistheplacewhichwevisited(vt)(五):限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句从句与先行词的关系从句是先行词不可缺少的定语,如果省去,主句的意思就会不完整或不明确从句只是对先行词的附加说明,如果省去,主句的意思仍然清楚或完整标点从句和主句之间不用逗号分开从句和主句之间通常用逗号分开关系代词指人who(that)whom指物which(that)人和物whose关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以省去指人who(作主语)whom(做宾语)指物which人和物的whose关系代词一般不可省修饰从句只修饰一个名词或代词可以修饰一个名词或代词也可修饰整个主句翻译定语从句译在被修饰词的前面定语从句通常被译成另一个独立的句子限制性非限制性形式上无逗号有逗号内容上先行词不是唯一的先行词是唯一的,定语从句可有可无关系词可用that,why作宾语可以省略不可用that,why关系词一律不省先行词名词或代词名词或代词,也可以使整个句子汉语翻译译作定语译成并列句二者差异比较限制定语从句紧跟先行词,同先行词之间一般不加逗号,仅修饰先行词,可以由关系代词关系副词或that来引导非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明,用逗号与主句隔开,既可修饰先行词,又可修饰整个主句,不可用that引导HehasabrotherwhoisaphysicistHehasabrother,whoisaphysicist(只有一个)HereturnedallthebookswhicharewritteninEnglishHereturnedallthebooks,whicharewritteninEnglishIwillwearnoclotheswhichwillbeoutofordinaryIwillwearnoclothes,whichwillbeoutofordinaryThemanwholivesnextdoorisadoctorMysister,wholivesnextdoor,isadoctorI'msureIknowthepersonwhoservedmeTom,whoservedus,istheowneroftherestaurantAstudentwhostudieshardwillmakegoodprogressThestudent,wholivesfarfromschool,istheleaderoftheirfootballmatch(六)关系代词that和which的区别只能用that的情况()如果先行词是all,much,anything,something,nothing,everything,little,none,few等不定代词,关系代词一般只用that,不用which例如:AllthepeoplethatarepresentburstintotearsEverythingthatwesawwasinterestingI'minterestedineverythingthatIdon'tknowAllthatisneededisasupplyofoil()如果先等词被all,littlenoneany,only,few,much,no,some,very等词修饰,关系代词常用that,不用which例如:IreadallthebooksthatyougavetomeThisistheonlymoneythatIhaveinmypocketAllthemoneythatwascollectedwasgiventotheHopeProject()如果先行词被序数词,形容词最高级修饰或者先行词是最高级时,关系代词常用that,不用whichThisisthefirstbookthatwaswritteninEnglishThisisthelastfactorythatIvisitedThisisthebestfilmthatIhaveeverseenThisisthefunniestthingthatIeverheard()如果先等词被theonly,thevery,thesame,thelast修饰,关系代词常用that,不用whichThisistheonlybookthatIreallylikeHewastheonlypersonintheofficethatwasinvitedtotheball()先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用that而不用who,which例如:TheboyandthedogthatareinthepictureareverylovelyHetalkedabouttheteachersandschoolsthathehadvisited()who,which开头的特殊疑问句中,关系代词用thatWhoisthepersonthatisstandingthereWhichofusthatknowsEnglishdoesn'tknowthiswhichofthenoveldoyoulikebest()关系代词作表语时,关系代词用thatIttookusmanyyearstomakethecitythatitistodayHeisnotthemanthatheusedtobeChinaisn'tthecountryitusedtobe()先行词是奇数词或是序数词时,关系代词用thatYesterdayIcaughttwofishNowyoucanseethetwothatarestillaliveinthebasinofwater()当主句"therebe"开头时,关系代词要用that引导的定语从句修饰该句型的主语Therearefourdesksinthemiddleoftheofficethatareusedfortheteachers()当先行词是"tobe"后面的表语时关系代词用thatThisisthedictionarythatwasboughtinthebookstoreyesterday只能用which的情况)非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略如:Thereareaboutsevenmillionpeopletakingpartintheelection,mostofwhom,arewelleducatedBeijing,whichischina'scapital,isrichinculture)thosethat名词后的定语从句用which引导不能用关系代词thatThatpenwhichhetookismineAshopshouldkeepthosegoodswhichsellswell)介词后只用whichThisistheroominwhichhelivedIdon'tknowthemantowhomyoutalkedThechaironwhichheissittingismadeofwood()which还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的整体概念或部分概念在这种从句中,which可以作主语,也可以作宾语或表语,不用that例如:Hesucceededinthecompetition,whichmadehisparentsveryhappy()先行词是that时,关系代词要用whichWhat'sthatwhichflashedintheskyjustnow()关系代词后面有插入语时,益用关系代词whichHereistheEnglishgrammarbookwhich,asIhavetoldyou,willhelptoimproveyourEnglish只用who,whom而不用that的情况()如果先行词是anyone,anybody,everyone,everybody,someone,somebody,those,ones等时,关系代词应该用who或whom,不用whichthat例如:IsthereanyoneherewhowillgowithyouPeoplealllikethosewhohavegoodmanners()当先行词是指人的集合名词时,如果作这个名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用which若是指集体中的各个成员,则用whoMrSmithcametovisitmyfamily,whowerewatchingTVthenOurclass,whichisaverygoodone,waspraisedagainatthemeeting()当先行词有较长的后置定语或者在被分割的定语从句中,宜用关系代词whoProWangiscomingsoonwhowillgiveusatalkonhowtolearnEnglish()当先行词用body或one构成的复合不定代词时,关系代词用whoWe'dbetternotbelieveinanyonewhowedon'tknow()当先行词是一个限定性的表示人的特定名词时,常用whoTheauntunclewhocametoseeuslastweekismybrother'ssister(七)"介词关系代词"是一个普遍使用的结构()"介词关系代词"可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句"介词关系代词"结构中的介词可以是in,on,about,from,for,with,toat,of,without等,关系代词只可用whom或which,不可用that其中whom代表人,which代表物WhoisthecomradewithwhomyoushookhandsHeworksinafactory,infrontofwhichthereisariverGivemethebookthecoverofwhichisred(thecoverofwhich=whosecover)Heisthemanwhosefatherisateacher=HeisthemanthefatherofwhomisateacherThisistheneighborhoodfromwhomIborrowedthebicycle()fromwhere为"介词关系副词"结构,但也可以引导定语从句(不常用)例如:Westoodatthetopofthehill,fromwherewecanseethetown()***关系代词前的介词如何确定A依据定语从句中动词的某种习惯搭配MrSmithboughtanewhouseonwhichhespentallhismoneyB依据先行词的某种习惯搭配确定Therewasnowayinwhichitcouldbeboughtbacktotheearth(inthisway)C根据所表达的意思确定ThegaswithwhichdoctorscansavethepatientsiscalledoxygenThegaswithoutwhichwecannotliveiscalledoxygen()***注意关系代词的位置介词在关系代词前时,只能用which和whom不能用that代替,也不可省略介词在句尾时,关系代词可which,that,whom,who,都行,而且还可以省略ThisisthedrawerinwhichIputmyletters=Thisisthedrawer(whichthat)IputmylettersinHaveyouseenthepenwithwhichIwrotelettersthismorning=Haveyouseenthepen(whichthat)Iwroteletterswiththismorning所以一个句子有时有多种用法如:那就是他工作的大学ThisisthecollegeatwhichheworksThisisthecollegethatwhichheworksatThisisthecollegewhereheworks但像listento,lookat,dependon,payattentionto,takecareof等固定短语动词,在定语从句中一般不宜将介词与动词分开例如:ThisistheboywhomshehastakencareofThisisthebookwhichthatIamlookingforThisisthegirlIhavebeenlookingforthewholeafternoon(八)whose引导从句的意义)指人=ofwhom表示所修饰的"某(些)人的用做所修饰的先行词的所有格Achildwhoseparentsaredeadiscalledanorphan)指物=ofwhich表所修饰的"某物的"IliveintheroomwhosewindowfacessouthIliveintheroom,thewindowofwhichfacessouth(whose从句可以用"ofwhich从句"代替)(九)As与which是有区别的A)相同之处:都可以用来引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面的主句所表达的内容which可做宾语或表语Hefailedoncemoreinthematch,whichwasagreatpityHesucceededinthecomposition,whichmadehisparentsveryhappyB)区别:)as引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活,可以位于主句前面中间或后面,一般用逗号与主句隔开,但which所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后例如:)Asweallknow,Galileo'stheoryoffallingobjectsisright=Galileo'stheoryoffallingobjects,asweallknow,isright=Galileo'stheoryoffallingobjectsisright,asweallknow)Hewasthrownintoprison,whichgotroundthroughoutourvillage)Asisexpected,theEnglandteamwonthefootballmatch)Theearthrunsaroundthesun,asisknownbyeveryone)Hewaslateagain,whichmademeunhappy)Asyouknow,heisgoodatEnglish)as有"如","正如","像","正像"的含义,which没有后面的谓语动词多是see,know,expect,say,mention,report等Bobdidanexcellentjob,aswehadexpectedOurteamwonthegame,whichmadeushappyAsisknowntoall,TaiwanispartofChinaWearefacingthesameproblemsaswedidyearsagoWearefacingtheproblemswhichwefacedyearsagoWehopetogetsuchatoolasheisusingWehopetogetthetoolwhichheisusing)as在引导限制性定语从句多与such或thesame连用,可以代替先行词是人或物的名词thesame…assuch…asThisisthesamestoryashetoldmeIhopetogetsuchabookasheisusing)as也可单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句,作用相当于which可代表一个句子例如:Theelephant'snoseislikeasnake,asanybodycansee)as做主语时,其后必跟系动词,而which无此限制Themeetingwasputoff,aswaswhatwewantedHewasmurdered,asseemedtrue)as引导从句时,从句语义必须和主句一致Shewasmarriedagain,whichwasunexpectedShewasmarriedagain,aswasunexpected)thesame…as与thesamethat的区别:前者修饰的是原物同样的而后者修饰的就是先行词ThisisthesamewatchasIlost这和我丢的那一只手表是一样的ThisisthedamewatchthatIlost着就是我丢的那一只手表(十)什么时候that可以省略)引导同位语从句,主语从句,表语从句不能省略,且不做成分Thename"whitewater"comesfromthefactthatthewaterinthesestreamsandriverslookswhitewhenitmovesquicklyIt'sknowntoallthatlighttravelsinstraightlines(that置后可一省略)Thereasonforhisabsencewasthathewasill(有时可省,一般不省))宾语从句中可以省略Idon'tthink(that)youareright)that只有在定语从句中做成分,可做主,宾,表语(十一)关系代词做主语,谓语动词的单复数取决于先行词而不是关系代词IwanttoseethefilmthatisonshowThestudentswhodon'tstudyhardwillnotpastheexam(十二)oneofthe…与theoneofthe…做先行词时谓语不一致LiBaiisoneofthegreatestpoetsthathavelivedinChinaLiBaiistheoneofthegreatestpoetsthathaslivedinChinaThisisoneofthebooksthatIhavebeenwritteninChineseThisistheonlyoneofthebooksthathasbeenwritteninChineseHeisoneoftheboyswhoarewillingtodoitHeistheonlyoneoftheboyswhoiswillingtodoit(十三)关系副词引导的定语从句关系副词也可以引导定语从句关系副词在从句中分别表示时间地点或原因关系副词when在从句中充当时间状语,where充当地点状语,why充当原因状语)when表示时间,充当时间状语when=oninofat…whichIstillrememberthedaywhenIjointhepartyIwillneverforgetthedaywhenIfirstcametoBeijing但注意:当先行词是表地点:place,room,mountain,airport等时间:time,day,year,month,week,等原因:reason等名词时,并且分别在句中做地点,时间,原因状语时,应用where,when,why引导但是如果如果表示时间地点原因的名词不做状语,而是做主语,宾语,或者表语时,必须用关系代词thatwhich来引导而不是用where等IstillrememberthedaythatwespenttogetherMayisthedaythatIwillneverforgetTheYangtzeGorgesisabeautifulplace(thatwhich)peopleallovertheworldlookforwardtovisiting长江三峡是个美丽的地方,全世界的人都渴望来参观Themoment(thatwhich)Iturnedaround,shehadleftanddisappearedinthecrowdIsthisthereasonthathegaveusforbeinglateThisisthefactorythatwevisitedThatisthehousethathelivedinTheplacethatwehadbeentowasfarTheshopthatwhichwesawisbeautiful当先行词为bythetime,anytime,theway,everytime,thefirsttime,thelasttime时,关系词不用when而用that或省略ThisisthelasttimethatIshallgiveyoualessonThefirsttimeIsawhimwasinBythetimehewashehadlearnedadvancedmathematics但如果time前无修饰语,关系词用thatwhen均可Iwillneverforgotthetimewhen(that)wemetforthefirsttime当先行词为way时,关系词用inwhich,that,或省略Thisisthewaythatinwhich不加hesmiles但注意:why表示原因(现行词只有一个reason),做原因状语Why=forwhichThatisthereasonwhyhewaslate(十四)学生容易出现的问题在定语从句中多加了宾语,如:SomeoftheboysIinvitedthemdidn'tcomeSomeoftheboysIinviteddidn'tcomeIsthisthehorseyoudrewityesterdayIsthisthehorseyoudrewyesterday把定语从句的动词的单复数弄错ThosewhohasfinishedmayleavetheclassroomnowTheykeyopenstheroomismissingThosewhohavefinishedmayleavetheclassroomnowThisisoneoftheriversinChinawhichflowsnorthwardThisisoneoftheriversinChinawhichflowsnorthward省略了定语从句中做主语的关系代词ChildreneatalotofsugaroftengetbadteethChildrenwhoeatalotofsugaroftengetbadteethTheykeyopenstheroomismissingTheykeywhichthatopenstheroomismissing定语从句中加了多余的关系副词或者是介词ThehousewherehelivesinneedsrepairingThehousewherehelivesneedsrepairingThehousewhichthathelivesinneedsrepairingThisisthetimeatwhenhe'smorelikelytobeinThisisthetimewhenhe'smorelikelytobeinThisisthetimeatwhichhe'smorelikelytobein(十五)代有插入语的定语从句who与whom的选用担主语成分时用who,担宾格成分时用whom方法:要区分是定语从句中的插入语还是主谓结构Jasonisamanwho(Ibelieved)ishonest(去掉仍成立)JasonisamanwhomIbelievetobehonest做宾语ThegirlwhowesupposedwasdrownedcamebackThegirlwhowesupposedtobedrownedcameback(十六)什么时候宜用非限制性定语从句当先行词是专有名词时,通常用非限制性定语从句,它本身就具有特殊性,无需在加限定Shenzhen,whichisinSouthChina,isdevelopingrapidlyMyhouse,whichIboughtlastyear,hasgotagardenMrSmithboughtanewhouseonwhichhespentallhismoney)当先行词是具有某一特征的人或者物中的一个,但跟非限制从句时则表示唯一的一个,compare:HerroomhasawindowwhichfacessouthHerroomhasawindow,whichfacessouthIhaveabrotherwhoisworkinginBeijingIhaveabrother,whoisworkinginBeijing当先行词表示类属意义,即表示某类动物,事物或人时,其后所跟的定语从句一般是非限制性的Asleepisausefulanimal,whosewoolhasmanyusesFootball,whichisaveryinterestinggame,isnowplayedallovertheworld语法经典练习:Hepaidtheboy$forwashingtenwindows,mostofhadn'tbeencleanedforatleastayearAtheseBthoseCthatDwhichAlicereceivedaninvitationfromherboss,cameasasurpriseAitBthatCwhichDheSheheardaterriblenoise,broughtherheartintohermouthAitBwhichCthisDthatInthedarkstreet,therewasn'tasinglepersonshecouldturnforhelpAthatBwhoCfromwhomDtowhomTom'smotherkepttellinghimthatheshouldworkhard,butdidn'thelpAheBwhichCsheDitTheweatherturnedouttobeverygood,wasmorethanwecouldexpectAwhatBwhichCthatDitAfterlivinginParisforfiftyyearshereturnedtothesmalltownhegrewupasachildAwhichBwhereCthatDwhenCarolsaidtheworkwouldbedonebyOctober,personallyIdoubtverymuchAitBthatCwhenDwhichTheresultoftheexperimentwasverygood,wehadn'texpectedAwhenBthatCwhichDwhatItwasanexcitingmomentforthesefootballfansthisyear,forthefirsttimeinyearstheirteamwontheWorldCupAthatBwhileCwhichDwhenThesehousesaresoldatsuchalowpricepeopleexpectedAlikeBasCthatDwhichRecentlyIboughtanancientvase,wasveryreasonableAwhichpriceBthepriceofwhichCitspriceDthepriceofthoseDorothywasalwaysspeakinghighlyofherroleintheplay,,ofcourse,madetheothersunhappyAwhoBwhichCthisDwhatJohnsaidhe'dbeenworkingintheofficeforanhour,wastrueAheBthisCwhichDwhoThefilmbroughtthehoursbacktomeIwastakengoodcareofinthatfarawayvillageAuntilBthatCwhenDwhereThefamousbasketballstar,triedtomakeacomeback,attractedalotofattentionAwhereBwhenCwhichDWhoMeetingmyuncleafteralltheseyearswasanunforgettablemoment,IwillalwaystreasureAthatBoneCitDwhatWewillbeshownaroundthecity:schools,museumsandsomeotherplaces,othervisitorsseldomgoAwhatBwhichCwhereDwhenAlecaskedthepolicemanheworkedtocontacthimwhenevertherewasanaccidentAwithhimBwhoCwithwhomDwhomWearelivinginanagemanythingsaredoneoncomputersAwhichBthatCwhoseDwhenhasbeenannounced,weshallhaveourfinalexamsnextmonthAThatBAsCItDWhatYork,lastyear,isaniceoldcityAthatIvisitedBwhichIvisitedCwhereIvisitedDinchichIvisitedLuckly,we'dbroughtaroadmapwithoutwewouldhavelostourwayAitBthatCthisDwhichAfastfoodrestaurantistheplace,justasthenamesuggests,eatingisperformedquicklyAwhichBwhereCthereDwhatGeogeOrwell,wasEricArthur,writemanypoliticalnovelsandessaysAtherealnameBwhathisrealnameChisrealnameDwhoserealnameisreportedinthenewspapers,talksbetweenthetwocountriesaremakingprogressAItBAsCThatDwhatAmericanwomenusuallyidentifytheirbestfriendassomeonetheycantalkfrequentlyAwhoBasCaboutwhichDwithwhomTheEnglishplaymystudentsactedattheNewYear'spartywasagreatsuccessAforwhichBatwhichCinwhichDonwhichThereweredirtymarksonhertrousersshehadwipedherhandsAwhereBwhichCwhenDthatThejourneyaroundtheworldtooktheoldsailorninemonths,thesailingtimewasdaysAofwhichBduringwhichCfromwhichDforwhichTherewastimeIhatedtogotoschoolAa,thatBa,whenCthe,thatDthe,whentherearetwobuilding

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