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首页 电大学士学位英语考试复习

电大学士学位英语考试复习.doc

电大学士学位英语考试复习

未來_太过荒唐
2017-09-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《电大学士学位英语考试复习doc》,可适用于综合领域

电大学士学位英语考试复习Aactuponeachother相互作用adaptoneselfto使自己适应„„afew(表示肯定)有些几个agreatquantityof(接可数或不可数)大量agooddealof(接不可数名词)许多大量alargeamountof(接不可数名词)大量alittle(表示肯定)一些一点点alotof(接可数、可数名词)大量的许多anumberof(接可数名词)若干许多aboveall首先首要尤其是afterall毕竟终究aheadof在„前面先于allbut几乎差一点除了„都allofasudden忽然allover到处遍及全部结束。allright令人满意的(健康)良好的好行可以inall总共共计allthesame仍然照样地allthetime一直始终andsoon等等apartfrom除„之外(别无)除„之外(尚有)aplentyof许多大量as„as„像如同与„一样asfaras远到就„而言至于asfollows如下asfor至于关于askforleave请假aslongas只要如果既然由于assoonas一„就刚„便asthough好像仿佛asto至于关于asusual照例像平常一样aswell也又aswellas除„之外(也)既„又askfor请求要求ataloss困惑不解茫然不知所措atall(用于否定句)丝毫(不)一点(不)atallcosts不惜任何代价无论如何atallevents不管怎样无论如何atanyrate无论如何至少atease舒适(地)安逸(地)atfirst最初起先athand近在手头在附近atlast终于atleast至少atmost至多不超过atnotime从不决不。atonce马上立刻同时一起atpresent目前现在atthecostof以„为代价atthemoment此刻目前atthesametime同时然而不过atthesightof一看见„就Bbackandforth(前后)来回地反复地backup支持倒退bedescribedas被描写成beinfavorof支持bemadeupof由„组成由„构成beshortof缺少不足未达到bear((inmind记住(某事)becauseof因为由于beforelong不久以后beworthdoingsth值得做某事beyondthequesecryingoverthespiltmilk(覆水难收。)Morehaste,lessspeed(欲速则不达。)Lookbeforeyouleap(三思而后行。)Hewholaughslastlaughsbest(谁最后笑谁笑得最好。)关于因果关系的句型:causeofreasonforThehigherpriceswasanincreaseindemand译:他们取得的成果是由于他们的刻苦努力。Becausethedemandhasincreased,AsNowthatthepricesarehigherSincecausesresultsinAnincreaseindemandleadstoproduceshigherpricesThedemandhasincreasedTherefore,Asaresult,thepricesarehigherForthisreason,Becauseofthis,Consequently,riseIfthereisanincreaseindemand,thenpricesgoupboostarehigher举例表示法:Forexample,thepeople’seconomicstatushasbeengreatlyimprovedForinstance,theeconomicstatusofthepeoplehasbeenimprovedLet’shaveanexampleTVsets,refrigeratorsandrecordershavebecomehouseholdnecessities结尾句型:Inmyopinion,IaminfavorofowningacarPersonally,IprefertoworkinthecountryratherthaninthecityInshort,parentsandchildrenshouldlearntogetthroughtoeachotherOnlyinthiswaycanthemostdifficultproblemsbesolvedproperlyInconclusion,wecannotachievesuccesswithouteffortandhardworkAsfarasIamconcerned,Iagreewiththeopinionthat“Nopainsnogains”议论文框架:Asisknowntoall众所周知,itisimportanttobedo…Ithinkthereareatleasttworeasonsfor…Foronething,…Foranother,……Let’stake…forexample…FromwhatIhavementionedabove如上所述wecanseethatwithout…wecannot…Itisclearthat,…playsanimportantpartin…Differentpeople,however,havedifferentopinionsonthismatterSomepeoplethinkbelievethat…Accordingtothem,allofusshould…Othersarguemaintainthat…Intheiropinion,nobodycan…without…Comparedwith…,…hasalotofadvantagesover…Thereisnodoubtthat…Asaconsequence,…Inshort,Ifirmlysupporttheviewthat…Itisbecause…Somyconclusionisthat…(words)公共邮箱:btvugsglcom密码刘延个人邮箱:liuycom继续教育学院网站:jjxybtvuorg(看通知和查分)考试时间:月日(具体时间以准考证为准带好身份证、学生证和准考证)学位英语考试辅导一、如何复习:、根据《工商管理专业毕业论文及学位申请指南》中的学位英语考试大纲及模拟题了解题型、考试内容和难度。、大量做题:模拟题套往届试题套。、根据个人情况复习语法、词汇和写作。二、试题结构:、词汇、句型结构、完形填空、阅读、写作三、注意事项:、机考:选择时尽量避免失误。、安排好复习和答题时间。、相信自己的判断。、不会时要运用老师所讲的技巧。四、具体讲解:、词汇:(Vocabulary:SectionA:multiplechoiceSectionB:fillingblanks)答题方法:)判断干扰项)从词根、词缀进行判断)理解句子含义)填空时要注意词性。复习要点:句子结构语法知识词性词根和词缀特殊搭配词组常见考点易混淆词。、句型结构:(Structure:multiplechoice)答题方法:)判断考点)理解句子含义)注意主谓宾搭配)判断干扰项)排除法。复习要点:动词及时态wascooking过去进行(长)whenhecame一I般过去(短)inIhadalreadyfinishedtheworkwhenhecamein过去完成(先)一般过去(后)完成:already,yet,just,almost,nearly,ever,never,for,sinceWhenIsee一般现在him,Iwill一般将来tellhimthenews=IfIseehim,Iwilltellhimthenews短语动词、名词MilkAbottleofmilkTheresomebottlesofmilkMoneypeoplemuchmany代词I(主格)loveher(宾格),butshedoesn’tlovemeThisisyour(形容词性物主代词)book,andthatisyours(名词性物主代词)Thisisbike,andthatisTheirtheirs介词In(大)onSunday(日子)at:(具体)Fridaymorning(on)BeinterestedinBekeenon热衷于Begoodat擅长Beagainst反对befor支持HeisamanofwealthTherestandsawomanwithababyDuring连词while转折、IlikeEnglishwhilemybrotherlikeFrenchHelovesherwhileshedoesn’tlovehim从句名词性从句ThereasonwhyhewentoutisasecretThat(帽子)helovesherverymuchisnotanewsWhat(脑袋)helovesisnotanewsIlikeitisveryobvious(that)Idon’tknowwhereheisDoyouknowwhereheis状语从句定语从句虚拟语气(见下发资料)、主谓一致(见下发资料)非谓语动词doingtodoSheisreportedsaidbelievedtohaveworked(过去)outtheproblemSheisthoughttobeworking(进行)intheofficeThedocumentisaskedtobeprinted(被动)ThebuildingsaresaidtohavebeenbuiltupbytheendoftheyearMrsCurieisbelievedtotheelementafindbhavefoundcbefindingSeeingisbelieving=Toseeistobelieve前后一致Ipreferdrinkingcoffeetoteaadrinkbtodrinkcdrinking现在分词过去分词人:ed(被动完成)excited事物:ing(主动正在)exciting倒装否定词形成倒装如:Hardlyseldomscarcelynomatter…notonlyDiddodoeshavebewillIcatchthebus…Richasthoughheis,…独立成分(有逗号没连词)一个主语:主动Havingfinishedmywork,Iwentoutforshopping被动Scoldedbythemanager,Ifeltverysad两个主语:主动Theweatherbeingfine,wewentout被动Thecupbroken,theboystartedtocryIt,westayedathomeAisrainingBrainsCrainingDwasrainingfromthetopofthehill,thehouseislikeanantASeeBToseeCHavingseenDSeen前后一致、反意疑问句Itisraining,isn’titHehasasister,hasn’theHedoesn’tlikeEnglish,doesheHelikesEnglish,doesn’theIlikeEnglish,don’tIHeworkedyesterday,didn’theWemethisteacher,didn’tweMymotherwantstogotoAmerica,doesn’tsheLet’s…,shallweI’m…,aren’tI、soas…as、many可数much不可数、ratherthan、neithereithersoIlikeEnglish,sodoesheIdon’tlikeEnglish,neitherdoeshe、Well副词good形容词、nolongernomorenotanylongernotanymore不再Idon’tlovehimnomorenotanylongeranymoreneeddoing=needtobedone(需要被…)ThecarneedswashingTheflowersneedwatering、liveon靠…生存、insiston坚持、It’shightime…、becapableofbeableto能够、sothat以便so…that如此…以至于…、Itiswas…whothat…(强调句式)ItistheEnglishteacherwhooftenhelpsusItwasyesterdaythatwemettheboyItforher、Since具体时间for一段时间SinceIwas,…、indoing在…领域ondoing当…的时候IhavedonealotinteachingOnarrivingatBeijing,Isawher、onSundaymorningacoldnight、too…to太…以至于…enoughto足够HeistooyoungtogotoschoolHeisoldenoughtogotoschool、rememberstopforgettodo(还没做)doing(已经做)Afterworkingforalongtime,hestop(drink)sometea(todrink)Withthestudentswhispering,theteachershoutedangrily,“Stop(talk)!”(talking)、完形填空:(cloze)复习要点和答题方法:)以词汇为主)动词和名词的易混淆词是重点)介词和短语动词是次重点)要理解文章意思。、阅读:(Readingcomprehension:multiplechoice)复习要点和答题方法:)先读题目后读文章)注意topicsentence和closingsentence)抓住各选项之间的差异和关键词)注意连词和程度副词)长句多为答案)学会猜词技巧。、写作:范文结构:EComputerNowadaysmoreandmorepeoplelearntousecomputersAndtheythinkthatcomputersbringthemalotofbenefitsFirst,computersmaketheirjobeasiertodobecausetheycansavetheirdocumentsincomputersforfutureuseSecond,computersareoneofthefastestwaysofcommunicationForexample,wecanemailourdocumentstoourclientsFinally,wecansurfonlineforsomeinformationAndsuchinformationsometimesisveryusefulInshort,computersareveryimportantforusAndweshouldmakegooduseofthemFTheAdvantagesandDisadvantagesofTelevisionAsweallknow,watchingTVisveryimportantforChinesepeoplebecausetheyspendalotoftimeonitWelikewatchingTVforsomereasonsForonething,wethinkitisveryconvenientAlmosteveryonecanwatchTVathomeForanother,therearemanydifferentprogramsonTVYoucanwatchyoulikeHowever,asapopularsayinggoes,“everycoinhastwosides”TherearesomedisadvantagesofwatchingTVFirstly,itisbadforourhealthItwillharmyoureyesandbodySecondly,watchingTVwillmakeyoulosealotoftimebecausemanyprogramsareverylongThelast,someprogramsarenotgoodforchildrenbecausetheseprogramsareofviolenceorloveTosumup,TVwillbringusbothadvantagesanddisadvantagesWeshouldmakeuseofTVinaproperwayHowtoKeepFitAhealthybodyisveryimportanttoeveryoneofusWhenyouaresick,youfeelpainfulalloveryourbody,havenoenergytoworkandtheonlythingyouwanttodoislyingonthebedWhenyouarehealthy,youcaneatwell,sleepwell,singandjumphappily,doallthethingsyouliketoenjoylifeThemethodstokeepusfitvaryInthemorning,youcangetupearly,gooutdoors,breathethefreshair,anddophysicalexercisesRunningandswimmingareextremelyhelpfultokeeponefitIfyouareabusypersonandhavenospecialtimeallocatedtodothesethings,therearestillsomewaysusefultokeepfitTheeasiestwayistowalktoyourofficeinsteadofridingabikeortakingabusYoualsohavetotakearoutinephysicalcheckupYourdoctorwillknowtheconditionofyourbodymostclearly,andhewillgiveyouthemostvaluableadvicetokeepfitYoushouldalwaystrytomakeyourselfhappyIfyoufeelhappy,youcaneatwell,sleepwell,andyourbodyissuretobeinanexcellentconditionHealthisthemostvaluablepossessionapersonexpectsinhislifeTryeverymeanstokeepfitismyadvicetothepeoplewhowanttoliveahappylifeinthisbeautifulworldAirPollutionAirpollutionisoneofthemajorproblemsofthemodernworldAgreatdealofenergyisneededtorunthefactoriesofmodernindustrialnationsAutomobile,trains,planesandbussesneedenergy,tooNearlyallofthisenergyisproducedbyburningfuelsTheburningproduceswastes,someofwhichremainintheair,causingairpollutionScientistsarefindingwaystostopairpollutionespeciallyinbigindustrialareasanddenselypopulatedcitiesTheyarestudyingnewwaysofgeneratingelectricitythatmaybelessdamagingtotheenvironmentInthemeantime,manypowerplantsarebeingmodernizedtogiveofflesspollutedmaterialAlso,engineerstrytodesignandlocatenewpowerplantstodominimumdamagetotheenvironmentHowever,itmaybethatwestillhavealongwaytogobeforewehavea"clean"worldNearlyallofthecountriesaretryinghardtopreventandcontrolairpollutionThereindeedseemstobenoendtotasksthatenvironmentalistswillberequiredtodoPeoplewillcontinuallyfindnewwaystocontrolpollutionSmokingItisalmostknowntoallthatsmokingisbadforpeople'shealthScientificresearchesshowthatsmokingcanleadtoheartdisease,cancerandotherproblemTheWorldHealthOrganizationsaysdiseaseslinkedtosmokingkillatleasttwomillionfivehundredthousandpersonseachyearStillmanypeoplefinditdifficulttostopsmokingOnereasonisthatsmokingusuallybecomesahabitualbehaviour,andhabits,whethergoodorbadarenoteasytobegivenupAnotherreasonistheeffectofnicotine,thesubstancefoundincigarettesworksonpeoplesomewhatasdrugsdoMeasureshavebeentakentohelppeoplekeepawayfromtheharmofsmokingInmanycities,smokingisforbiddeninpublicplacesThedangerofsmokingiswarnedofeverywherendnewspapersareaskednottopublishadvertisementsforcigarettesWorld"NoTobaccoDay"isobservedeveryyearasthebiggestcompaignagainstsmoking主谓一致主谓一致有许多原则概括起来不外乎三种一致原则即语法形式一致概念一致(语言内容上一致)毗邻一致(谓语动词的单复数形式和紧位于其前的主语一致)。语法形式一致()单数主语、单个动词不定式、动名词短语以及句子作主语谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语用and或both„and连接的动词不定式短语、动名词短语以及主语从句作主语谓语动词则用复数形式。例如:)Theperformancewasveryfunny)Servingthepeopleismygreathappiness)Whetherwe’llgodependsontheweather)Manynaturalmaterialsarebecomingscarce)BothyouandIarestudents)WhatIthinkandwhatIseekhavebeenfairlyreflectedinmypaper注:在what引导的主语从句中如果主语补语是复数时谓语动词用复数形式。例如:Whatwehavetolearnarethepiecesoflanguagethatproduceinversion注:修饰语对主语的数不起影响。例如:Theperformanceofthefirstthreeclownswasveryfunny()由aswellas,with,alongwith,like,togetherwith,ratherthan,except,but,including,accompaniedby,plus,besides,inadditionto,nolessthan等引起的结构跟在主语后面不能看作是并列主语该主语不受这些词组引导的插入语的影响主语如是单数其谓语动词仍然用单数形式。例如:)Mymother,aswellasmyfather,hasakeytotheoffice)ThemantogetherwithhiswifeandchildrensitstherewatchingTV)Hissisternolessthanyouiswrong)Thereadingcoursebook,plusitsreferencebooks,ishelpfultocollegestudents注:有时在with结构里加上both之后with就具有and含义。例如:GrandpaWangwithhisson,bothlookingveryhappy,aretakingawalkinthepark()有些代词只能指单数可数名词当它们在句子中作主语时尽管在意义上是多数谓语动词仍要用单数形式。这类代词有either,neither,each,one,theother,another,somebody,someone,something,anyone,anything,anybody,everyone,everything,everybody,noone,nothing,nobody等。例如:)Neitherlikesthefriendsoftheother(两人都不喜欢对方的朋友。))Everythingaroundusismatter(我们周围的所有东西都是物质。)()在neitherof与eitherof的结构里一般语法书都认为谓语动词可用单数形式也可用复数形式但在美国的TOEFL考试内要求用单数形式。例如:)Neitherofthemwasingoodhealth,butbothworkedveryhard)Haseitherofthembeenseenrecently()当and连结的两个名词是指同一个人或同一件事and后的名词前没有冠词谓语动词应该用单数形式在and后面的名词前有冠词谓语就用复数形式。例如:)Thebreadandbutterisservedforbreakfast(早饭供应黄油面包。))Thebreadandthebutterareonsale(正在出售黄油和面包。)()当oneof,aportionof,aseriesof,aspeciesof,achainof结构作主语时谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:)Oneofthosestudentshaspassedtheexamination)Aseriesofprerecordedtapeshasbeenpreparedforlanguagelaboratoryuse()formof,typeof,kindof结构的谓语视form,type与kind的单复数而定thesethosekindtypeof后是复数名词谓语动词用复数形式。例如:)Thekindofbooksanauthorwritesdependsonthekindofmanwhoheis)Somenewtypesofcarsarenowonshow)Thesekindofrecordersaregood()由oneandahalf复数名词作主语时谓语动词视名词的单复数形式而定。例如:Oneandahalfapplesisleftontheplate()由themajorityof名词作主语时谓语动词视名词的单复数形式而定。例如:)Themajorityofthedamageiseasytorepair)Themajorityofcriminalsarenonviolent()plentyof,halfof,alotof,lotsof,heapsof,loadsof,scadsof等可数与不可数名词作主语时不可数名词的谓语只用单数可数名词的谓语视可数名词的单复数而定。例如:)Halfofthisbuildingistobecompletedbyspring)Halfofthebuildingshavebeenpaintedcompletely)Thereisplentyofwaterinthepail)Thereareplentyofeggsinthebox)Thereisloadsofmilkonthefarm)Thereareloadsofbigredapplesontheground注:当名词前有其他量词修饰时谓语动词的单复数形式通常取决于量词。例如:)Rowuponrowofsoldiersismarchingtowardsusonthefield)Abodyofvolunteershasbeenorganizedtoaidthehelplessintheirstruggleforsurvival()由allof,mostof,alotof,someof,noneof,plentyof,therest等名词作主语时谓语动词的单数形式应与名词一致。例如:)Noneofthebookssatisfythestudents)Noneofthismeatisfittoeat)Alloftheresearchworkwasdesignedbythechiefengineer)Allofthestudentsareagainsttheplanforanoutingatthistimeoftheterm()由morethanone(或morethanone单数名词)manya单数名词作主语谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:)Morethanonestudenthaspassedtheexamination)Manyaboylearnstoswimbeforehecanread注:如果morethan后面是复数名词则谓语动词要用复数。例如:Morethantwohundredstudentshaveattendedthelecture()quantityof不可数名词谓语动词用单数形式quantitiesof可数与不可数名词谓语动词用复数形式。例如:)Greatquantitiesofmilkareneededinthiscity)Thereisalargequantityofmilk()如果名词词组中心词是“分数或百分数of名词”谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于of后的名词或代词的单、复数形式。例如:)Overthreequartersoftheswamplandhasbeenreclaimed)Twothirdsofthepeoplepresentareagainsttheplan()定语从句谓语动词的单复数形式应与先行词一致。例如:)Heisoneofthemenwhowerechosentorepresentthegroup)“Keepcool”isthefirstoftherulesthataretoberememberedinanaccident注:当one之前有theonly等限定词修饰时定语从句的谓语动词用单数形式。例如:Heistheonlyoneofthoseboyswhoiswillingtotakeonanotherassignment概念一致(语言内容上一致)()有些集合名词如crowd,family,team,orchestra(管弦乐队),group,government,committee,class,school,union,firm,staff,public等它们作主语时谓语动词的数要根据语言内容而定。如果它们作为一个集体单位时动词用单数形式如就其中的各个成员来说则谓语用复数形式。例如:)Hisfamilyisgoingtomove)Hisfamilyareverywell)Thepublicisarerequestednottoleavelitterinthepark注:如这类词后跟有定语从句时定语从句的谓语动词也遵循概念一致的原则强调具体成员时谓语动词用复数关系代词用who强调整体时谓语动词用单数关系代词用which。例如:)Thegovernmentwhowereresponsibleforthiseventattemptedtofindasolution)Thegovernmentwhichwasresponsibleforthiseventattemptedtofindasolution()有些表示总称意义的名词形式上是单数而意义上却是复数谓语动词要用复数形式如people,police,militia,cattle,poultry(家禽)等。例如:)Cattlewereallowedtograzeonthevillagecommon)Thepolicearesearchingforatalldarkmanwithabeard()有些名词形式上是复数而意义上却是单数。如news,means,works还有许多以ics结尾的学科名称如economics,physics,mechanics,politics等它们作主语时谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:)Politicsisacomplicatedbusiness)Hereisthenews()用and连接的单数主语前面有each,every,manya,no等修饰时谓语动词要用单数形式。复数主语与each连用时应不受each的影响谓语动词仍用复数形式。例如:)Eachpenandeachpaperisfoundinitsplace)Everyboyandgirlistreatedinthesameway)Manyaboyandmanyagirlhasseenit)Theoldworkersandtheyoungeachhavetheirowntools()表示重量、度量、衡量、价值的复数名词作主语谓语动词常用单数形式。例如:)Twentymilesisalongwaytowalk)Threepintsisn’tenoughtogetmedrunk()国家、单位和书报的名称作为一个单一的概念其谓语动词要用单数形式。例如:)WarandPeaceisthelongestbookI’veread)GeneralMotorshasrecentlycloseddownaplant(通用汽车公司最近关闭了一家工厂。)()the形容词作主语时如主语指的是一类人谓语动词用复数形式如果指的是单个人或抽象概念谓语动词用单数形式。例如:)Theblindaretaughttradesinspecialschools)Thedepartedwasagoodfriendofhis毗邻一致(就近原则)()由连词or,neither…nor,either…or,notonly…also,nor等连接的并列主语谓语动词的单复数形式按毗邻一致的原则与贴近它的主语一致。例如:)Heoryouhavetakenmypen)Eitheryouorheisnotellingthetruth)Notonlytheswitchesbutalsotheoldwiringhasbeenchanged()在therebe的结构中谓语动词的单复数形式一般也采取就近原则。例如:)Thereisadeskandfourbenchesintheoffice)Therearetwochairsandadeskintheoffice二、指代一致指代一致是指句中的代词应该在人称、数、性等方面与所指的词保持一致。人称一致()当代词指代名词或另一个代词时须在人称上与所指代的词保持一致。例如:)Irecognizedoneofthegirls,butIdidn’tspeaktoher)Thatwomansaidthatshewasoverfifty)Theyaskedwhomtheyshouldapplyto()当代词指代集合名词时用单数人称代词强调整体用复数人称代词强调个人。例如:)Thecommitteehavediscussedtheirreportonthedisaster)Theaudienceareraisingtheirhandstosignifytheirapproval()当everyone,everybody,noone,nobody,anyone,anybody,someone,somebody等作主语时相应的代词一般采用单数形式。例如:)Ifanyonecalls,tellhimI’llbebacklater)Everyonethinksheisthecenterofuniverse注:在非正式文体中特别是在会话体里常用代词的复数形式是为了故意不具体说出所指的那个人的性别。例如:)Hasanybodybroughttheircamera)Noonecouldblamedthemselves()由neither„nor,notonly…butalso,either…or,not…but,or等连结的并列主语其后的附加疑问部分主语用复数代词。例如:)NeitheryounorIamwrong,arewe)BothTomandJackcame,didn’tthey性、数、格一致()代词的性一般仅限于第三人称。例如:)Chinawillalwaysdowhatshehaspromisedtodo)Theboystoodatthedoorwithhishatinhishand()当or或nor连接阳性名词或阴性名词时代词一般和近者保持一致。例如:)NeitherJohnnorMaryhasgotwhatshewanted)IfyoushouldseeMaryorThomas,tellhimthenews()单数名词由and连接时相应的代词一般用复数形式。例如:)Foodandrentaremoreexpensivethantheyusedtobe)JimandMaryspokeonthesubjectasiftheywereexperts应注意的问题当句子的主语是one,并要在句子中多次出现时一般用第三人称单数代词来代替后面将出现的one或one’s当one在句子中泛指人时在反意疑问句中也可用you来代替。例如:)Oneshouldneverblamehisfriendswhenhefriendswhenhefindshimselfintrouble)Onecan’tbetoocareful,canyou(one)虚拟语气虚拟语气一直都被认为是英语学习中的一个难点因此也便成为了各类考试的热点。现就虚拟语气的一些问题归纳如下以帮助解决拟语气这个语法难点。一、动词wish后宾语从句中的虚拟语气(用wish表示现在的祝愿和报歉。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was)实义动词用过去式。例:Iwishtheywereathomethistime(用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时或could现在完成时。例:IwishIhadn'thurthimsomuch。(用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。其句子结构为宾语从句的谓语为wouldcouldmight动词原形。例:IwishImightbeabletocometomorrow。二、用在一般虚拟条件句中的虚拟语气(一)表示与现在、过去、将来事实相反的假设(与现在事实相反的假设。倒退一步法其句子结构为:从句:if主语动词的过去式(be变were)其他主句:主语would(should,could,might)动词原形其他例:IfIwereyou,Iwouldgowithhim(与过去事实相反的假设。其句子结构为:从句:If主语过去完成时其他主句:主语should(would,could,might)现在完成时其他。例:Ifyouhadstudiedharderlastterm,youcouldhavepassedtheexam(表示对将来事实实现的可能性不大的假设。其句子结构为:从句:If主语should(wereto)动词原形其他主句:主语would(could,should,might)动词原形例:IfheweretogotomorrowHemighttellyou(二)从句和主句要根据各自发所生的时间选用符合具体时间的虚拟语气形式(从句表示过去主句表示现在。Iftheyhadstaredtheearlymorningyesterday,theywouldbeherenow(从句表示将来主句表示过去。IfIwerenottomakeapreparationformyexperimentthisafternoon,Iwouldhavegonetoseethefilmwithyoulastnight。(从句表示过去主句表示将来。Ifwehadn'tmadeadequatepreparations,weshouldn'tdaretodotheexperimentnextweek。(从句表示将来主句表示现在。Ifweshouldn'thaveanexamthisafternoonIwouldgoshoppingnow三、可以引起与事实相反的方式状语从句用虚拟语气由asif、asthough引起的与事实相反的句子不论主句的谓语是现在时或者说过去时其谓语表示的时间概念和句子结构都基本上与wish后的宾语从句相同。例:Johnpretendsasifhedidn'tknowthethingatall,butinfactheknowsitverywell(用过去式表示与现在事实相反的假设)Theoldmanlookedatthepicture,hefeltasthoughhehadgonebacktotimeyearsago(用过去完成式表示与过去相反的事实)Theytalkedandtalkedasiftheywouldnevermeetagain(would动词原形表示与将来事实相反)四、在表示建议、命令、要求、忠告等动词的后面其宾语从句的谓语用“should动词原形”(should常常省略)表示虚拟语气Isuggesthethereagoesbgocisgoingdwent常用的此类动词有:表示“要求”的:ask,desire,request,demand,require,beg表示“提议、劝告、建议”的:move,propose,suggest,recommend,advise,vote表示“决定、命令”的:decide,order表示“主张”的:maintain,urge表示“同意、坚持”的:consent,insist例:Thedoctorsuggestedthathe(should)trytolosehisweightHeinsistedthatwe(should)tellhimthenews上述动词的名词形式demand,desire,requirement,advice,order,decision,recommendation,suggestion,以及necessity,preference,plan,motion,idea等名词其后的表语从句或同位语从句也用“should动词原形“表示虚拟语气。现代英语特别是美国英语常省去“should”例:Theadviceisthatwe(should)leaveatonceHeideathatwe(should)visitGreatWallwaswarmlywelcomed五、在“Itis(was)形容词(或过去分词)that……”结构中主语从句的谓语也用“should原形动词“表虚拟语气美国英语中省去should,常用的形容词和过去分词有:表示“要求”的:required,demanded,requested,desired,desirable。表示“建议”的:suggested,recommended,表示“迫切、紧近、重要”的:imperative,urgent,necessary,essential,important,vital表示“适当、较好”的:appropriate,advisable,better,preferable表示“可能”的:probable,possible表示“命令”的:ordered例:Itwasnecessarythatwe(should)makeeverythingreadyaheadoftimeItisrequiredthatnobody(should)smokehere六、由下列名词或短语引导或含有某些词的从句中应用的虚拟语气(“lest以免、惟恐”引导的从句用“should动词原形”。Hetookamapwithhimlesthe(should)losehiswagthere(“whether不管、无论”引导的让步状语从句有时用动词原形。Allthings,whetheryouknowordon'tknow,existintheworld(用“wouldratherhadrather'wouldjustassoon"表示“宁愿、但愿”后面的宾语从句谓语用过去式或动词原形表示对将来的要求用过去时表示对现在的愿望用过去完成时表示对过去做的事的懊悔。Don'tliveintheworld,Iwouldrather(Iwouldjustassoon)youdieIwouldratheryougotomorrowIwouldrathereverythinghadn'thappenedinthepast(用“hadhoped”表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情其宾语从句的谓语用“would动词原形”。IhadhopedthatshewouldgototheUSandstudythere,butshesaidshelikedtostayinChina(在“Itis(highabout)timethat”引导的定语从句中定语从句的主谓语用一般过去时偶尔也可以用would(或should)动词原形或hadrather(wouldrather)动词原形。Itishigh(about)timethatweleftshouldleavehadbetterleavehadratherleavewereleaving(注意与“Thisisthefirstsecond…time”后从句中用现在完成时的区别。(用“withoutbutforintheabsenceof”表示“要不是”“如果没有”(相当于ifitwerenotfor…)表示条件时句中一般用虚拟语气。(也可用陈述语气)Withoutyourhelp,Icouldn'tfinishmyworkontimeIntheabsenceofwaterandair,nothingcouldliveproviding(that)provided(that)on(由“conditionthatinorderthat”引导的条件从句或目的从句根据情况可用虚拟语气。(有时也可用陈述语气)Theyarewillingsurrenderprovidedtheyaregivenfreepassage(在if引导的虚拟条件句中若有were,had,should,在书面语中可省去if,将were等提到主语前形成倒装。ShouldtherebeagoodfilmtomorrowIwouldgotothetheatrewithyouWereitnotforyourhelpIwouldn'tbesuccee
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