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首页 Ezra Pound

Ezra Pound.doc

Ezra Pound

Aidan怡怿
2018-04-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Ezra Pounddoc》,可适用于战略管理领域

EzraPoundEzraPoundEarlylife(–)BackgroundWithhismotherinPoundwasborninHailey,IdahoTerritory,theonlychildofHomerLoomisPound(–)andIsabelWeston(–)Bothparents'ancestorshademigratedfromEnglandinthethcenturyOnhisfather'sside,JohnPound,aQuaker,sailedfromEnglandaroundHisgrandfather,ThaddeusColemanPound(–),wasaretiredRepublicanCongressmanfornorthwestWisconsinwhohadmadeandlostafortuneinthelumberbusinessHissonHomer,Pound'sfather,hadworkedforThaddeusuntilThaddeussecuredhimanappointmentasRegisteroftheGovernmentLandOfficeinHaileyOnhismother'ssidePoundwasdescendedfromWilliamWadsworth,aPuritanwhoemigratedfromEnglandtoBostonontheLyoninTheWadsworthsmarriedintotheWestonsofNewYork,andHardingWestonandMaryParkerproducedIsabelWeston,Pound'smotherHardingapparentlyspentmostofhislifewithoutwork,sohisbrother,EzraWestonandhiswife,Frances,lookedafterMaryandIsabel'sneedsIsabelwasunhappylivinginHailey,andwhenhersonwasmonthsoldsheleftwithhimtogobackEastHomerfollowedthem,andinHomertookajobasanassayeratthePhiladelphiaMvehimtothemorepleasantsurroundingsofChestnutWard,closetoOverholser'sprivatequarters,whichiswherehespentthenextyearsThehistorianStanleyKutlerwasgivenaccessinthestomilitaryintelligenceandothergovernmentdocumentsaboutPound,includinghishospitalrecords,andwrotethatthepsychiatristsbelievedPoundhadanarcissisticpersonality,buttheyconsideredhimsaneKutlersaidthatOverholserprotectedPoundfromthecriminaljusticesystembecausehewasfascinatedbyhimTytellarguesthatPoundwasinhiselementinChestnutWardHewasatlastprovidedfor,andwasallowedtoread,write,andreceivevisitors,includingDorothyforseveralhoursadayHetookoverasmallalcovewithwickerchairsjustoutsidehisroom,andturneditintohisprivatelivingroom,whereheentertainedhisfriendsandimportantliteraryfiguresHebeganworkonhistranslationofSophocles'sWomenofTrachisandElectra,andcontinuedworkonTheCantosItreachedthepointwhereherefusedtodiscussanyattempttohavehimreleasedOlgaRudgevisitedhimtwice,onceinandagainin,andwasunabletoconvincehimtobemoreassertiveabouthisreleaseShewrotetoafriend:"EPhasbatsinthebelfrybutitstrikesmethathehasfewernotmorethanbeforehisincarceration"ThePisanCantos,BollingenPrizeSheetoftoiletpapershowingstartofCantoLXXXIV,cMay,partofThePisanCantos,suggestingPoundmayhavebegunitwhileinthesteelcageJamesLaughlinhadCantos–readyforpublicationinunderthetitleThePisanCantos,andevengavePoundanadvancecopy,buthehadhelditback,waitingforanappropriatetimetopublishTytellwritesthatinJuneagroupofPound'sfriends–Eliot,Cummings,WHAuden,AllenTate,andJulienCornell–metLaughlintodiscusshowtogethimreleasedAccordingtothepoetArchibaldMacLeish,themenconceivedaplantohavePoundawardedthefirstBollingenPrize,anewnationalpoetryawardjustannouncedbytheLibraryofCongress,with$,prizemoneydonatedbytheMellonfamilyTheawardscommitteeconsistedoffellowsoftheLibraryofCongress,includingseveralofPound'ssupporters,suchasEliot,Tate,ConradAiken,AmyLowell,KatherineAnnePorter,andTheodoreSpencerTheideawasthattheJusticeDepartmentwouldbeplacedinanuntenablepositionifPoundwonamajorawardandwasnotreleasedLaughlinpublishedThePisanCantosonJuly,andthefollowingyeartheprizewenttoPoundThereweretwodissentingvoices,KatherineGarrisonChapin,thewifeofFrancisBiddle,theAttorneyGeneralwhohadindictedPoundfortreason,andKarlShapiro,whosaidthathecouldnotvoteforanantisemitebecausehewasJewishhimselfPound'sresponsetothenewsoftheawardwas,"Nocommentfromthebughouse"TherewasuproarThePittsburghPostGazettequotedcriticswhosaid"poetrycannotconvertwordsintomaggotsthateatathumandignityandstillbegoodpoetry"RobertHillyer,aPulitzerPrizewinnerandpresidentofthePoetrySocietyofAmerica,attackedthecommitteeinTheSaturdayReviewofLiterature,tellingjournaliststhathe"neversawanythingtoadmireinPound,notoneline"CongressmanJacobKJavitsdemandedaninvestigationintotheawardscommittee,andasaresultitwasthelasttimetheprizewasadministeredbytheLibraryofCongressControversialfriendships,releaseAlthoughPoundrepudiatedhisantisemitisminpublic,TytellwritesthatinprivateitcontinuedHeoftenrefusedtotalktopsychiatristswithJewishsoundingnames,wouldrefertopeoplehedislikedasJews,andurgedhisvisitorstoreadtheProtocolsoftheEldersofZion(),afabricationclaimingtorepresentaJewishplanforworlddominationHestruckupafriendshipduringtheswiththewriterEustaceMullins,believedtobeassociatedwiththeAryanLeagueofAmerica,whowroteabiographyofPound,ThisDifficultIndividual,EzraPound()EvenmoredamagingwashisfriendshipwithafarrightactivistandmemberoftheKuKluxKlan,JohnKasperKasperhadcometoadmirePoundduringsomeliteratureclassesatuniversity,andafterhewrotetoPoundinthetwobecamefriendsKasperopenedabookstoreinGreenwichVillageincalled"MakeitNew,"reflectinghiscommitmenttoPound'sideasitspecializedinfarrightmaterial,includingNaziliterature,andPound'spoetryandtranslationsweredisplayedinthewindowKasperandanotherfollowerofPound's,DavidHorton,setupapublishingimprint,SquareDollarSeries,whichPoundusedasavehicleforhistractsabouteconomicreformKasperwaseventuallyjailedforthebombingoftheHattieCottonSchoolinNashville,targetedbecauseablackgirlhadregisteredasastudentWilhelmwritesthattherewerealotofperfectlyrespectablepeoplevisitingPoundtoo,suchastheclassicistJPSullivanandthewriterGuyDavenport,butitwastheassociationwithMullinsandKasperthatstoodoutTherelationshipsdelayedhisreleasefromStElizabethsEliot'sfriendscontinuedtotrytogethimoutShortlyafterHemingwaywontheNobelPrizeinLiteraturein,hetoldTimemagazinethat"thiswouldbeagoodyeartoreleasepoets"MacLeishaskedhiminJunetowritealetteronPound'sbehalfHemingwaybelievedPoundwasunabletoabstainfromawkwardpoliticalstatementsorfromfriendshipswithpeoplelikeKasper,buthesignedaletterofsupportanyway,andpledged$,tobegiventoPoundwhenhewasreleasedInseveralpublicationsbegancampaigningforhisreleaseLeFigaropublishedanappealentitled"TheLunaticatStElizabeths"TheNewRepublic,EsquireandTheNationfollowedsuitTheNationarguedthatPoundwasasickandviciousoldman,butthathehadrightstooInMacLeishhiredThurmanArnold,aprestigiouslawyerwhoendedupchargingnofee,tofileamotiontodismisstheindictmentOverholser,thehospital'ssuperintendent,supportedtheapplicationwithanaffidavitsayingPoundwaspermanentlyandincurablyinsane,andthatconfinementservednotherapeuticpurposeThemotionwasheardonAprilthatyearbythesamejudgewhohadcommittedhimtoStElizabethsTheDepartmentofJusticedidnotopposethemotion,andPoundwasfreeItaly(–)Ididnotenterintosilence,silencecapturedmePoundtoDominiquedeRoux,PoundarrivedinNaplesinJuly,wherehewasphotographedgivingafascistsalutebythewaitingpressWhenaskedbythepresswhenhehadbeenreleasedfromthementalhospital,hereplied:"IneverwasWhenIleftthehospitalIwasstillinAmerica,andallAmericaisaninsaneasylum"HeandDorothywenttolivewithMaryatCastleBrunnenburgnearMeranointheProvinceof–wherehemethisgrandson,Walter,andhisgranddaughter,Patrizia,forthefirsttimeSouthTyrol–thenreturnedtoRapallo,whereOlgaRudgewaswaitingtojointhemTheywereaccompaniedbyateacherPoundhadmetinhospital,MarcellaSpann,yearsyoungerthanhim,whowasostensiblyactingashissecretary,collectingpoemsforananthologyThefourwomensoonfellout,vyingforcontroloverhimCantoalludedtoit:"Pride,jealousyandpossessivenesspainsofhell"PoundwasinlovewithMarcella,seeinginherhislastchanceforloveandyouthHewroteaboutherinCantoCXIII:"Thelongflank,thefirmbreastandtoknowbeautyanddeathanddespairAndtothinkthatwhathasbeenshallbe,flowing,everunstill"Dorothyhadusuallyignoredhisaffairs,butsheusedherlegalpoweroverhisroyaltiestomakesureMarcellawasseenoff,sentbacktoAmericaPoundwrotetoHemingway:"Oldmanhimtired"ByDecemberhehadfallenintoadepression,insistinghisworkwasworthlessandTheCantoswerebotchedInainterviewgiveninRometoDonaldHallforParisReview,hesaid:"Youfindmeinfragments"Hallwrotethatheseemedinan"abjectdespair,accidie,meaninglessness,abulia,waste"Hepacedupanddownduringthethreedaysittooktocompletetheinterview,neverfinishingasentence,burstingwithenergyoneminute,thensuddenlysagging,andatonepointseemedabouttocollapseHallsaiditwasclearthathe"doubtedthevalueofeverythinghehaddoneinhislife"Thoseclosetohimthoughthewassufferingfromdementia,andinthesummerofMaryplacedhiminaclinicnearMeranowhenhisweightdroppedHepickedupagain,butbythespringofhehadaurinaryinfectionDorothyfeltunabletolookafterhim,sohewentthatsummertolivewithOlgainRapallo,thenVeniceDorothymostlystayedinLondonafterthatwithOmarHeattendedaneoFascistMayDayparadein,buthishealthcontinuedtodeclineThenextyearhetoldaninterviewer,GraziaLevi,"IspoileverythingItouchIhavealwaysblunderedAllmylifeIbelievedIknewnothing,yes,knewnothingAndsowordsbecamedevoidofmeaning"Pound'sgraveontheIsoladiSanMicheleWilliamCarlosWilliamsdiedin,followedtwoyearslaterbyTSEliotPoundattendedEliot'sfuneralinLondonandtraveledtoDublintovisitYeats'swidowAllenGinsbergvisitedhiminRapalloinOctoberHedescribedhisworktoGinsbergas:"Amessmywriting,stupidityandignoranceallthewaythrough,"andinthePensioneAlleSalutedaCicirestaurantinVenice,hetoldGinsberg,PeterRussell,andMichaelReck:"butmyworstmistakewasthestupidsuburbanantiSemiticprejudice,allalongthatspoiledeverythingIfoundafterseventyyearsthatIwasnotalunaticbutamoronIshouldhavebeenabletodobetter"TwoyearslaterPoundwenttoNewYorkfortheopeningofanexhibitionthatfeaturedhisblueinkedversionofEliot'sTheWasteLand,andreceivedastandingovationatHamiltonCollegewhenheaccompaniedLaughlinwhowasreceivinganhonorarydoctorateShortlybeforehisdeathinitwasproposedhebeawardedtheEmersonThoreauMedaloftheAmericanAcademyofArtsandSciences,butafterastormofprotesttheacademy'scouncilopposeditbytoThesociologistDanielBell,whowasonthecommittee,arguedthatitwasimportanttodistinguishbetweenthosewhoexplorehateandthosewhoapproveitTwoweeksbeforehisthbirthdayhereadforagatheringoffriendsatacafé:"reUSURYIwasoutoffocus,takingasymptomforacauseThecauseisAVARICE"OnhisbirthdayhewastooweaktoleavehisbedroomathishomeonthePiazzaSanMarco,andthefollowingnighthewasadmittedtotheCivilHospitalofVenice,wherehediedinhissleepofanintestinalblockageonNovember,aged,withOlgaathissideDorothywasunabletotraveltothefuneralFourgondoliersdressedinblackrowedthebodytotheislandcemetery,IsoladiSanMichele,wherehewasburiednearDiaghilevandStravinskyDorothydiedinEnglandthefollowingyearOlgadiedinandwasburiednexttoPoundReceptionOpinionvariesaboutthenatureofPound'swritingstyleCriticsgenerallyagreethathewasastronglyricist,particularlyinhisearlyworkScholarssuchasIraNadelseeevidenceofmodernisminhispoetrybeforehebegantheCantos,andWitmeyerarguesthat,asearlyasRipostes,amodernstyleisevidentHisstyledrewonliteraturefromavarietyofdisciplinesNadelwritesthathewantedhispoetrytorepresentan"objectivepresentationofmaterialwhichhebelievedcouldstandonitsown,"withoutuseofsymbolismorromanticismTheChinesewritingsystemmostcloselymethisidealsHeusedChineseideogramstorepresent"thethinginpictures,"andfromNohtheaterlearnedthatplotcouldbereplacedbyasingleimageNadelarguesthatimagismwastochangePound'spoetryHeexplains,"ImagismevolvedasareactionagainstabstractionreplacingVictoriangeneralitieswiththeclarityinJapanesehaikuandancientGreeklyrics"PoundscholarDanielAlbrightwritesthatPoundtriedtocondenseandeliminate"allbutthehardestkernel"fromapoemsuchasthetwolinepoem"InaStationoftheMetro"This,however,wasatechniquethatdidnotlenditselfwelltothewritingofanepicsuchastheCantos,andsoPoundturnedtothemoredynamicstructureofwhatheconsideredVorticismfortheCantosTranslationsInPound'sFenollosatranslations,unlikepreviousAmericantranslatorsofChinesepoetry,whotendedtoworkwithstrictmetricalandstanzaicpatterns,PoundcreatedfreeversetranslationsWhetherthepoemsarevaluableastranslationscontinuestobeasourceofcontroversyPoundscholarMingXieexplainsthattheuseoflanguageinPound'stranslationoftheOldEnglishpoem"TheSeafarer"isdeliberate,avoidingmerely"tryingtoassimilatetheoriginalintocontemporarylanguage"AfterhisworkwithTheSeafarer,itwasintheJapaneseNohplaysthathefoundananswertohissearchforantinaturalistminimalismwhichoccurredjustpriortohisinitialworkwithFenellosa'spapers,leadingtothetranslationofChinesepoemsinCathay,publishedinNeitherPoundnorFenollosaspokeorreadChineseproficiently,andPoundhasbeencriticizedforomittingoraddingsectionstohispoemswhichhavenobasisintheoriginaltexts,thoughcriticsarguethatthefidelityofCathaytotheoriginalChineseisbesidethepointHughKenner,inachapter"TheInventionofChina"fromThePoundEra,contendsthatCathayshouldbereadprimarilyasaworkaboutWorldWarI,notasanattemptataccuratelytranslatingancientEasternpoemsTherealachievementofthebook,Kennerargues,isinhowitcombinesmeditationsonviolenceandfriendshipwithaneffortto"rethinkthenatureofanEnglishpoem"TheseostensibletranslationsofancientEasterntexts,Kennerargues,areactuallyexperimentsinEnglishpoeticsandcompellingelegiesforawarringWestMichaelAlexanderwritesthat,asatranslator,PoundwasapioneerwithagreatgiftoflanguageandanincisiveintelligenceHehelpedpopularizemajorpoetssuchasGuidoCavalcantiandDuFuandbroughtProvençalandChinesepoetrytoEnglishspeakingaudiencesHerevivedinterestintheConfucianclassicsandintroducedthewesttoclassicalJapanesepoetryanddramaHetranslatedandchampionedGreek,LatinandAngloSaxonclassics,andhelpedkeepthemaliveatatimewhenclassicaleducationwasindecline,andpoetsnolongerconsideredtranslationscentraltotheircraftLegacyHisownworkapart,PoundwasresponsibleforadvancingthecareersofsomeofthebestknownmodernistwritersoftheearlythcenturyInadditiontoEliot,Joyce,Lewis,Frost,Williams,andHemingway,hebefriendedandhelpedMarianneMoore,LouisZukofsky,JacobEpstein,BasilBunting,EECummings,MargaretAnderson,GeorgeOppen,andCharlesOlsonHughWitemeyerarguesthattheImagistmovementwasthemostimportantinthcenturyEnglishlanguagepoetrybecausehardlyanyprominentpoetofPound'sgenerationandthetwogenerationsafterhimwasuntouchedbyitAsearlyasCarlSandburgwroteinPoetry:"Alltalkonmodernpoetry,bypeoplewhoknow,endswithdragginginEzraPoundsomewhereHemaybenamedonlytobecursedaswantonandmocker,poseur,triflerandvagrantOrhemaybeclassedasfillinganichetodaylikethatofKeatsinaprecedingepochThepointis,hewillbementioned"Beyondthis,Pound'slegacyismixedHughKennerwroteinthattherewasnogreatcontemporarywriterlessreadthanPound,thoughheaddedthattherewasalsonoonewhocouldappealthrough"sheerbeautyoflanguage"topeoplewhowouldrathertalkaboutpoetsthanreadthemTheBritishpoetPhilipLarkincriticizedhim,"forbeingliterary,whichtomeisthefoundationofhisfeebleness,thinkingthatpoetryismadeoutofpoetryandnotoutofbeingalive"Hisantisemitismbecamecentraltoanevaluationofhispoetry,includingwhetheritwasreadatallWendyStallardFloryarguesthatthebestapproachtoTheCantos–separatingthepoetryfromtheantisemitism–isperceivedasapologeticHerviewisthattheestablishmentofPoundas"NationalMonster"and"designatedfascistintellectual"madehimastandinforthesilentmajorityinGermany,occupiedFranceandBelgium,aswellasBritainandtheUnitedStateswho,sheargues,madetheHolocaustpossiblebyaidingorstandingquietlybyTheoutrageafterthetreasonchargewassodeepthattheimaginedmethodofhisexecutiondominatedthediscussionArthurMillerconsideredhimworsethanHitler:"InhiswildestmomentsofhumanvilificationHitlerneverapproachedourEzraheknewallAmerica'sweaknessesandheplayedthemasexpertlyasGoebbelseverdid"Theresponsewentsofarastodenounceallmodernistsasfascists,anditwasonlyinthesthatcriticsbeganareevaluationThecriticMachaRosenthalwrotethatitwas"asifallthebeautifulvitalityandallthebrilliantrottennessofourheritageinitsluxuriantvarietywerebothatoncemademanifest"inEzraPoundWorks,ALumeSpentoPrivatelyprintedbyAAntonini,Venice,(poems),AQuinzaineforThisYulePollock,LondonandElkinMathews,London,(poems),PersonaeElkinMathews,London,(poems),ExultationsElkinMathews,London,(poems),TheSpiritofRomanceDent,London,(prose),ProvencaSmall,Maynard,Boston,(poems),CanzoniElkinMathews,London,(poems),TheSonnetsandBallateofGuidoCavalcantiSmall,Maynard,Boston,(cheapereditiondestroyedbyfire,SwiftCo,Londontranslations),RipostesSSwift,London,(poemsfirstannouncementofImagism),CathayElkinMathews,(poemstranslations),GaudierBrzeskaAMemoirJohnLane,London,(prose),CertainNoblePlaysofJapan:FromtheManuscriptsofErnestFenollosa,chosenandfinishedbyEzraPound,withanintroductionbyWilliamButlerYeats,ErnestFenollosa,EzraPound:"Noh",or,Accomplishment:AStudyoftheClassicalStageofJapanMacmillan,London,,LustraElkinMathews,London,(poems),TwelveDialoguesofFontenelle,(translations),LustraKnopf,NewYork(poems)WithaversionofthefirstThreeCantos(Poetry,vol,nos,June,,July,,August),:PavannesandDivisionsKnopf,NewYorkprose,QuiaPauperAmaviEgoistPress,Londonpoems,TheFourthCantoOvidPress,London,HughSelwynMauberleyOvidPress,London,UmbraElkinMathews,London,(poemsandtranslations),InstigationsofEzraPound:TogetherwithanEssayontheChineseWrittenCharacterasaMediumforPoetry,byErnestFenollosaBoniLiveright,(prose),Poems,–BoniLiveright,NewYork,RemydeGourmount:TheNaturalPhilosophyofLoveBoniLiveright,NewYork,(translation),Indiscretions,or,UndRevuedesdeuxmondesThreeMountainsPress,Paris,AntheilandtheTreatiseonHarmonyParis,(essays)As:WilliamAtheling,ADraftofXVICantosThreeMountainsPress,ParisThefirstcollectionofTheCantos,Personae:TheCollectedPoemsofEzraPoundBoniLiveright,NewYork,ADraftoftheCantos–JohnRodker,London,SelectedPoems,editedandwithanintroductionbyTSEliotFaberGwyer,London,Confucius:TaHio:TheGreatLearning,newlyrenderedintotheAmericanlanguageUniversityofWashingtonBookstore(GlennHughes),(translation),ADraftofXXXCantosNancyCunard'sHoursPress,Paris,ImaginaryLettersBlackSunPress,ParisEightessaysfromtheLittleReview,–,HowtoReadHarmsworth,(essays),ABCofEconomicsFaber,London,(essays),ElevenNewCantos:XXXIXLIFarrerRinehart,NewYork,(poems),HomagetoSextusPropertiusFaber,London(poems),ABCofReadingYaleUniversityPress,(essays),AlfredVenison'sPoems:SocialCreditThemesbythePoetofTitchfieldStreetStanleyNott,PamphletsontheNewEconomics,No,London,(essays),JeffersonandorMussoliniStanleyNott,London,Liveright,(essays),MakeItNewLondon,(essays),SocialCreditAnImpactLondon,(essays)Repr:PeterRussell,MoneyPamphletsbyPound,no,London,ErnestFenollosa:TheChineseWrittenCharacterasaMediumforPoetryStanleyNott,LondonAnArsPoeticaWithForewordandNotesbyEzraPound,TheFifthDecadeofCantosFarrerRinehart,NewYork,poems,PoliteEssaysFaber,London,(essays),Confucius:DigestoftheAnalects,editedandpublishedbyGiovanniScheiwiller,(translations),CultureNewDirectionsNewedition:GuidetoKulchur,NewDirections,,WhatIsMoneyForGreaterBritainPublications,(essays)MoneyPamphletsbyPound,no,PeterRussell,London,CantosLXIILXXINewDirections,NewYork,(JohnAdamsCantos–),CartadaVisitadiEzraPoundEdizionidilettered'oggiRomeEnglishtranslation,byJohnDrummond:AVisitingCard,MoneyPamphletsbyPound,no,PeterRussell,London,(essays),L'America,RooseveltelecausedellaguerrapresenteCasaeditricedellaedizionipopolari,VeniceEnglishtranslation,byJohnDrummond:America,RooseveltandtheCausesofthePresentWar,MoneyPamphletsbyPound,no,PeterRussell,London,IntroduzioneallaNaturaEconomicadegliSUACasaeditricedellaedizionipopolariVeniceEnglishtranslationAnIntroductiontotheEconomicNatureoftheUnitedStates,byCarmineAmoreRepr:PeterRussell,MoneyPamphletsbyPound,London(essay),OrientaminiCasaeditricedallaedizionipopolariVenice(prose),Oroetlavoro:allamemoriadiAurelioBaisiModerna,RapalloEnglishtranslation:GoldandWork,MoneyPamphletsbyPound,no,PeterRussell,London(essays),IfThisBeTreasonSiena:privatelyprintedforOlgaRudgebyTipNuova(originaldraftsofsixofPound'sRomeradiobroadcasts),ThePisanCantosNewDirections,(Cantos–),TheCantosofEzraPound(includesThePisanContos)NewDirections,poems,Elektra(startedin,firstperformed),aplaybyEzraPoundandRuddFleming,ThePisanCantosNewDirections,NewYork,SeventyCantosFaber,London,PatriaMiaRFSeymour,ChicagoReworkedNewAgearticles,,'(Orage),Confucius:TheGreatDigestTheUnwobblingPivotNewDirections(translation),Confucius:Analects(John)Kaspar(David)Horton,Square$Series,NewYork,(translation),HughKenner(ed):TheTranslationsofEzraPound,NewDirections,(translations),TheClassicAnthologyDefinedbyConfuciusHarvardUniversityPress(translations),LavoroedUsuraAll'insegnadelpesced'oroMilan(essays),Section:RockDrill,–delosCantaresAll'insegnadelpesced'oro,Milan,(poems),Sophocles:TheWomenofTrachisAVersionbyEzraPoundNevilleSpearman,London,(translation),BrancusiMilan(essay),Thrones:–delosCantaresNewDirections,(poems),NoelStock(ed):Impact:EssaysonIgnoranceandtheDeclineofAmericanCivilizationHenriRegnery,Chicago,DraftsandFragments:CantosCXCXVIINewDirections,(poems
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