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首页 建筑设计与仿生学的关系

建筑设计与仿生学的关系.doc

建筑设计与仿生学的关系

邓一薇
2017-10-15 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《建筑设计与仿生学的关系doc》,可适用于综合领域

建筑设计与仿生学的关系董纪成摘要仿生学在建筑设计中应用的非常广泛它在建筑中的使用实现了大自然、生物、人类生存环境及人的协调发展体现了人类崇尚大自然的愿望。本文从建筑路的实例开始对仿生建筑学原理及仿生建筑学的发展趋势进行剖析最终得出仿生学在建筑设计中的应用应通过四种实现途径的结合进一步突出仿生学对建筑设计的改良作用做出更好的建筑设计。关健词仿生学建筑设计应用国家体育场(“鸟巢”)是年北京奥运会主体育场。由年普利茨克奖获得者赫尔佐格、德梅隆与中国建筑师李兴刚等合作完成的巨型体育场设计形态如同孕育生命的“巢”它更像一个摇篮寄托着人类对未来的希望。设计者们对这个国家体育场没有做任何多余的处理只是坦率地把结构暴露在外因而自然形成了建筑的外观。国家体育场于年月日开工建设年月日因设计调intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision整而暂时停工同年月日恢复施工年月完工。工程总造价亿元。“鸟巢”外形结构主要由巨大的门式钢架组成共有根桁架柱。国家体育场建筑顶面呈鞍形长轴为米短轴为米最高点高度为米最低点高度为米。体育场外壳采用可作为填充物的气垫膜使屋顶达到完全防水的要求阳光可以穿过透明的屋顶满足室内草坪的生长需要。比赛时看台是可以通过多种方式进行变化的可以满足不同时期不同观众量的要求奥运期间的个临时座席分布在体育场的最上端且能保证每个人都能清楚的看到整个赛场。入口、出口及人群流动通过流线区域的合理划分和设计得了完美得到的解决。鸟巢设计中充分体现了人文关怀碗状座席环抱着赛场的收拢结构上下层之间错落有致无论观众坐在哪个位置和赛场中心点之间的视线距离都在米左右。“鸟巢”的下层膜采用的吸声膜材料、钢结构构件上设置的吸声材料以及场北京届奥运会体育场鸟巢实景内使用的电声扩音系统这三层“特殊装置”使“巢”内的语音清晰度指标指数达到这个数字保证了坐在任何位置的观众都能清晰地收听到广播。“鸟巢”的相关设计师们还运用流体力学设计模拟出个人同时观赛的自然通风状况让所有观众都能享有同样的自然光和自然通风。“鸟巢”的观众席里还为残障人士设置了多个轮椅座席。这些轮椅座席比普通座席稍高保证残障人士和普通观众有一样的视野。赛时场内还将提供供助听器并设置无线广播系统intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision为有听力和视力障碍的人提供个性化的服务。许多建筑界专家都认为“鸟巢”将不仅为年奥运会树立一座独特的历史性的标志性建筑而且在世界建筑发展史上也将具有开创性意义将为世纪的中国和世界建筑发展提供历史见证。北京鸟巢体育场是中国近代杰出的建筑设计之一整个体育场结构的组件相互支撑形成网格状的构架外观看上去就仿若树枝织成的鸟巢其灰色矿质般的钢网透明的膜材料覆盖其中包含着一个土红色的碗状体育场看在这里中国传统文化中镂空的手法、陶瓷的纹路、红色的灿烂与热烈与现代最先进的钢结构设计完美地相融在一起不仅式上仿生而且意义非凡那是一个用树枝般的钢网把一个可容万人的体育场编织成的一个温馨鸟巢~用来孕育与呵护生命的“巢”寄托着人类对未来的希望。一、仿生学内涵理解仿生学是指模仿生物建造技术装置的科学它是在上世纪中期才出现的一门新的边缘科学。仿生学研究生物体的结构、功能和工作原理并将这些原理移植于工程技术之中发明性能优越的仪器、装置和机器创造新技术。从仿生学的诞生、发展到现在短短几十年的时间内它的研究成果已经非常可观。仿生学的问世开辟了独特的技术发展道路也就是向生物界索取蓝图的道路它大大开阔了人们的眼界显示了极强的生命力。二、仿生建筑学原理仿生建筑学的原理就是以生物界某些生物体功能组织和形象构成intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision规律为原理探索自然界科学合理的建筑规律并通过这些原理来丰富和完善建筑处理手法促进建筑形体结构及建筑功能布局等的高效设计和合理形成。通俗地讲就是在建筑设计中引入一定的生物的特点、性能、结构和功能使得建筑设计更加实用、更加具有美感、更加节约材料等最终实现建筑设计的改良和优化。体现在四个方面包括环保节能、标准化、智能、多维空间。环保节能建筑设计也叫生态建筑设计是以生态学的原理和方法为基础以人、建筑、自然和社会和谐发展为目标寻求最适合人类生存和发展的生态建筑目标的设计方式。随着我国人口的增加和资源环境的压力不断增加环保节能已经成为我国经济发展指标中的一项重要任务而建筑在节能减排、保障环保方面则有着更重要的位置据国家有关资料显示我国的建筑能耗非常惊人。在建造和使用过程中直接消耗的能源占全社会总能耗的,使用的钢水泥等建材的生产能耗占,。两项相加我国的能源有约一半被建筑消耗了因此建筑节能也就成为全社会节能工作的重点所在。三、仿生学在建筑设计中的实现途径及具体表现仿生学在现代建筑设计中的主要实现途径主要包括四个方面城市环境仿生、使用功能仿生、建筑形式仿生和组织结构的仿生以及这四种基本的表现方式相结合形成的综合性的表现途径。城市环境仿生这一概念与其他几个仿生表现途径相比起来是一个更复杂更系统的工程它注重的方面是城市整体环境与建筑的设计相结合既要求城市在整体上要保持环保设计理念又要城市的各种建intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision筑设与城市公共设计相统一最终实现城市整体环境优化城市环境仿生设计方面最具代表性的作品是拿破仑第三的巴黎建设计划十八世纪的巴黎改建规划在某种程度上就是模拟了人的生态系统而进行规划设计的。例如当时在巴黎东、西郊规划建设的两座森林公园东郊维星斯公园和西郊布伦公园的巨大绿化面积就象征着人的两肺环形绿化带与赛纳河就象是人的呼吸管道这样就使新鲜空气可以输入城市的各个区域。市区内环形和放射的各种主干与次要道路网就象是人的血管系统使血流能够循环畅通。这种城市环境仿生思想不仅在当时已起到了积极的作用解决了困扰巴黎的城市交通与环境美化问题使巴黎在世界上成为城市改建的成功范例而且城市环境仿生理论今后仍然值得借鉴和完善。使用功能仿生即利用自然界生物的某些特征实现建筑设计的功能完善更适应人类的使用需求。例如:”叶之屋”由巴西MareinesPatalano建筑设计公司所设计。该公司将室内空间与走廊完全分开来设计使得海风能够直接穿过整座建筑可以起到良好的通风降温作用。建筑设计师彼德科利奥普洛斯点评道”走廊作为建筑主体的一部分似乎是目前的主流风格在我们的周围到处都可见到人们似乎也把这种风格看作是一种建筑标准。不幸的是这种风格的走廊占据了住宅的很大一部分空间。”在”叶之屋”中人们看不出明显的走廊而且室内外也没有任何清晰的界限。屋顶是一片大大的叶子可以有效防止烈日的暴晒雨水在屋顶上收集起来并回收利用纯天然装饰手法、有机美化与丰富的细节装饰都使其与巴西充满活力intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision的自然景观融化在一起。叶之屋全景建筑形式的仿生不仅可以取得新颖的造型而且往往也能为发挥新结构体系的作用创造出非凡的效果。由于人类对于建筑的概念本身就来源于对世界生物的认识是从自然形态中进化而来的因此人类建筑史上对于形式仿生的利用是最为广泛的这里举一个有例子北京水立方。这个看似简单的“方盒子”是中国传统文化和现代科技共同“搭建”而成的。中国人认为没有规矩不成方圆按照制定出来的规矩做事就可以获得整体的和谐统一。在中国传统文化中“天圆地方”的设计思想催生了“水立方”它与圆形的“鸟巢”国家体育场相互呼应相得益彰。方形是中国古代城市建筑最基本的形态它体现的是中国文化中以纲常伦理为代表的社会生活规则。而这个“方盒子”又能够最佳体现国家游泳中心的多功能要求从而实现了传统文intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision化与建筑功能的完善结合。组织结构仿生是利用自然界生物的力学特点、结构关系等特点来改善建筑设计的结构、材料使用等最终实现建筑的节能、舒适和环保。现在组织结构仿生建筑设计中使用得最多的有:拱形结构、蛋形结构、螺旋结构。例如拱形结构就是从恐龙形体上找到原形专家们发现恐龙巨大的身躯、长颈和粗长的尾巴的重力中心是在腰部身体的重量通过身体重心传递到粗壮的四肢上整个身体的上部犹如一座拱桥。从力学角度来看它的确是一种承受巨大负荷的理想结构的造型。该仿生建筑的特点是用料省坚固耐压外观美观大方。自古以来自然界就是人类各种技术思想、工程原理及重大发明的源泉。种类繁多的生物界经过长期的进化过程使它们能适应环境的变化从而得到生存和发展。劳动创造了人类。人类以自己直立的身躯、能劳动的双手、交流情感和思想的语言在长期的生产实践中促进了神经系统尤其是大脑获得了高度发展。因此人类无与伦比的能力和智慧远远超过生物界的所有类群。人类的智慧不仅仅停留在观察和认识生物界上而且还运用人类所独有的思维和设计能力模仿生intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision物通过创造性的劳动增加自己的本领。鱼儿在水中有自由来去的本领人们就模仿鱼类的形体造船以木桨仿鳍。如今自然界存在的生物都是经过亿万年的时间经过残酷的生存竞争存活下来的他们的身体都是在各自的环境中最适合自然地能够最大限度的利用自然环境抵抗自然灾害。而我们把这种形状应用在建筑设计中不但建造出来的建筑更坚固耐用而且外形美观大方它们能够更好地与周围环境相互映衬充分体现了社会的和谐美好。仿生学的应用使建筑设计更科学、更丰富也使得建筑更加具有实用性和人性化使建筑既能节能环保又能满足人类不断增长的各种需求特别是在人类资源越来越少的情况下充分利用仿生学建筑学原理并将各种途径结合起来才能综合满足人类。参考文献:网络资源《大跨空间结构》张毅刚编intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision大跨空间结构论文班级:土木学号:姓名:董纪成intensivedevelopment()havedifferentemphasis:fordevelopment,"withdevelopment,theemphasison"way,fromspace,multiplegroupsfromasingleradiationbeltopendevelopmentSpatialstructureof,theprominentculturalcityprotectionelementsonthedevelopmentofthewholecityandcultureseriessupportingrole,withnaturallandscapesandgreenforthebackground,accordingtothecombinedcity,urbanGrouporganizationstructure,setupadecentralizeddevelopmentpatterns,buildingThreerivers:theYangtze,jinshaRiverandminjiangrivers,citiesinthreeriversbasedondevelopmentalongtheYangtzeRiver,cityontheRiver,RiverinthecityMultiplegroups:therelativelycompactarealayout,eachdistrictconsistsofmultiplegroups,andtheareahasbothintegratedurbanfunctions,andhavetheirowncharacteristicsandperimeterformationLiZhuang,LiZhuangdongcharacteristictourareaandHongKongingroup,consistsofgroupsBand:modernfeaturesgatheringalongtheYangtzeRiverbeltDvngroupintheupperreachesofthejinshaRiveralongtherivercontinuestotheEasttoSouthstreamgroups,layoutalongthecity'smaincommercial,business,administrative,culturalandcreativeresearchanddevelopmentinscienceandeducationfunctionofmodernserviceandportequipmentmanufacturing,liquor,andotherfeaturesandmodernindustryspatialplanningfigureinYibincity,CentralCityurbandevelopmentvisionvision

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