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首页 自由软件的定义(Definition of free software)

自由软件的定义(Definition of free software).doc

自由软件的定义(Definition of free soft…

Jennifer芹
2018-01-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《自由软件的定义(Definition of free software)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

自由软件的定义(Definitionoffreesoftware)自由软件的定义(Definitionoffreesoftware)DefinitionoffreesoftwaredefinitionoffreesoftwareWemaintainthisarticletohighlightthedefinitionoffreesoftwareandexplainwhatsoftwareisappropriateforwhatiscalled"freesoftware""Freesoftware"about"freedom"insteadoftheprice,"free"(Free)thisconceptdoesnotreferto"freebeer",butrefersto"freedomofspeech"becauseEnglishfreeandfreeasaword:freeThesoftwarereferredtobyfreesoftware,whoseusershavethefreedomtouse,copy,distribute,study,rewriteandreusethesoftwareMoreprecisely,freesoftwaregivesusersfourfreedoms:Whateverthepurpose,thereisfreedomtousethesoftware(freedomzero)Thereisastudyofhowthesoftwareoperatesfreely,anditcanberewrittentomeettheuser'sneeds(oneofthefreedoms)ThesourcecodeofthesoftwareisthepremiseofachievingthisgoalTodistributethesoftwarefreely,soeveryonecanspreadthroughthefreesoftwarelinkingfriendlyrelations(freedomtwo)Thereisthefreedomtoimproveandreusethesoftware,anditcanberewrittenforpublicuse,sothatthecommunitycanbenefitfromitAstheprecedingparagraph,thesourcecodeofthesoftwareistheprerequisiteforthispurpose(threeoffreedom)Iftheuserofthesoftwarehasthefourrightsmentionedabove,thesoftwarecanbecalled"freesoftware"Thatistosay,theusermustbefreetochargeorchargeareasonablefeespreadway,atanytimetodistributethesoftwareistousetheoriginalorrewrittenversionofanypersoninanyplaceIftheuserdoesnothavetoaskanyoneorpayanylicensefeetoengageinsuchbehavior,itmeansthatshehehasthefreedomoffreedomprovidedbythefreesoftwareUsersshouldalsohavetherighttofreelyrewritesoftware,andcanreusethesesoftwareforworkorentertainmentTherighttousethesoftwareisapplicabletoanyperson,anyorganization,anycomputersystem,anyworknature,withoutspecialpreparationwithsoftwareauthorsorotherspecialpersonsorunitsThenspreadthefreedomofsoftwaremustalsoapplytotheoriginalandrewrittenversionofthesoftwaresourcecodeandbinarycode,ifcannotcreateabinarycodeversion,thisactioncanbeskipped,butiftheuserlaterfindotherbinarycodecanbemade,theymusthavespreadfreebinarycodeInordertoachievethefreedomtorewriteandpublishtherewrittenversion,theusermusthaveaccesstothesourcecodeofthesoftware,soaccesstothesourcecodeisthefoundationofthefreesoftwareInordertomakethesefreedomcometrue,aslongastheusersnotcommittedtoweringcrimesthesefreedomscannotbechangedIftheuserdoesnotdosomethingwrong,andtheauthorofthesoftwarehastherighttocancelorwithdrawhislicense,thenthesoftwareisnotafreesoftwareHowever,iftheadditionalprovisionsdonotconflictwiththefourmajorfreedoms,theseadditionalprovisionsconcerningthespreadoffreesoftwareareacceptableForexample,offbeatcopyrightcopyleftsaysthatwhentheredistributionofthesoftware,theauthorcannotlimitthefreedomofthemainrefusedtoothers,andtheruledoesnotfreethemainopposition,butfurtherprotecttheuser'srightsoffreesoftwareUserscanpayforaccesstoGNUsoftware,oruserscanalsogetthesefreesoftware,butnomatterhowyougotyoursoftware,youalwayshavethefreedomtocopyandchangethesoftware,eventosellthesesoftwareFreesoftwareisthereforenotanoncommercialsoftwareFreesoftwaremustbeavailableforcommercialuseFreesoftwarebusinessdevelopmentmodelsareverycommonsuchfreebusinesssoftwareisimportantIfitdoesnotaffectthesubsequentuser'srighttorewrite,itisalsofeasibletoaddarevisedversionofthefreesoftwaretotherelevantprovisionsofthesuiteInthesameway,likethis,"ifyoupublishsoftwareinthisway,YouhavetomakethesoftwareavailableinthiscasetooThewordingisalsopermittedIfthelicenserequires"whenyouissuearevisedversion,ifthepreviousdeveloperrequestsacopy,thenyouhavetoprovide"conditions,itisalsoconsistentwiththefreedomInGNUengineering,weusecopyleftasalicensetoprotecteveryuserfromthefreedomofthesoftware,butnoncopyleftfreesoftwarealsoexistsWebelievethattherearesomeimportantreasonswhycopyleftisbetterlicensedthanotherfreesoftwarelicenses,butifyoursoftwareisnotlicensedbycopyleft,wewilluseitaswellToknowtheconnectionoffreesoftware,copyleftlicensedsoftware,andothertypesofsoftware,seethetypeof"freesoftware"Sometimes,theprovisionsofthegovernmentregulationandexporttradinglicensewilllimitglobaluserstodistributesoftwarerightsandfreedoms,althoughthesoftwaredeveloperwriterdoesnothavethepowertoexcludeoreliminatetheselimitations,butshetheycanandmustrejecttheseconditionsincludedintheuseoffreesoftwareinthelaw,sothattheofficialwillnotaffecttheuser'sfreesoftware,freesoftwareandrelatedpeopleandthings,andthereforenotinthesegovernmentdepartmentswithinthejurisdictionMostofthelicensesforfreesoftwarearebasedoncopyleft,andthetypesofrequirementsthatcanbeaddedtothemarelimitedIfacopyrightbasedlicensecompliedwiththefreedomdescribedabove,itwouldbeunlikelytoencounterothertypesofproblemsthatweneverexpected(thoughoccasionally)However,therearesomefreesoftwarelicensesthatarebasedoncontractterms,andcontractscanbesubjecttoagreaterdegreeofpossiblerestrictionsThatmeansalicenselikethis,andtherearemanywaysthatcanbelimitedtounacceptable,andthusbecome"nonfree"Wecan'tlistallthepossiblecontractualrestrictionsthatwecan'tacceptIfalicenseforcontractbasedonacard,basedonthecopyrightlicenseisnotunusual,limittheusers,andnotasdescribedhereinasfreetermsofqualified,wewilltrytothiscontract,anditislikelythatitisnotfreeWhentalkingaboutfreesoftware,itisbesttoavoidtheuseof"give"or"thewordingofthefree",becausethesewordswillgivepeople"free"referstothepriceofthefree"misleading",whileignoringthetruemeaningofusingfreesoftwareSomewordslike"piracy"haveasimilarmeaning,andwehopethatusersoffreesoftwaredon'twanttobereferredtoFortheuseoftheseexpressions,see"confusingwords,trytoavoid"one,andwealsohaveamultilingualversionofthetranslationoftheterm"freesoftware"Finally,notethatthesestandardsforfreesoftwaredefinitionneedcarefulinterpretationWedeterminewhetherthesoftwarecomplieswiththestandardsoffreesoftwareaccordingtowhethertheselectedlicenseofasoftwareconformstothespiritandkeytextoftheabovefourpointsoftwarefreedomIfasoftwareisunfairandviolatesthespiritoftheabovefourpointfreesoftware,evenifthesoftwareisissued,werefusetouseitSometimes,acopyofthelicensewillleadtosomediscussion,beforeacceptingitasafreesoftwarelicense,andweneedsomelegalexpertstojudgeandthink,whenwereachaconsensus,wewillupdatethefreesoftwarestandard,allowinguserstomoreeasilyunderstandwhatisinlinewiththelicenseornotinaccordancewiththedefinitionoffreesoftwareIfyouhaveaspecificlicensewithfreesoftwarelicenseinterested,seeour"licenselist"ofatext,ifyouareinterestedinthelicenseisnotinourlist,pleaseaskusdirectlythroughemailPleasesendalettertoltlicensinggnuorg>Ifpossible,ifyoureallyneedanewlicense,thenwithourassistance,youcandeterminewhetherthelicenseisreallyafreesoftwarelicense,therebyavoidingmanyoftheactualproblemsOthergroupshavebeguntousetheterm"opensource"torefertosomethingthatisequivalentto"freesoftware"tosomeextent,butstillnotthesameThereasonwhywetendtouse"freesoftware"isthat,onceyou'vehearditmeansfreedom,notfree,youcanknowfromitsnamethatitis"freedom"extendedreading

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自由软件的定义(Definition of free software)

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