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The Cognitive Notions of Metaphor and Metonymy Mariana Neagu 1 ....doc

The Cognitive Notions of Metaph…

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简介:本文档为《The Cognitive Notions of Metaphor and Metonymy Mariana Neagu 1 ...doc》,可适用于表格/模板领域,主题内容包含TheCognitiveNotionsofMetaphorandMetonymyMarianaNeaguTheCognitiveNotionsofM符等。

TheCognitiveNotionsofMetaphorandMetonymyMarianaNeaguTheCognitiveNotionsofMetaphorandMetonymyMarianaNeaguDistinguishingmetaphorfrommetonymyBeforetryingtodifferentiatebetweenmetonymyandmetaphorletusrevisethedefinitionsofthetwotermsMetaphoristhecognitivemechanismwherebyoneexperientialdomain(inthesenseofLangacker,,Ch)ispartiallymappedontoadifferentexperientialdomain,theseconddomainbeingpartiallyunderstoodintermsofthefirstoneThedomainthatismappediscalledthesourceordonordomain,andthedomainontowhichitismapped,iscalledthetargetorrecipientdomainBothdomainshavetobelongtodifferentsuperordinatedomainsThisisbasicallythecognitiveconceptofmetaphorpropoundedbyGeorgeLakoff,MarkJohnsonandMarkTurner(Johnson,LakoffandJohnson,Lakoff,,,bLakoffandTurner,Turner,,)aswellasbyGibbs(),Kövecses(),Sweetser(),andbyothercognitivelinguiststhathavebeeninvestigatingthefieldoverthepastfifteenyearsMetonymyisacognitivemechanismwherebyoneexperientialdomainispartiallyunderstoodintermsofanotherexperientialdomainincludedinthee(genus)maystandforoneofitsmembers(species)andamemberofacategory(species)maystandforthecategoryasawhole(genus)Thus,thecategory„pillmaybeusedtostandforoneofitssalientmembers,„birthcontrolpill,andconversely,thesalientsubcategory,„aspirinmaystandforthecategory„painrelievingtabletsasawholeMetonymicshiftswithintaxonomichierarchiesaccountforthemajorityofsemanticchanges()metonymybasedmetaphorswhoseconceptualdomainsareinterrelatedbyaculturalmodelCulturalmodelsare“presupposed,takenforgrantedmodelsoftheworldthatarewidelyshared…bythemembersofasocietyandthatplayanenormousroleintheirunderstandingofthatworldandtheirbehaviourinit”Radden(:)mentionsthreeareasinwhichculturalorfolkmodelsaccountformetonymybasedmetaphors:(a)physicalforces(b)communicationandlanguage(c)emotionsandtheirphysiologicalreactionsThefirstarea,vizforcesarebelievedtobecontained(accordingtoafolktheorymodel)inthemovingobjectswhichtheypropelintoacertaindirectionforcesaremetonymicallyunderstoodassubstancescontainedinorputintoacontainerormetaphoricallyassubstances(egPutmoreforcebehindyourpunches)Thesecondarea,vizcommunicationandlanguage,conceptualizedasReddysconduitmetaphor,involvestwoaspects:thatoftherelationshipbetweenformandmeaningandthatofcommunicationastransferTheformeraspectwhichistheverynatureoflanguageisbasedonthemetonymyFORMFORMEANINGCONCEPTCONTENTFormandmeaningaretwoinseparablecomplementarynotionsthatallowustousetheformofthewordtostandmetonymicallyfortheconceptualcontentitexpressesAtthesametime,languagecanbeviewedmetaphoricallyasacontainerfilledwithcontentmeaningsresideinwordformsandotherlinguisticcontainers(egThischaptercontainsalotofcontent)Therefore,themetonymyFORMFORCONTENTcombineswiththeubiquitousmetonymyCONTAINERFORCONTENTS,givingrisetothemetonymybasedmetaphorCONTAINERFORCONTENTThelatteraspectoftheconduitmetaphor,vizthatofcommunicationassendingisnotsomuchmetaphoricalormetonymical,butliteralRadden(:)rightlystatesthat“peoplemayliterallybelieveinakindoftelepathiccommunicationofcontentandonlybecomeawareofthefactthatformmighttravelaswellinsituationsofdangerorofmisunderstanding,forexampleinsayingWhatIamsayingis,meaning’whatImeanis…”Besides,theomnipresenceofcommunicationtechnologyalsoconfirmsthefolkmodelofcommunicationThethirdareainwhichfolkmodelsaccountformetonymybasedmetaphorsisthatofemotionsandtheirphysiologicalreactionsemotionsarelargelyunderstoodmetaphoricallyandphysiologicalreactionsaremetonymicallyrelatedtoemotionsInthefolkmodelofemotions,apersonsphysiologicalreactionisbelievedtobecausedbytheemotionitselfForexample,whenweseeapersonbecomingpaleorshaking,weconcludethatheorsheisfrightenedInhiscasestudyofanger,Lakoff(:)beginshisanalysisbyproposingthatafolktheoryofphysiologicaleffectsformsthebasisofthemetaphorANGERISHEATOneofthephysiologicaleffectsofanger,ieincreasedbodyheat,metonymicallystandsforangerasinDon’tgethotunderthecollarBilly’sahotheadThey’rehavingaheatedargumentThismetonymicrelationshipiselaboratedinthetwoversionsofthemetaphorANGERISHEAT:onewheretheheatappliestofluids,ieANGERISAFLUIDINACONTAINER(egYoumakemybloodboilSimmerdownLethimstew),theotherwhereitisappliedtosolids,ieANGERISFIRE(egHewasbreathingfire)Themetonymicfolkmodelofphysiologicaleffectsislikelytoaccountfortheemotionmetaphorslustisheat,affectioniswarmth,loveismadness,loveisfire(Bettywasmyoldflame)ThecaseofsynesthesiaOneoftheareasthatbroughtaboutsomedebateconcerningthemetonymicbasisofmetaphorissynesthesiaTaylor(),thefirstinthecognitivelinguisticworldtodeveloptheideaofmetonymybasedmetaphorsaysthat,thoughverytempting,theclaimthatallmetaphorsarebasedonmetonymyiscontradictedbytheexistenceofasubcategoryofmetaphor,synesthesiaIntheexamplesbelow,thesecondmemberineachpairisacaseofsynaesthesia(inTaylorslooseuseofit,thistermdenotesakindofmetaphorinwhichasensorydomainismappedontoanyotherkindofdomain)LoudmusicAloudcolourInthiscasetheANGERISHEATmetaphorcombineswiththemetaphorTHEBODYISACONTAINERFOREMOTIONSTaylorsthesisisthatinmanycasesthereisametonymicrelationbetweenthenotionofverticalityandthedomainsofquantity,evaluationandpowerInotherwords,theconceptualmetaphorsMOREISUP,GOODISUP,POWERISUPhaveametonymicbasisForexample,asapilegetshigher,thequantityincreasessothattheoneaspectstandsfortheotherAsweetcakeSweetmusicAblackclothAblackmoodInthemetaphoricalmemberofthesepairs(theoneinitalics)thefollowingmappingscanbefound,accordingtoTaylorForthefirstpair,thesourceistheauditorydomainandthetargetisthevisualdomainForthesecondpair,thesourceisthegustatorydomainandthetargetistheauditorydomainForthethirdpair,thesourceis(thecoloursubdomainof)thevisualdomainandthetargetdomainisthedomainofemotionsTaylorbelievesthatthesesynestheticmetaphorscannotreasonablybereducedtocontiguity,sohecannotfindametonymicmotivationforthemHowever,Barcelona(:)adducesthatthereissuchamotivation,inthesensethatametonymicperspectivizationofloudsoundsassoundsthatforcethemselvesononesattentionmotivatesthemappingtogaudy,showy(„loud)colours,whichlikewiseforcethemselvesononesattentionThemetaphoricalconceptualmotivationofmetonymyThemetaphoricalconceptualmotivationofsomemetonymiescanbediscoveredinmetonymicinterpretationsofalinguisticexpressionthatareonlypossiblewithinacooccurringmetaphoricalmapping,asinthisexample:ShecaughttheMinister’searandpersuadedhimtoaccepthisplan(Goossens,)ThemetaphorhereisATTENTIONISA(MOVING)PHYSICALENTITY(thatonehastogetholdoforattract,or„call)Atthesametime,thissentenceexemplifiesaspecificversionoftheconventionaltypeofmetonymyBODYPARTFOR(MANNEROF)FUNCTIONInthisconventionaltypeofmetonymy,abodypartstandsforitsfunctionorforthemannerinwhichitsfunctionisperformed(egHehasagoodhandShehasagoodhead)ThespecificversionoftheconventionaltypeofmetonymyintheseexamplesisEARFORATTENTIONor,toputitdifferently,wehaveabodypartwhosefunction(hearing)ischaracterizedasbeingperformedinahighlyspecificmanner:„withattentionThisbodypartstandsforthismannerofitsfunctionAsGoossens()says,thespecificversionofthemetonymyonlytakesplaceinmetaphoricalmappingsinvolvingattentionasthetargetdomainThatis,onlywhenattentionhasbeenmadethetargetdomaininametaphoricalmappingisitpossible,withinthetargetdomain,tocarryoutametonymicmappinginwhichtheearstandsforaspecificattribute(attention)ofitstypicalfunction(hearing)Thismeansthatthespecificmetonymycanonlybefoundinlinguisticexpressionsofmetaphoricalmappingswhereattentionisthetargetdomain:ShewonhisearsHiswordsprickedmyearsAgaininthesetwocases,asinthe„ministersearexample,attentionisunderstoodasamovingentity(probablyaflyingone,likeabirdoranyotherflyingobject)thathastobeattractedor„caughtinsomeway,anditismetonymicallyrepresentedbytheearInadditiontowinpricksomeone’sear,furtherexamplesfromthesamegrouparebiteone’stongueoff,„depriveoneselfofonesabilitytospeak(egIshouldbitemytongueoff),shootyourmouthoff„talkaboutsomethingthatyoushouldnottalkaboutorthatyouknownothingaboutAscanbenoticed,themetonymieswithinmetaphorsarecurrentinthecorpusofbodypartidiomsMetaphtonymicpatternsGoossens(,)proposestheterm“metaphtonymy“tocoverseveralpatternsthatprovetheinterplaybetweenmetaphorandmetonymyThemostfrequentonesare()metaphorfrommetonymy(metonymy–basedmetaphor)and()metonymywithinmetaphorIntheformerpattern(case)theexperientialbasisformetaphorisametonymyforexample,theexpressionbeatone’sbreast„makeanoisyopenshowofsorrowthatmaybepartlypretence,hasametonymybasisthatisthereligionspracticeofbeatingonesbreastswhileoneconfessesonessinsAnotherexpression,closeone’seyestothefactsismetonymicallymotivatedasitisaninstanceofthePARTOFTHEBODYFORITSFUNCTIONmetonymywheneverthephysicalactionofseeingactuallytakesplacewhennoactionofseeingisinvolveditturnsintoametaphorwiththemeaning„toignorethefactsOnefourthofthedataanalysedbelongsintothegroupofmetonymicallybasedmetaphoroflinguisticactionThedonor(sourcedomain)isthatofbodypartidioms:haveawordinsomeone’sear“speaksecretly”,raiseone’seyebrowsat“expresssurprise,doubt,displeasureordisapproval”,putone’sfootdown“speakoractfirmlyonaparticularmatter”Thelatterpattern,metonymywithinmetaphoristhatcasewhereametonymyfunctioninginthetargetdomainisembeddedwithinametaphorInasentencelikeDon’tshootyourmouthoff„Dontsayanythingrash,thedonor(source)domainismetaphorizednamelythefoolishoruncontrolleduseoffirearmsismappedprojectedontotherecipient(target)domainofunthoughtfullinguisticactionInthislatterdomainmouthisametonymyfor“speechfaculty”MetonymyandmetaphorinblendsBlendingisabasicandpervasivementaloperationthatbindstogetherandintegratesthebasicelementsofthought(egimageschemas,frames,conceptualmetaphorsandmetonymies,prototypes,mentalspaces)intocomplexideasTaylorInthisidiomthetonguestandsforthepersonsspeakingcapacityAnanalysisofthisidiomisprovidedinthenextsectionSeeandFauconnier()definesamentalspaceas“aconceptualconstructthatisusedtodescribetheontologicalstatusofentitiesandsituations–egabelief,adesire,acounterfactualhypothesisandevenrealityataparticularlocationintimeorspace”(:)definesblending(alsocalled„conceptualintegration)astheprocessbywhichselectedelementsoftwoormorementalspacesareincorporatedinathirdspace,theblend,whichmayhavepropertiesnotderivablefromeitheroftheinputspacesForexample,ourunderstandingofThatsurgeonisabutcherincorporateselementsfrominputspacespertainingtotheactivityof,respectively,surgeonsandbutchers,resultingintheblend,intheinterpretationthatthesurgeonisincompetentIntheirpapercalled“Metonymyandconceptualintegration”,GillesFauconnierandMarkTurner(:)investigatetheinteractionofconceptualblendingandmetonymyTheydemonstratethatLakoffsandKövecsesunidirectionalmodelofconceptualmetaphordoesnotaccountforexpressionssuchassmokeiscomingoutofhisears,whichcanonlybeunderstoodasresultingfromblendingthesourceandthetargetdomains,since,literally,therearenoearsinthesourcedomainandthereisnosmokeinthetargetdomainInthewellknownsymbolicrepresentationofdeathasTheGrimReaper,theinputelementsscythe,cowlandskeletonareconceptuallyintegratedThus,theblendshortensthemetonymicdistancebetweenoriginallynoncontiguousconceptualentitiesExamplesofblendingandofthewayblendinginteractswithmetaphorandmetonymycanbefoundineventhemoststudiedofbasicmetaphors,suchasANGERISHEATZoltánKövecses()andGeorgeLakoff()haveprovidedanimpressiveanalysisofmetaphoricunderstandingofangerThisanalysisrevealstherequiredmappingbetweenfolkmodelsofheatandfolkmodelsofangerInthismapping,aheatedcontainermapstoanangryindividual,heatmapstoanger,smokeandsteam(productsandhencesignsofheat)maptosignsofanger,explosionmapstoextreme,uncontrolledanger,andsoonANGERISHEATmetaphorisreflectedinconventionalexpressions:()Hewassteaming()Shewasfilledwithanger()Ihadreachedtheboilingpoint()Iwasfuming()Heexploded()IblewmytopKövecsesandLakoffalsonotetheimportantbasisforthismetaphorinthefolktheorythatangerhasphysiologicaleffectslikeincreasedbodyheat,increasedbloodpressure,agitation,andrednessinthefaceThemetonymylinkingemotionstotheirphysiologicaleffectsallowsexpressionslikethefollowingtorefertoanger:()Hegetshotunderthecollar()Shewasredwithanger()IalmostburstabloodvesselTheANGERISHEATmetaphorprovidesonesetofcounterpartsThemetonymylinkingemotionstotheirphysiologicaleffectsprovidesanotherWhencombined,theyprovidethefollowingsystemofconceptualcorrespondences:SOURCETARGET“physicalevents”“emotions”“physiology”Conceptualintegrationoperatesinmanyareas–everydaymeaningconstruction,conceptualchange,metaphorandanalogy,scientificdiscovery,counterfactualreasoning,grammar,action,anddesignContainerPersonPersonHeatAngerBodyheatSteamSignofangerPerspiration,rednessAcuteshaking,lossofExplodeShowextremeangerphysiologicalcontrolBoilingpointHighestdegreeofangerThissystemofcounterpartscanbeelaboratedinvariouswaysForexample,in()God,hewassomadIcouldseethesmokecomingoutofhisearstheearsaremappedontoanorificeofthecontainerofthesourceInthisexample,andalsointhemoreconventionaloneslike()thedescriptionoftheemotionispresentedasaphysiologicalreactionoftheindividualSomethingishappeningtohisbody,eg,smokeiscomingoutofhisearsButthe`content`ofthisphysiologicalreactionisnotobtainedthroughthemetonymyinthetargetItcomesfromthe`source`(whichconcernsphysicaleventspertainingtoheatedcontainers–smokecomingout,explosion,etc)Thephrasethesmokecomingoutofhisearsdoesnotdescribeanythingdirectlyinthesource(wheresmokecomesoutofinanimatecontainersandvesselswithkettles,becausetheyareonfireorbecausetheyaresohotthattheircontentsareburning)orinthetarget(wherepeoplephysiologydoesnotincludeinternalcombustion)Thereisselectiveprojectionfrombothinputs,leadingtoanovelframeintheblend:therearenoearsinthesourcedomainandnosmokeinthetargetdomain,buttheorganisingframeoftheblendhasbothandtheyinteractIntheblendedspace,peopleandtheiremotionsareprojectedfromatargetinputspaceandthecorrespondingphysiologicalreactionsareprojectedeitherfromthesourceinputofphysicalheat,explosionandboiling,orfromthetargetinputofthebodyphysiologylinkedtotheemotionsIntheconceptualintegrationnetworkthatisbasedontheANGERISHEATmetaphor,thefollowingsetofcounterpartsresults:SOURCEBLENDTARGETInputspaceInputspaceBlendedspaceInputspace“physiology”“physicalevents””emotions”ContainerPersoncontainerPersonPersonOrificeEarsorificeEarsHeatHeatangerAngerBodyheatSteamsmokeSteamsmokeSignofangerPerspiration,rednessShowextremeAcuteshaking,lossofExplodeExplodeangerphysiologicalcontrolBoilinghighestHighestdegreeofBoilingpointdegreeofemotionemotionIftheblendstoodbyitself,itcouldnotbeinterpretedintherealworldbecauseangerdoesnotproducesmokeorexplosionButinthenetworkmodel,theblendremainslinkedtotheinputsTheanalysisbyKövecses()andLakoff()underscorestheessentialroleofphysiologicalreactionmetonymiesinthemetaphoricalsystemofemotionsThemetonymiccorrespondencesareinthetarget–bodyheat,redness,etcThesemapdirectlyontotheblend,inthesensethatintheblend(butnotinthetarget),thephysiologicalreactionsaresmoke,explosion,etcThisisdonebymappinghot(inthetarget,forpeople,withacertainphysiology)tohotinthesource(forcontainerswithquitedifferentphysicalproperties),andthenfromsourcetoblend,wherethenewsetofphysiologicalreactionsisconstructedSo,giventhestructuralanddynamicmechanismsofblendingandtheoptimalityconstraintsthatguideit,metonymyplaysanimportantroleinconstructingconceptualintegrationnetworksTherefore,thevariousbasiccognitivephenomenathatarevarietiesofconceptualintegration–eg,framing,provisionalcategoryextension,analogy,metaphor,theconstructionofcounterfactualspaces,aspectsofgrammar–willinteractConclusionsTheonlybasicdifferencebetweenmetaphorandmetonymyliesinthenatureoftherelationshipbetweenthedomainsinvolvedTheclassicalnotionsofmetaphorandmetonymyhavetobeseenasprototypicalcategoriesattheendpointsofacontinuumofmappingprocessesMetaphorandmetonymyofteninteractwitheachother,sometimesinfairlyintricatewaysOneofthemostimportantinteractiontypeisthemetonymybasedmetaphor,thecasewheremetaphorismotivatedconceptuallybymetonymywhichisclosertoitsexperientialbasisAnotherinterestingtypeofinteractionofmetaphorandmetonymyisthemetaphoricallymotivatedmetonymythatcanbefoundinthemetonymicinterpretationofalinguisticexpressionThefunctioningofmetaphorandmetonymyindiscoursecanmorepreciselybeexplainedbythetheoryofblendingorconceptualintegrationwhichisanextensionofpreviousworkonmentalspacesBlendingisafundamental,indispensablecognitiveoperationwhichcreatesnetworksofconnectionsbetweenmentalspacesIntheconceptualintegrationnetwork,thesourceandthetargetdomains(orinputspaces)aremappedontoablendedspace(orblend)whoseconceptualstructureisnotwhollyderivablefromtheinputspacesCreatingtheblendofteninvolvestheexploitationofmetonymyThetheoryofblendingorthe„manyspacemodelisdesignedtoaccountnotonlyformetaphorandmetonymy,butalsoforirony,counterfactualsandgrammarReferencesBarcelonaAntonioClarifyingandapplyingthenotionsofmetaphorandmetonymywithincognitivelinguisticsAtlantis()BarcelonaAntonio()MetaphorandMetonymyattheCrossroadsBerlinNewYork:MoutondeGruyter,CroftWilliam“TheRoleofDomainsintheInterpretationofMetaphorsandMetonymies”CognitiveLinguistics:Dirven,ReneandRalphPorings()MetaphorandMetonymyinComparisonandContrastBerlinNewYork:MoutondeGruyterFauconnier,GillesMentalSpacesCambridge,Mass:MITPressFauconnier,GillesandMarkTurner“MetonymyandConceptualIntegration”InRaddenGunterandKlausUvePantherMetonymyinLanguageandThounghtAmsterdamPhiladelphia:JohnBenjamins,ppGibbs,Raymond,Jr()ThePoeticsofMindFigurativeThought,LanguageandUnderstandingCambridge:CUPGibbs,RayandGerardSteenMetaphorinCognitiveLinguisticsAmsterdam:JohnBenjamins,GillesFauconnierandMarkTurnerGoatley,AndrewTheLanguageofMetaphorsLondonandNewYork:RoutledgeGoossensLouisMetaphtonymy:TheinteractionofmetaphorandmetonymyinexpressionsoflinguisticactionCognitiveLinguisticsI:–GoosensLouisMetaphtonymy:TheinteractionofmetaphorandmetonymyinexpressionsoflinguisticactionDirven,ReneandRalphPoringsedsMetaphorandMetonymyinComparisonandContrastBerlinNewYork:MoutondeGruyter,ppGoosensL,Pauwels,P,Ostyn,BR,Vandenbergen,AM,andJVanparysByWordofMouth:Metaphor,MetonymyandLinguisticActioninaCognitivePerspectiveAmsterdamPhiladelphia:JohnBenjaminsJohnson,MarkTheBodyintheMind:TheBodilyBasisofMeaning,ImaginationandReasonChicago:UniversityOfChicagoPressKövecses,ZoltanMetaphorsofAnger,PrideandLoveALexicalApproachtotheStudyofConceptsAmsterdam:JohnBenjaminsLakoff,GeorgeMetaphorsWeLiveByChicago:UniversityofChicagoPressLakoff,GeorgeWomen,FireandDangerousThingsWhatCategoriesRevealabouttheMindChicagoLondon:ChicagoUniversityPressLakoff,GeorgeTheContemporaryTheoryofMetaphorOrtony,AndrewedMetaphorandThoughtCambridge:CUPLakoff,GeorgeandClaudiaBrugmanArgumentformsinlexicalsemanticsBLS:Lakoff,GeorgeandMarkJohnsonMetaphorsWeLivebyChicagoLondon:ChicagoUniversityPressLakoff,GeorgeandMarkJohnsonPhilosophyintheFleshNewYork:TheBasicBooksLakoff,GeorgeandMarkTurnerMorethanCoolReason:AFieldGuidetoPoeticMetaphorChicagoandLondon:TheUniversityofChicagoPressLangacker,RonaldFoundationsofCognitiveGrammarVolumeTheoreticalprerequisites,Stanford,California:StanfordUniversityPressRaddenGunterandKlausUvePantherMetonymyinLanguageandThounghtAmsterdamPhiladelphia:JohnBenjamins,ppRadden,Gunter“HowMetonymicAreMetaphors”InDirven,ReneandRalphPorings()MetaphorandMetonymyinComparisonandContrastBerlinNewYork:MoutondeGruyter,ppRadden,GunterTheconceptualisationofemotionalcausalitybymeansofprepositionalphrasesInAthanasiadouAngelikiandElzbietaTabakovskaedsSpeakingofEmotions:ConceptualizationandExpressionBerlinNewYork:MoutondeGruyterRaddenGunterandZoltanKovecsesTowardsatheoryofmetonymyRadden,GunterandKlausPantheredsTheConceptualBasisofMetonymyAmsterdam:JohnBenjamins,RuizdeMendozaandOtalCampoRuizdeMendozaIbanez,FJandOtalCampo,JLMetonymy,GrammarandCommunicationGranada:EditorialComaresSperberDanandDeirdeWilsonRelevanceCommunicationandCognitionOxford:BasilBlackwellSweetser,Eve,FromEtymologytoPragmaticsMetaphoricalandCulturalAspectsofSemanticStructureCambridge:CambridgeUniversityPressTaylor,John,LinguisticCategorizationPrototypesinLinguisticTheoryOxford:ClarendonPressTaylor,JohnCognitiveGrammar:Oxford:OxfordUniversityPressTurner,MarkDeathIstheMotherofBeautyChicago:UniversityofChicagoPressTurner,MarkReadingMindsPrinceton,NJ:PrincetonUniversityPressTurner,MarkandGillesFauconnierMetaphor,MetonymyandBindingBarcelona,AedMetaphorandMetonymyattheCrossroadsBerlinNewYork:MoutondeGruyter,p
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