下载
加入VIP
  • 专属下载特权
  • 现金文档折扣购买
  • VIP免费专区
  • 千万文档免费下载

上传资料

关闭

关闭

关闭

封号提示

内容

首页 现代母语习得理论

现代母语习得理论.doc

现代母语习得理论

独自一人舔伤口
2019-06-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《现代母语习得理论doc》,可适用于综合领域

ModernFirstLanguageAcquisitionTheory现代母语习得理论LanguageiscloselyrelatedtothehumanmindThehumanmind,however,isverydifficulttostudy,asitcannotbeobserveddirectlyButitleavesitstraceseverywhere,particularlyinlanguageLanguagehasbeenawindowofthemindManypeoplehavetriedtodiscerntheworkingsofthemindfromthegrowthofchildrenPsycholinguistsareconcernedwiththementalprocessesthatareinvolvedinlearningtospeak,andarealsointerestedintheunderlyingknowledgeandabilitieswhichchildrenmusthaveinordertouselanguageandtolearntouselanguageinchildhoodIslanguageinnateorisitlearnedafterbirthIsthereanybiologicalfoundationforlanguageHowdochildrenacquiretheirfirstlanguageTheseandotherissueshavethefocusofinterestsandresearchtoappliedlinguists,psycholinguistsandlanguageteachersLacquisitiontheoriesaretheattemptedexplanationsfortheseunansweredquestionsMajorModernFirstLanguageAcquisitionTheories现代主要母语习得理论HowdochildrenacquirelanguageisatthecenterofthedebateLearningtheoristssuchasSkinnermaintained()thatlanguageisacquiredthroughreinforcementChomsky()arguedthatlanguagewasfartoocomplextobelearnedsocompletelyinsuchashortspaceoftime,bycognitivelyimmaturetoddlers(baby,child),merelybyreinforcementHearguedthattheneonate婴儿arrivesequippedwithaLADThiscontainsasetofrulescommontoalllanguagesandallowschildrentolearnanylanguagewhichtheyareexposedtoSlobin()suggestedasimilarinnatedevicetheLMC(languagemakingcapacity)TheinteractionistsperspectivesuggeststhatacombinationofbiologicalandcognitivefactorspluslinguisticenvironmentareallnecessaryfortheacquisitionoflanguageBasicallyweshalldiscusstwoschoolsofthoughtsontheissueoflanguageacquisitionhereThequestionofhowchildrenacquiretheirfirstlanguageisansweredquitedifferentlybythetwoschoolsoftheoriesTheschoolofbehavioristictheorybelievesthattheinfantsmindatbirthisablankslatetobewrittenonbyexperienceWithregardtolanguage,itclaimsthatchildrenacquiretheirLthroughachainofstimulusresponseimitationreinforcementTheotherschoolofthoughtsisbasedontheinnatenesshypothesisPeoplewhoholdthecognitiveviewbelievethathumanbabiesaresomewhatpredisposed有倾向toacquirealanguageTheysaythatthereareaspectsoflinguisticorganizationthatarebasictohumanbrainandthatmakeitpossibleforhumanchildrentolearnalanguagewithallitscomplexitywithlittleornoinstructionfromfamilyorfriendsThenatureoflanguageacquisitionisstillanopenquestionandpeoplearestillprobingthenatureoftheinnatenessofinfantsmindBriefHistoryofModernLAcquisitionResearch现代母语习得研究简史ModernresearchonchildlanguageacquisitiondatesbacktothelatethwhentheGermanphilosopherrecordedhisobservationofthepsychologicalandlinguisticdevelopmentofhisyoungsonMostofthestudiescarriedoutbetweenthesandswerelimitedtodiarylikerecordingsofobservedspeechwithsomeattemptstoclassifywordtypes,andsimplyaccountsofchangesfrombabblingtothefirstwordanddescriptionsofthegrowingvocabularyandsentencelengthMostobserversregardedlanguagedevelopmentasamatterofimitation,practice,andhabituationItwasnotuntilthesthatthestudyofLacquisitionreceivedanewmajor…impetus促进largelybecauseoftheChomskysrevolutionandthecreationofthegenerativegrammarResearchersbegantoanalyzechildlanguagesystematicallyandtriedtodiscoverthenatureofthepsycholinguisticprocessthatenableseveryhumanbeingtogainafluentcontroloftheexceedingly极度complexsystemofcommunicationInamatterof(about)afewdecadesoflanguagesomegiantstridesweretaken,especiallyinthegenerativeandcognitivemodeloflanguage,indescribingthenatureofchildlanguageacquisitionandtheacquisitionofparticularlanguages,andinprobinguniversalaspectsofacquisitionLAcquisitionTheories:ABehavioristicPerspective行为主义母语习得理论Lacquisitiontheoriescanroughlybedividedintotwomajorgroups:behavioristicandcognitiveBehavioristscontend主张thatlanguageisafundamentalpart基本部分oftotalhumanbehaviorBehavioristslearningtheoriesdescribeandexplainbehaviorusingaSRmodelThebasictenet原则ofbehaviorismisthathumanbeingscannotknowanythingtheyhavenotexperiencedandchildrenandadultslearnlanguagethroughachainof…stimulusresponsereinforcementSinceonecannotlookinsidealivingorganism,onecannotobserveitsinternalstatesHenceonecannotknowanythingaboutthemAnystatementsonemakesaboutinternalstatesorprocessaremeaninglessEachorganismisregardedasablackboxthatcannotbeopenedforobservationTheonlymeaningfulstatementsonecanmakeabouttheorganismconcernwhatgoesintoit(stimulus)andwhatcomesoutofit(response)Thegoalofbehaviorists,therefore,istodiscoverandcreatepredictablerelationshipsbetweenstimulusandresponseSincetheyregardlanguageasabasicpartoftotalhumanbehavior,theytrytoexplainLacquisitionprocessstrictlyinaccordancewiththeirbasictenet,focusingontheobservableaspectsoflanguagebehaviorandtheirrelationshipsorassociationswiththeobjects,eventsorstatesofaffairsintheworldSomeBasicFeaturesofBehavioralModelPavlovSkinnerfocusonoutwardlyobservablebehaviorlikestructurallinguistslanguageisafunctionofreinforcementlearningisformedthroughstimiliresponsereinforcerlanguageislearnedthroughenvironmentalconditioningandimitationofadultmodelslanguageacquisitionisaprocessofhabitformationfocusesontheimmediatelyperceptibleaspectsoflinguisticbehaviorthepubliclyobservableresponsesandrelationshipsorassociationsbetweenthoseresponsesandeventsintheworldaroundChildrenareconditionedto习惯于learnlanguageTheirparentsreinforceandmodelgoodgrammarandvocabularyuseAbehavioristmightconsidereffectivelanguagebehaviortobetheproductionofcorrectresponsestostimuliIfaparticularresponseisreinforced,itthenbecomeshabitual,orconditionedTwoMainRepresentativesofBehaviorismClassicBehaviorism(IvanPavlov)Classicconditioning:thelearningprocessconsistedoftheformationofassociationsbetweenstimuliandreflexiveresponsesNeobehaviorism(Skinner’sOperantConditioning)Operantconditioningreferstoconditioninginwhichtheorganism(ahumanbeing)emitsaresponse,oroperant(asentenceorutterance),withoutnecessarilyobservablestimulithatoperantismaintained(learned)byreinforcementItislearningfromtheconsequencesOperantbehaviorisbehaviorinwhichoneoperatesonenvironment“Operant”isusedbecausethesubjectoperatesorcausessomechangesintheenvironment,producingaresultthatinfluenceswhetheritwilloperateinthesamewayinthefutureSoverbalbehavioriscontrolledbyitsconsequencesReinforcementcanbedefinedasastimulusoreventthataffectsthelikelihoodthatabehaviorwillberepeatedThenatureofthereinforcementdependsontheeffectithasontheleanerCriticismsofBehavioristicTheoryofLanguageAcquisition行为主义母语习得理论评述NoonedeniesthefactthatbehaviorismhasmadeitsdueandearlycontributionstothedevelopmentofchildlanguageacquisitiontheoryItemphasizedtheimportantandnecessaryrolesofimitation,reinforcement,repetition,andpracticeintheprocessoflanguageacquisitionButabstractnatureoflanguageshowsthatitnotonlycontainsverbalbehaviorsbutanunderlyingandrulegovernedsystemFirst,inlanguageacquisition,childoftencreateshisownlinguisticrulesThebestexampleisthatchildovergeneralizesthegrammaticalruleofformingpastregularverbswithedandextendsittoallirregularverbsandcreatesverbslikegoed,comed,breaked,which,ofcourse,arenottheresultofimitationoftheadultslanguageChildsgenerationofrulesindicatesthathecreateshisownrulesandhashishypothesestestedinhisLADSecondly,whatchildacquiresisabstractlanguagesystem,iecompetenceratherconcreteperformancestowhichheisexposedThereisnodoubtthatanysentencecontainsbothsurfaceandadeepstructureAlthoughsometimes,surfacestructuresoftwosentencesarethesame,themeaningofthedeepstructuresiscompletelydifferentThesamesurfacestructureanddifferentmeaningsprovethatachildcanneverunderstandthedifferenceinmeaningbyimitatingthetwosurfacestructuresunlesshegoesdeepintotheunderlyingstructuresThirdly,sincelanguageisdifficultandcomplicated,achildhastolearnitsstructuresandbuildhiscommunicativecompetenceAdultscanneverteachthecommunicativefunctionsofthelanguagetothechildThedrawbacksofthebehavioristicacquisitiontheoryareobviouslinguistsarestillinsearchofatheorythatprovidesanoverallandeffectiveexplanationtothechildlanguageacquisitionLAcquisitionTheories:ACognitivePerspective认知主义母语习得理论Behaviorism,withitsemphasisonempirical经验主义,实验observationandthescientificexperimentation,cannotaccountforavastdomainoflanguageacquisitionthatcanonlybeexploredbyadeeplyprobingapproachthecognitiveapproachCognitivetheoryofLacquisitionemphasizesthementalandpsychologicalprocessandimportanceofcognition,thusopeninganewhorizonforLacquisitionstudy()InnatenessTheory心灵主义“先天”论Thistheory,alsoknownasthenativistapproach“先天”论,isrepresentedbyChomsky,McneillandLennebergChomskyattackedbehavioristictheoryoflanguagelearningandreassertedthementalistviewsofLacquisitionChomskystressedtheactivecontributionofthechildandminimizedtheimportanceofimitationandreinforcementNativistsstronglyheldthatlanguageacquisitionisinnatelydetermined,thathumanbeingsarebornwithabuildindeviceofsomekindthatpredisposesustolanguageacquisition,resultingintheconstructionofaninternalizedsystemoflanguageThechildisbornwiththeinnateknowledgeoflanguageThisinnateknowledge,accordingtoChomsky,isembodiedina“littleblackbox”ofsortswhichChomskycalledlanguageacquisitiondeviceorLADHeassumesthattheLADprobablyconsistsofthreeelementslinguisticuniversals,ahypothesismakingdevice,andanevaluationprocedureThesocalledLADhasanumberoflinguisticuniversals,oruniversalgrammar(UG)instoreItalsohasahypothesismakingdevice,whichisanunconsciousprocessandenablesthechildtomakehypothesesaboutthestructureoflanguageingeneral,andaboutthestructureoflanguagelearninginparticularThehypothesesthatthechildsubconsciouslysetsuparetestedinitsuseoflanguage,andcontinuouslymatchedwiththenewlinguisticinputthatthechildobtainsbylisteningtowhatissaidinhisimmediateenvironmentThiscausesthechild’shypothesesaboutthestructureoflanguagetobechangedandadaptedregularly,throughtheevaluationprocedure,andthroughaprocessofsystematicchangestowardstheadultrulesystemThisviewofthelanguagelearningprocessstressesthementalactivitiesofthelanguagelearnerhimselfandstronglyquestionstherelevance恰当ofsuchexternalfactorsasimitation,frequencyofstimulusandreinforcementAchildlearnsnotthroughimitationbutbycreativehypothesistestingForexample,hehearsalotofhypothesesbutonlychooseswhatheneedsandcreativelyproducesthelanguageofhisownContrastingChildLanguageInputandOutputUtterancesachildhearsUtterancesachildproducesPassmethemilkGivemethemilkGetmethemilkWantsomemilkDrinksomemilkMommy,milkTakethemilkTastethemilkMilkThereisnomilkMilk,overthereMilk,pleaseSomeBasicFeaturesofInnatenessTheoryNativistApproachChomsky,McneillandLennebergLanguageacquisitionisinnatelydetermined,thatwearebornwithaunique,biologicallybasedabilityofsomekindthatpredisposesustolanguageacquisitiontoasystematicperceptionoflanguagearoundus,resultingintheconstructionofaninternalizedsystemoflanguageChildrenarebornwithaspeciallanguagelearningmechanismintheirbraincalledLADChildrencanacquiregrammaticalrulessubconsciously,withwhichtheycangenerateaninfinitenumberofsentenceswithnewmeaningsASummaryofInnatenessTheoryNativistApproachInsummary,mentalistviewsofLacquisitionpositedthefollowingpoints:languageisahumanspecificfaculty(ability)languageexistsasanindependentfacultyinthehumanmindAlthoughitispartofthelearner’stotalcognitiveapparatus设备,itisseparatedfromthegeneralcognitivemechanismsresponsibleforintellectualdevelopmenttheprimarydeterminantofLacquisitionisthechildsacquisitiondevice,whichisgeneticallyendowedandprovidesthechildwithasetofprinciplesaboutgrammartheacquisitiondevice…atrophies萎缩withagetheprocessofacquisitionconsistsofhypothesistesting,bywhichmeansthegrammarofthelearnersmothertongueisrelatedtotheprinciplesoftheuniversalgrammarButtherearestillsomeproblemsofInnatenessTheoryNativistApproachtoLacquisitionTheproblemisthatwecouldnotprovetheexistenceofLADandthegenerativerulesonlydealwiththeformsoflanguageandfailtoaccountforthefunctionsoflanguageThreeContributionsofNativisticTheoriesofLAcquisitionNativistictheoriesofchildlanguageacquisitionhavemadeatleastthreeimportantcontributionstotheunderstandingoftheLacquisitionprocessFirst,theyaccountedfortheaspectsofmeaning,theabstractnessoflanguage,andthecreativityinthechildsuseoflanguageSecondly,theyhavefreedLacquisitionstudyfromtherestrictionsofthesocalled“scientificmethod”ofbehaviorismandbeguntoexploretheunseen,unobservable,underlying,invisible,abstractlinguisticstructuresbeingdevelopedinthechildintheLacquisitionprocessThirdly,ithasbeguntodescribethechildslanguageasalegitimate,合理rulegoverned,consistentsystemPsychologicalandlinguisticexperimentshavefoundthatoneweekoldbabiescandistinguishsoundsinFrenchfromthoseinRussianThereasonthatlinguisticcompetenceisbasedonhumangenesisasserted,andthisfindingseemedtosupportChomsky’shypothesisofLADexistence()CognitiveTheory功能主义“认知”论Thecognitivetheory,representedbySlobin,PiagetandBloom,attemptedtoaccountforthelinguisticknowledgeofthechildbyamoregeneraltheoryofcognitivedevelopmentSlobinprovidesamoredetailedaccountofthelanguageacquisitionprocesswiththebroadoutlinesofcognitivetheoryoflanguagedevelopmentHesuggeststhatlanguageacquisitionisinthesameorderwiththeconceptualdevelopmentofthechildLanguagedevelopmentispacedbythegrowthofconceptualandcommunicativecapacities,operatinginconnectionwithinnateschemaofcognitionCognitivedevelopmenthasgreatimpactonthelinguisticdevelopment,which,inturn,willaffectconceptualformationJeanPiagetisanothercognitivepsychologistwhomadeathoroughrenovationtotheconceptofchildrensdevelopmentoflanguageandthoughtInfact,hedevelopedtheexperimentalmethodologyforexploringchildren’sthoughtandstudiedsystematicallythoughtandlogicofchildrenHisstudyprovedthatthedifferencesinthoughtbetweenchildrenandadultsareofqualityratherthanofquantityAccordingtoPiaget,languageabilityneverdevelopsearlierthancognitiveabilityHumanbeingshastwoorganizations机制,oneisfunctionalinvariants,不变量,inPiaget’sterminology,whichdeterminehowmanandhisenvironmentreactmutuallyandhowmanlearnsfromenvironmentAnotheriscognitivestructure,whichistheoutcomeofthemutualreactionbetweenfunctionalinvariantsandenvironmentItisthefunctionalinvariantsthatarethecentralpartoflanguageacquisitionManyresearchfindingsprovedthattwofactsareevidentinthechildlanguageacquisitionSomeBasicFeaturesofCognitiveTheoryChildlanguagegrowthispacedwiththecognitivedevelopmentoftheconceptandcommunicativeabilityLinguisticandcognitivedevelopmentkeepsupthesamepaceandhasinterdependenceemphasizetheinteractionofthechildsperceptualandcognitivedevelopmentwithlinguisticandnonlinguisticeventsinhisenvironmentWecanneverstudytheLacquisitionthoroughlywithoutconsideringthementaldevelopmentofchildreninthefirstplaceTheformationofconceptreflectsthedegreesofmentalmaturityLacquisitiondependsonmentaldevelopmentWiththeacquisitionofconcept,languageacquisitionentersfromsinglewordphasetodoublewordphase,andlaterontodiscourseIntellectualdevelopmentenableschildrentodiscardconsciouslywhatisunacceptableinalanguagecommunityandassimilatewhatisacceptableFinallychildrenestablishaninternalizedacceptablegrammarsystemTipsfromchildfirstlanguageacquisition:AmanisboundtoacquireanewlanguageonlyifheisphysicallynormalandgrownupinaproperspeechcommunityAdultslearnasecondlanguageinmuchthesamewayasachildacquireshismothertonguesInlanguageteaching,practicemustbeemphasized,sometimesreinforcedpracticeneeded(patterndrills,rehearsal,substitutionexercisesetcarenecessary)Languagelearningappearsamatterofimitation,butimitationaloneisinadequateforacquiringalanguageThereisanaturalorderinacquiringalanguageStagesofChildsAcquisitionofFirstLanguageDuringtheprocessofLacquisition,childdevelopshisnativelanguageinamoreorlessstagelikepatternDifferentchildrenofdifferentnationsusuallyundergosimilarandgeneralphasesoflanguagedevelopmentBabbling,singlewordutterance,doublewordutteranceanddiscourseThenumberingofthesestagesisquitearbitraryandvariesfromauthortoauthorBasedonthenewestinternetresearchdata,childLdevelopmentcanbedividedintostagesPrelinguisticPeriodtheBabblingStage(前语言期呀呀学语阶段)Cryingisthechildsearliestvocalization发声法acooing,crying(heardbymonths)avelar软鹗consonantssuchaskandghighvowels元音suchasiandubbabbling(heardbymonths)longsequencesofconsonantsandvowelssyllables音节canbeidentifiedintonation声调语调patterncanbeheardnotlinkedtoimmediateneedsoftenutteredinisolationforpleasureprovidespracticeforlaterspeechAcquisitionofConceptoftheWorldachildseestheworldasthelinkbetweensoundandmeaningwordsvaryinthepronunciation:soundswhichdiffermostarelearntfirstconsonantswhicharesimilararelearnedlastHolophrasticStagetheSingleWordStage(独词句期单词句阶段)singlewordsbecomemorethanjustlabelsintonationmaybeofquestion,command,request…TelegraphicStagetheDoubleUtteranceStageandtheStageofDevelopingGrammar(months)wordshavebeenmultipliedconsiderablyandarebeginningtoappearincombinationwitheachothertoformtwowordandthreeword“sentences”LinguisticBehaviorandSpeechCapacity(aboutage)comprehendanincrediblequantityoflinguisticbehaviorspeechcapacityexpandsuseoflogicalconnectionsbecomea“fluent”speakerformgoodcommunicativeskillsSocialFunctionsofLanguage(schoolage)learnhowtouselanguageappropriatelylearntouselanguageinsocialcontexts

用户评价(0)

关闭

新课改视野下建构高中语文教学实验成果报告(32KB)

抱歉,积分不足下载失败,请稍后再试!

提示

试读已结束,如需要继续阅读或者下载,敬请购买!

文档小程序码

使用微信“扫一扫”扫码寻找文档

1

打开微信

2

扫描小程序码

3

发布寻找信息

4

等待寻找结果

我知道了
评分:

/17

现代母语习得理论

VIP

在线
客服

免费
邮箱

爱问共享资料服务号

扫描关注领取更多福利