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首页 cambridge 4 test 2passage 3

cambridge 4 test 2passage 3.doc

cambridge 4 test 2passage 3

那yi瞬间的幸福
2019-05-14 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《cambridge 4 test 2passage 3doc》,可适用于综合领域

PLAYISASERIOUSBUSINESS玩耍是件严肃的事。Childrenengrossedinamakebelieveworld,foxcubsplayfightingorkittensteasingaballofstringaren'tjusthavingfun孩子们沉溺在假想的世界中,狐狸幼崽儿嬉戏打闹,小猫玩线球,这些行为都不只是取乐而已。Playmaylooklikeacarefreeandexuberantwaytopassthetimebeforethehardworkofadulthoodcomesalong,butthere'smuchmoretoitthanthat看上去玩耍时成人世界的辛苦工作到来之前,无忧无虑、精力充沛的消磨时光的方式,其实远非如此。Forastart,playcanevencostanimalstheirlives首先,玩耍可能使动物们送命。Eightypercentofdeathsamongjuvenilefursealsoccurbecauseplayingpupsfailtospotpredatorsapproaching比如,百分之八十的小海狗死亡都是因为玩耍中的小海狗没能看到接近的捕食者。Itisalsoextremelyexpensiveintermsofenergy玩耍也是相当消耗精力的。Playfulyounganimalsusearoundtwoorthreepercentoftheirenergycavorting,andinchildrenthatfigurecanbeclosertofifteenpercent顽皮的小动物要花上百分之二三的精力来嬉戏打闹,而对于儿童而言,这个数字可以高达百分之十五。'Eventwoorthreepercentishuge,'saysJohnByersofIdahoUniversity'Youjustdon'tfindanimalswastingenergylikethat,'headdsTheremustbeareason即使只有百分之二三也是个不小的数目了。Idaho大学的JB说道,你很难发现动物们如此消耗精力。Byers补充说。总有一定的原因使他们这么做。Butifplayisnotsimplyadevelopmentalhiccup,asbiologistsoncethought,whydiditevolve但是,如果玩耍不像生物学家们过去认为的那样,只是发育过程总的小插曲的话,那么到底是什么促使了玩耍的发展呢Thelatestideasuggeststhatplayhasevolvedtobuildbigbrains最新的观点认为玩耍可以促进大脑的发育。Inotherwords,playingmakesyouintelligentPlayfulness,itseems,iscommononlyamongmammals,althoughafewofthelargerbrainedbirdsalsoindulge换句话说,玩耍使你变得聪明。尽管一些脑子比较大的鸟类也沉溺其中,但玩耍还是只在哺乳动物中普遍存在Animalsatplayoftenuseuniquesignstailwaggingindogs,forexampletoindicatethatactivitysuperficiallyresemblingadultbehaviourisnotreallyinearnest玩耍中的动物会用一些独特的标志比如狗摇尾巴来表明这种简单模仿大动物行为的举动并不是玩真的。Apopularexplanationofplayhasbeenthatithelpsjuvenilesdeveloptheskillstheywillneedtohunt,mateandsocialiseasadults一种有关玩耍的普遍观点说,玩耍能帮助小动物发展成年之后捕猎、交配以及社交所需的技能。AnotherhasbeenthatitallowsyounganimalstogetinshapeforadultlifebyimprovingtheirrespiratoryenduranceBoththeseideashavebeenquestionedinrecentyears另一个理论认为,通过增强小动物的呼吸耐力,玩耍可以帮助他们在体力上更适应成年生活。但是这两个理论近年来都遭到了质疑。TaketheexercisetheoryIfplayevolvedtobuildmuscleorasakindofendurancetraining,thenyouwouldexpecttoseepermanentbenefits就拿锻炼理论来说吧。如果玩耍是为了增强肌肉,或是进行某种耐力训练,那我们应该能够看到一些终生的效果。ButByerspointsoutthatthebenefitsofincreasedexercisedisappearrapidlyaftertrainingstops,soanyimprovementinenduranceresultingfromjuvenileplaywouldbelostbyadulthood但是Byers指出,训练一结束,由增强训练所带来的好处就随之消失了,所以,任何通过小时候的玩耍增强的耐力到了成年阶段就会消失殆尽了。'Ifthefunctionofplaywastogetintoshape,'saysByers,'theoptimumtimeforplayingwoulddependonwhenitwasmostadvantageousfortheyoungofaparticularspeciestodoso如果玩耍的作用就是使身体健康的话,Byers说道,那么玩耍的最佳时间就应该是对于某种小动物身体发展最有利的时间。Butitdoesn'tworklikethat'Acrossspecies,playtendstopeakabouthalfwaythroughthesucklingstageandthendecline但是,实际情况并非如此。无论什么种群的动物,玩耍都倾向于在哺乳期的中期达到顶峰,然后则开始走小坡路。Thenthere'stheskillstraininghypothesisAtfirstglance,playinganimalsdoappeartobepractisingthecomplexmanoeuvrestheywillneedinadulthood接着,我们又有了技能训练假说。乍看上去,玩耍的小动物好像是在练习那些成年时必须的复杂动作。Butacloserinspectionrevealsthisinterpretationastoosimplistic但是,更为仔细的观察表明,这种解释把问题简单化了。Inonestudy,behaviouralecologistTimCaro,fromtheUniversityofCalifornia,lookedatthepredatoryplayofkittensandtheirpredatorybehaviourwhentheyreachedadulthood在某项研究中,California大学的行为生态学家TimCaro观察了小猫的捕食游戏以及它们成年之后的捕猎行为。Hefoundthatthewaythecatsplayedhadnosignificanteffectontheirhuntingprowessinlaterlife他发现,小猫玩耍的方式对成年后的捕猎技能并没有太大的影响。Earlierthisyear,SergioPellisofLethbridgeUniversity,Canada,reportedthatthereisastrongpositivelinkbetweenbrainsizeandplayfulnessamongmammalsingeneral今年早些时候,加拿大Lethbridge大学的SP公布说,哺乳动物的玩耍量与他们大脑的大小往往成正比。Comparingmeasurementsforfifteenordersofmammal,heandhisteamfoundlargerbrains(foragivenbodysize)arelinkedtogreaterplayfulnessTheconversewasalsofoundtobetrue在比较了十五种哺乳动物的测量数据之后,SP和他的研究小组发现,更多的玩耍会造就大一些的脑子(与身体大小比较而言),而且这个理论反过来也成立。RobertBartonofDurhamUniversitybelievesthat,becauselargebrainsaremoresensitivetodevelopmentalstimulithansmallerbrains,theyrequiremoreplaytohelpmouldthemforadulthoodDurham大学的RB认为,由于大一些的脑子比小一些的脑子对发育刺激更敏感,因此它们需要更多的玩耍来促进它们发育至成年期。'Iconcludedit'stodowithlearning,andwiththeimportanceofenvironmentaldatatothebrainduringdevelopment,'hesays他说:“我的结论是,玩耍与学习有关,也与大脑发育过程中环境资料的重要性有关”。AccordingtoByers,thetimingoftheplayfulstageinyounganimalsprovidesanimportantcluetowhat'sgoingon根据Byers,的理论,对于小动物而言,玩耍其的时机对未来的发展至关重要。Ifyouplottheamountoftimeajuveniledevotestoplayeachdayoverthecourseofitsdevelopment,youdiscoverapatterntypicallyassociatedwitha'sensitiveperiod'abriefdevelopmentwindowduringwhichthebraincanactuallybemodifiedinwaysthatarenotpossibleearlierorlaterinlife如果你用图表来表明在发育期间,小动物每天用于玩耍的时间的话,就会发现一种一般与“敏感期”相关联的模式。所谓“敏感期”指的是发育过程中一个短暂的阶段,在这一阶段中,大脑会获得此前和此后都不能获得的改变。Thinkoftherelativeeasewithwhichyoungchildrenbutnotinfantsoradultsabsorblanguage想想孩子们在学习语言时那种婴儿们和大人们都无法做到的得心应手吧。Otherresearchershavefoundthatplayincats,ratsandmiceisatitsmostintensejustasthis'windowofopportunity'reachesitsPeak其他的学者也发现,猫、田鼠和家鼠最爱玩耍的时期恰好是这扇“机会之窗”达到峰值的时候。'Peoplehavenotpaidenoughattentiontotheamountofthebrainactivatedbyplay,'saysMarcBekofffromColoradoUniversity人们没有充分注意到玩耍激活了大脑多少部件。Colorado大学的MB说。BekoffstudiedcoyotepupsatplayandfoundthatthekindofbehaviourinvolvedwasmarkedlymorevariableandunpredictablethanthatofadultsBekoff研究了玩耍的小土狼,发现其中所涉及的行为显然比成年土狼的花样更多,更不可预测。Suchbehaviouractivatesmanydifferentpartsofthebrain,hereasons他推断,这样的行为能激活大脑许多不同的部分。Bekofflikensittoabehaviouralkaleidoscope,withanimalsatplayjumpingrapidlybetweenactivities由于动物们在玩耍时行为总是迅速的变换,Becoff将玩耍比喻为一个行为万花筒。'Theyusebehaviourfromalotofdifferentcontextspredation,aggression,reproduction,'hesays'Theirdevelopingbrainisgettingallsortsofstimulation'他们会做出不同环境所需要的动作捕猎,进攻,繁殖等,而他们正在发育的大脑获得了各种各样的刺激。Notonlyismoreofthebraininvolvedinplaythanwassuspected,butitalsoseemstoactivatehighercognitiveprocesses大脑不仅比猜想中更多地参与玩耍,而且好像还能够激活更高级的认知过程。“玩耍中有很多的认知成分”'There'senormouscognitiveinvolvementinplay,'saysBekoffBekoff指出,“玩耍中有很多的认知成分。”Hepointsoutthatplayofteninvolvescomplexassessmentsofplaymates,ideasofreciprocityandtheuseofspecialisedsignalsandrules玩耍通常包括对玩伴的评估,互相依存的观念,以及特殊标志及规则的使用。Hebelievesthatplaycreatesabrainthathasgreaterbehaviouralflexibilityandimprovedpotentialforlearninglaterinlife他认为玩耍会创造一个更具有行为灵活性,在今后生活中更多学习潜力的大脑。TheideaisbackedupbytheworkofStephenSiviyofGettysburgCollege这一观点得到了SS研究结果的支持。Siviystudiedhowboutsofplayaffectedthebrain'slevelsofaparticularchemicalassociatedwiththestimulationandgrowthofnervecellsS认为玩耍能够影响大脑中一种特殊化学物质的分泌,这种物质会刺激神经细胞生长。Hewassurprisedbytheextentoftheactivation他被这种刺激可能达到的程度下了一跳。'Playjustlightseverythingup,'hesays玩耍使一切都变得活泼起来。Byallowinglinkupsbetweenbrainareasthatmightnotnormallycommunicatewitheachother,playmayenhancecreativity通过使大脑中不常交流的部分产生联系,玩耍也许会提高创造力。Whatmightfurtherexperimentationsuggestaboutthewaychildrenareraisedinmanysocietiestoday进一步的实验又会对如今许多社会中,孩子们被养育的方式有何影响呢Wealreadyknowthatratpupsdeniedthechancetoplaygrowsmallerbraincomponentsandfailtodeveloptheabilitytoapplysocialruleswhentheyinteractwiththeirpeers我们已经知道,没有机会玩耍的小老鼠,大脑各部分发育得比较小,同时也不具备运用社会规则与其他小老鼠交流的能力。Withschoolingbeginningearlierandbecomingincreasinglyexamorientated,playislikelytogetevenlessofalookinWhoknowswhattheresultofthatwillbe在上学年龄越来越早,学校教育越来越应试化的今天,大脑对玩耍的作用不屑一顾。谁会知道这样做会带来什么样的影响呢继续阅读

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