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首页 小额贷款规章(Small loan regulations)

小额贷款规章(Small loan regulations).doc

小额贷款规章(Small loan regulations)

掩饰悲伤的小猫
2018-12-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《小额贷款规章(Small loan regulations)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

小额贷款规章(Smallloanregulations)小额贷款规章(Smallloanregulations)LegalrulesfortheoperationofsmallloancompaniesMicrofinanceisaneffectivewaytosolvethecurrentfinancingdifficultiesoffarmersinchinaInthefarmercreditmarket,thecurrentmicrocreditcompaniesgenerallyfacetwotypesofrisk:subjectivedefaultriskandagriculturalsystemicriskPracticehasprovedthatthePingyaomodel,thesubjectivedefaultrisk,smallloancompanieswillbetheintroductionofsocialcapitaldependsonthekindoffinancialtransactions,mortgageandsavethecostfunctiontoavoidrisks,specificallybystandardizingtheloanprocess,establishastrictinternalcontrolmechanism,toexplorethecharacteristicsoftheloansandtheimplementationofmembershipmethodofcontrolAsfortheagriculturesystemrisk,smallloancompaniesasthebestagentsofthestateorlocalfinancial,throughfinancialsupporttoachievecontroloftheagriculturalsystemrisk,butalsoaccordingtotheiroperationperformancetoobtainthecorrespondingcompensationIoverviewofsmallloancompanies()thenatureofsmallloancompaniesAsmallloancompanyisalimitedliabilitycompanyorLimitedbyShareLtdwhichisestablishedbynaturalpersons,enterpriselegalpersonsandothersocialorganizationsItdoesnotabsorbpublicdepositsandoperatessmallloansAsmallloancompanyisanenterpriselegalperson,hasanindependentlegalpersonproperty,enjoysthepropertyrightofalegalperson,andbearscivilliabilityforallitsdebtswithallitspropertyTheshareholdersofasmallloancompanyshallenjoytherighttoreceiveassets,participateinmajordecisionsandselectmanagers,andshallbeliabletothecompanyfortheamountofthecontributiontheyhavesubscribedorthesharestheymaysubscribeforSmallloancompanyshallimplementthefinancialguidelinesandpoliciesofthestate,theprovisionsoflawsandregulationswithinthescopeofbusiness,autonomous,selffinancing,selfrestriction,selfrisk,theirlawfulbusinessactivitiesareprotectedbylaw,isnotinterferedwithbyanyunitorindividual(two)establishmentofsmallloancompaniesSmallloancompanynamebyadministrativedivisions,size,industryandorganizationform,whichreferstothenameoftheadministrativedivisionatthecountyleveladministrativedivisions,formofalimitedliabilitycompanyorLimitedbyShareLtdTheshareholdersofamicroloancompanyshallmeetthequorumrequirementsAlimitedliabilitycompanyshallbefundedbyorlessshareholderstheLimitedbyShareLtdshallhavepromoters,ofwhommorethanhalfofthepromotersshallhavedomicileinchinaThesourcesoftheregisteredcapitalofthemicroloancompanyshallbereal,lawfulandwhollypaidincash,andthecapitalshallbepaidinfullbytheinvestororpromoteratonetimeTheregisteredcapitalofalimitedliabilitycompanyshallnotbelessthanmillionyuan,andtheregisteredcapitaloftheLimitedbyShareLtdshallnotbelessthanmillionyuanThesharesheldbyasinglenaturalperson,anenterpriselegalperson,othersocialorganizationsandrelatedpartiesshallnotexceedofthetotalregisteredcapitalofasmallloancompanyInapplyingfortheestablishmentofasmallloancompany,aformalapplicationshallbemadetothecompetentdepartmentoftheprovincialgovernment,anduponapproval,theapplicationshallbemadetothelocaladministrativedepartmentforIndustryandCommerceforregistrationproceduresandabusinesslicenseshallbeobtainedInaddition,therelevantdatashallbesubmittedtothelocalpublicsecurityorgans,theChinaBankingRegulatoryCommissionandthebranchesofthepeople'sBankofChinawithinfiveworkingdaysAsmallloancompanyshallhavethearticlesofassociationandmanagementsysteminconformitywiththeregulations,andshallhavenecessarybusinesspremises,organizationsandorganizations,personnelwithcorrespondingprofessionalknowledgeandexperienceThenaturalpersons,enterpriselegalpersonsandothersocialorganizationsthathavecontributedtotheestablishmentofsmallloancompaniesshallbenaturalpersonswhointendtobedirectors,supervisorsandseniormanagementpersonnelofsmallloancompanies,andshallhavenocriminalrecordorbadcreditrecordAsmallloancompanyshallpaytaxregistrationinthelocaltaxationdepartmentandpayalltaxesandfeesinaccordancewiththelawIfasmallloancompanyacceptsdepositsthroughapproval,itsdepositinterestrateshallbesubjecttotheupperlimitmanagement,whichshallnotexceedthesameleveldepositrateannouncedbythepeople'sBankofChinaduringthesameperiodTheloaninterestrateofthesmallloancompaniesshallbelowermanagement,andthelowerlimitofinterestrateshallbetimesofthebenchmarklendingrateofthesamelevelofloansannouncedbythepeople'sBankofChinaduringthesameperiodTwo,thinkingaboutthelegalregulationofsmallloancompaniesinourcountryWiththegradualdeepeningofthereformofthefinancialsystem,inDecember,completelybytheprivatecapitalinvestment,the"creditonly"smallloancompanywassetupinPingyao,whichmarksthecentralbank"ruralcommercialmicrofinancepilotprojectwasofficiallylaunchedToday,smallloancompanieshavebeenestablishedthroughoutthecountry,amongthem,thefirstestablishedPingyaosunriseandJinyuanandThailandtwosmallloancompaniesaretypicalrepresentativesofthismodelPingyao,locatedinthecentralpartofShanxiProvince,isatypicalagriculturalcountySincethereformandopeningup,therapiddevelopmentofindividualbusinessinPingyaoCounty,butthedifferencesbetweenurbanandruralareas,thegapbetweenrichandpoorisserious,twoyuansystemcontradiction:ontheonehandistherelativelypoorruralareasneedalotofmoney,ontheotherhandisawealthybusinessmancannotfindareasonableandefficientinvestmentchannelsAttheendofJune,twosmallloancompaniestotalloansofmillionthousandandyuan,thecumulativerecoveryofloansmillionthousandandyuan,tomillionthousandandyuanofloans,loanshouseholds,farmersloanrateof,the"threerural"loanrateisTheestablishmentofsmallloancompaniesisofgreatsignificancetobuildadiversifiedruralfinancialmarket,tosolvetheproblemofpeasantloansandtopromotethedevelopmentofruraleconomyHowever,itisachallengingtaskforsmallloancompaniestocontrolcreditrisksinthefaceofhighrisk,highcostfarmers,creditmarketsandthelackofeffectivecollateral()thetwotypesofrisksfacedbysmallloancompaniesInrecentyears,Chinesescholarshavemadealotofresearchontheruralcreditmarket,acommonconclusionisthatChineseruralcreditmarkettherearetwodifferenttypesofrisk:theriskofagriculturalsystemisirresistibletwoisthesubjectiveriskofdefault(two)smallloancompaniescontroltheriskofsubjectivedefaultForthecontrolofsubjectivedefaultrisk,theinternationalsuccessfulexperienceisthedynamicguaranteemechanismbasedonthesocialcapitalofpeasanthouseholds,buttheapplicabilityofthismechanismhasnotbeenprovedinourcountryOneofthetypicalideasinChinaistofullytapthevalueoffarmers'existingeconomicresources,andadvocatetheestablishmentoffarmlandfinancialcontractsbasedonlandmortgagetoincreasetheavailabilityofloansandavoidrisksHowever,becauseofthelackofeffectivelandcirculationmarketandreasonablepricing,itisdifficulttoimplementtherurallandfinancialcontractPingyaomicrocreditcompanyhasbeensuccessfulinthisrespect,andtheircontrolovercreditriskhasbeenfruitfulAttheendofJune,twosmallloancompanies,nonperformingloanrateof,onlyasumofnonperformingloansThesmallloancompany'scontrolofagriculturalsystematicriskfromtheperspectiveofprincipalagentForthecontrolofagriculturalsystemicrisk,manymathematicalexpertsinChinahaveestablishedtherisksharingandcompensationmechanismoffinancialsupportInessence,itistheParetooptimalpricingproblemaftertheintroductionofexternalitiesInordertostudythebestpathofexternality,amodelofselectionandevaluationofprincipalagentcanbeestablishedAmongthemanyalternativeagents,theagentwhocanbestguaranteetheefficiencyoffinancialcompensationisacommercialfinancialinstitutionratherthanapolicybankorotherinstitutionFromthepracticeofPingyao,themicrocreditcompanyisanidealchoiceThesmallloancompanyasaneworganization,intheformalandinformalfinance,cangivefullplaytotheadvantagesofthetwo,comparedwiththeruralcreditcooperatives,policyfinancialinstitutionsandcommercialbanksismoresuitableasanagentFirst,thegeographicaladvantagesofmicrocreditcompaniesmakeithaveanunparalleledadvantageintheuseofsocialcapitaloffarmersAsmentionedabove,thenetworkofkinshipandgeographyisthemainformofsocialcapitalinchinaThepracticeinPingyaoshowsthatsmallloancompaniesestablishedwithinthecountyscopecanmakefulluseofthis"relationshipnetwork"toinnovatebusinessandreducecostsThecommercialbanksandpolicyorientedfinancialinstitutionsinbigcitieshavesingleorganizationalstructure,lackofsubordinatenetworks,inadequateunderstandingoftheborrower'sinformation,hightransactioncostsandhighsupervisioncostsHighercostsmakeitlessincentivetocarryoutmicrofinancebusinessforfarmersSecond,thedecisionmakingmechanismofsmallloancompaniesestablishedwithinthecountyareaisflexible,anditcandesignsuitablefinancialproductsinatimelymanneraccordingtotheneedsoffarmersThecommercialbanksandotherfinancialinstitutions,includingruralcreditcooperatives,implementthegeneralbranchsystem,andthesubordinatebranchesareonlystandardfinancialproductsproducedbytheheadoffice,andlackthedecisionmakingpowerinproductinnovationInaddition,therearemanylevelsofinstitutionalmanagementandinformationchannelsarepoor,andthenationalunifiedproductsaredifficulttosatisfytheobviousdemandoffarmers'creditThird,allthesmallloancompaniesinvestedbyprivatecapitalhaveestablishedarelativelystandardizedcorporategovernancestructure,whichcanachieveveryhighproductionefficiencyTheaverageassetcostratioofPingyaomicrocreditcompanyrunningformonthsislessthan,andtheNPLratioisonlyGenerally,nomorethanthreebusinessdaysfromthelender'sapplicationtoobtaintheloanThe"quasistate"natureoftheruralcreditcooperativeshasthepropertyrightisnotclear,themanagementsystemisnotsmooth,loanscumbersomeprocedures,highoperatingcosts,coupledwiththelackofeconomicincentivestoprovidesmallloansonadequate,sotheruralcreditcooperativesinmicrofinanceforfarmerstoprovidetheoperationefficiencyandnotsmallloancompaniesmentionedinthesamebreath(three)fromtheperspectiveofprincipalagent,smallloancompaniesrealizethecontrolofagriculturalsystemicriskthroughthesupportofstateorlocalfinance,andalsoobtaincorrespondingcompensationaccordingtotheirperformanceThisrequirestheestablishmentofanoversightandincentivecontractbetweennationalorlocalgovernment(principal)andsmallloancompanies(agents)Thiscontractshallincludeatleastthefollowingtwoaspects:oneisasmallloancompanycanreflectthedevelopmentofobservationindexsystemoffarmercreditperformancetwoisasmallloancompanycangiveapositiveincentivetocompensatoryschemeWhenasmallloancompanymeetsapredeterminedpolicyobjective,itcandeliveronitspromisesTheevaluationindexsystemofsmallloancompanycreditperformanceshouldcontainthetargetcustomerarrivalrate,thesizeandcoverageofloans,assetquality,productionefficiency,financialsurvival,earningsandcapitaladequacyetcThefarmersloanrate,the"threerural"support,smallloanratio(suchasfiftythousandyuan)theratioofnonperformingloans,businessselfsufficiencyandassetcostrate,assetreturnrateandprofitrateshouldbeusedasthecoreevaluationindexFromthepointoftheactualsituationofPingyao,thecentralbankiscurrentlythemainregulatorsofthesmallloancompanies,theseregulatoryindicatorseasilyfromthereportedfinancialstatementsandindividualbusinessregistrationformforOfcourse,toaccuratelyreflecttheimpactofmicrocreditonFarmers'productionandlifeandthesizeoftheirexternalities,wemustestablishameasurementevaluationmodeltomeasurethehouseholdsurveydataButthishastowaituntilthemicrofinancecompanyrunslongerAsforincentivecontracts,itissuggestedtoestablishaprogressiverisksharingandcompensationschemeThesmallloancompanywasfoundedatthebeginningofmayreleaseratecontrolfirst,preferentialtaxpolicy,tomakeupforthehighcostofcapitalandoperatingcosts,assoonaspossibletoachievefinancialsustainability,suchasPingyaosmallloancompaniescanfloatintheinterestratefourtimesthebenchmarkinterestrateofthebankSecondly,accordingtothedifferentoperatingperformanceofmicrocreditcompanies,weshouldprovidedifferentfinancingsupport,expandtheirscaleofoperation,increasetheirprofitmargins,andalsoenablewiderrangeoffarmerstoobtainfinancialsupportAtpresent,theaverageannualinterestrateofPingyaosmallloancompaniesisabout,mainlyforbreedinglargeandindividualindustrialandcommercialhouseholds,andthecoverageisrelativelylimitedThefuturecangetcheapmoneyfromapolicybankorpostalsavingsthroughfinancialguaranteeform,setupbyalllevelsofgovernmentjointlyfundedthemicrocreditriskcompensationfund,whenfarmersduetoriskofagriculturalnaturaldisastersystem,suddenandirresistiblemarketriskofdefault,tocompensateforthesmallloancompanyloanlossThree,theestablishmentofsmallloancompaniesoperatinglawsandregulationsHowtoestablishthelegalregulationofsmallloancompany'sbusinessismainlysummarizedfromthefollowingthreeaspects:,standardizetheloanprocessandestablishstrictinternalcontrolmechanismFromthepreloaninvestigationtotheloanreviewcommittee'sloandecisionsarestandardized,strictsystemtoprotect,toavoidemotional,personalloansadoptmoreflexibleformsofcollateral,collateralandpledgeapprovedbyloancompaniesthancommercialbanksAllkindsofruralpropertyincludingfarmers'housing,land,contractedmanagementright,agriculturalincomerightandsooncanberecognizedbythemdonotcopytheinternationalmicrofinanceandruralcreditcooperatives,butaccordingtothecharacteristicsoffarmers'selfinnovationreality,summedupthepracticeof"payloan","companyfarmersloan","villagefarmersloans"andotherspecialloansSpecifically,the"payloan","companyfarmersloan","villagefarmersloan"thesedifferentloansactuallyreflectsthefarmershavedifferentsocialcapital:familiarwithfarmersandhasasteadyincomeofcivilservants,farmersandagriculturalenterpriseslongtermcooperation,thesolutionofgrassrootsorganizationoffarmersWhenfarmersareexposedtosuchanetwork,theirbehaviorisrestrained,avoidingthesubjectivedefaultriskcausedbyadverseselectionandmoralhazardSecond,thecollateralrecognizedbysmallloancompaniesisnotcollateralinthetraditionalsenseSmallloancompaniesrecognizetherightsofruralland,housing,contractmanagementandotherlegalprotection,becausetheyreallyrelyontheimportanceoftheseresourcestofarmersInaddition,thesmallloancompaniesexploretheimplementationofthemembershipsystem,infact,intheformationofasocialcapitalcreditcooperativeorganizations,andgivefullplaytoitscreditrecognitioninacertainareaHowever,indifferenthistorical,culturalandpoliticalenvironment,themechanismofsocialcapitalisdifferentThedynamicjointguaranteetechnology,whichisbasedonthesocialcapitalofthepeasanthousehold,establishestheincentiveandrestraintmechanism,anddoesnotnecessarilyhavegeneralapplicabilityThisisduetothedifferenceofdifferenteconomicbasewithfarmersinthesocialcapitalofthedepthandbreadthanduse,especiallywiththedevelopmentofthetwoorthreeindustryinourcityandinthecountryside,farmerstogetrichinthechoicesettoexpand,throughloansisnotselfoperationrichfarmersonlychoice,andfacingmoreandmorehightheopportunitycostTherefore,itisdifficulttoformlargeanduniversalfinancingneedsinChinaaspoorcountries,exploretheimplementationofmembershipAsmallloancompanyinavillageoranindustryassociationselectedachairman,Presidentoforganizationorassociationmembersofvillagersbecomemicrofinancecompanymembers,focusedonmemberstopayfees,accordingtopayagreementWhenamemberhastheneedforfunds,asmallloancompanycanobtainapreferentialloanrightFromtheabovecontrolmethods,wefindthatthesocialcapitalofpeasanthouseholdsisthecorefactorforthemanagementofsubjectivedefaultriskofsmallloancompaniesSocialcapitalisacollectionofrealorpotentialresourcesthatarerelatedtoanetworkofmoreorlessinstitutionalized,commonlyknownandrecognizedrelationshipsRoughlyspeaking,socialcapitalcanbeunderstoodasinterpersonalandorganizationalrelationshipsInChina'sruralareas,therelationshipnetworkconstructedbyblood,geographyandotherfactorsisthemainformofsocialcapitalTheintroductionofsocialcapitalintofinancialtransactionsmainlyhastwofunctions:first,thefunctionofmortgagecollateral,creditrelationshipcanbeestablishedtwo,itcanreducetheinformationcostsandtransactioncostsoffinancialinstitutionsThisjustmakesupforthelackofguaranteecollateralandthehighcostofinformationandtransactioncostsinthecreditmarketoffarmersThemanagementofthesubjectivedefaultriskofsmallloancompaniesisfullofthefunctionofsocialcapitalFourConclusionUnderthepresentsituationofruralmicrofinanceisnotonlytoincreasetheincomeoflowincomefarmers,thebestchoicewithouttoomanyinputs,isaveryeffectiveruralfinancialformcanbeextensiveToexpandthescaleofruralmicrofinance,wemustsolvetheconstraintsofvariousfactorsThemostimportantthingisthatwemusteliminatethemisunderstandingofprivatefinanceandrecognizetherationalityofthehighinterestrateofprivatelending,soastofundamentallyliftthepolicyrestrictionofpromotingsmallloansItisnotrighttoignoreorstrictlyrestrainfolkfinance,whichcanneithermanagenormanagewell,butshouldgraduallystandardizefolkcreditandincorporateitintoformalfinancialsupervisionRecognizingthelegitimacyofprivatecredit,themostimportantthingistoallowittochargehigherinterestrates,whichisthebasisforsmallloansThecostofsmallloansisrelativelyhigh,andthereisacertainsystemriskMicrofinanceprovidesmanyservicesthatbankscannotprovide,suchasskillstraining,doortodoordelivery,collection,etcTheseservicesareconvenientforborrowers,butalsoincreaseoperatingcostsMoreover,sincesmallloansareconcentratedinruralareasandusedinagriculture,naturaldisasterscaneasilyleadtosystemicrisksForthelowincomefarmers,formalfinancialloansandisnotexpectedtothem,theyareoftentheonlychannelborrowingusury,usuryandrelativelyspeaking,smallloaninterestrateislowHowtoregulatethehighinterestratebehaviorofsmallloansisthekeyInthisregard,wecandrawonSouthAfrica'susuryexemptionactItisillegalforSouthAfricanfinancialinstitutionstolendinterestratesaboveHowever,forloansunder$,regardlessoftheorganizationorindividual,regardlessoftheinterestrate,tothesmallloanmanagementauthoritytoregisterandpayacertainregistrationfeecanbeAslongastheregistrationisconsideredlegitimateAsaresult,formalfinancecanalsograntloanshigherthaninterestratesTherefore,similarmeasurescanbeadoptedinChinatoregisterthesmallloansbytheregulatoryauthoritiesInordertoreducetheburdenofthepayment,thecentralizedorregularregistrationcanbeadoptedPolicyliberalizationwillfundamentallysolvetheproblemofinsufficientfundsinruralsmallloansChina'sprivatelendingitselfisalreadyquitelarge,afterthepolicyconstraintrelease,ruralsmallloanscalewillincrease,whichinfactisthefolkcreditfromundergroundtoopenperformance,suchastheestablishmentofmoresmallloancompaniesOncelegitimacyisgranted,commercialfinancewillinevitablyattractformalfinanceBecauseinternationalexperienceanddomesticexperimentsshowthatmicrofinanceisaprofitablebusinessinitselfInadditiontoprivatefunds,commercialfundsshouldbethemostimportantsourceofruralcreditcooperativesRuralcreditcooperativeshavespecialadvantagesinorganizingsmallloans:first,ruralcreditcooperativeshaveadenseruralfinancialnetworkComparedwithothersmallloanmode,creditcooperativesmicrofinanceoperationcostislowthetwoisahugesavingscreditcooperatives,loanfundscanberaisedthethreeisrelativetoothermicrofinanceinstitutions,creditcooperativesasapartofnationalfinancialsystem,undersurveillancebyregulatorsBeforecommercialfundsplayafullrole,policyfinanceasafinancialfundcanplayaleadingrolePolicybanks,suchastheNationalDevelopmentBank,canconsiderenteringtheruralfinancialmarket,andtheycanalsoplayagreaterroleBesides,Thefinancialsupportforagricultureandotherfundscanalsobeextendedtothepolicyofgrantingsmallloansinruralareas,oreventothemodeofsmallloansOnthisbasis,graduallyincreasethecommercialcapitalparticipation,byenhancingthecompetitionwillenablethevastruralareastogetmorefinancialsupportandlowerfinancialcosts,themicrofinancemodelhadbeenextended,tosolvethe"threeruralissues"shouldbeabletoplayaconsiderablerole

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小额贷款规章(Small loan regulations)

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