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首页 关于春节的英文介绍

关于春节的英文介绍.doc

关于春节的英文介绍

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2017-09-28 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《关于春节的英文介绍doc》,可适用于综合领域

关于春节的英文介绍TheSpringFestivalisthemostimportantfestivalfortheChinesepeopleandiswhenallfamilymembersgettogether,justlikeChristmasintheWestAllpeoplelivingawayfromhomegoback,becomingthebusiesttimefortransportationsystemsofabouthalfamonthfromtheSpringFestivalAirports,railwaystationsandlongdistancebusstationsarecrowdedwithhomereturneesTheSpringFestivalfallsonthestdayofthestlunarmonth,oftenonemonthlaterthantheGregoriancalendarItoriginatedintheShangDynasty(cBCcBC)fromthepeople'ssacrificetogodsandancestorsattheendofanoldyearandthebeginningofanewoneStrictlyspeaking,theSpringFestivalstartseveryyearintheearlydaysofthethlunarmonthandwilllasttillthemidstlunarmonthofthenextyearOfthem,themostimportantdaysareSpringFestivalEveandthefirstthreedaysTheChinesegovernmentnowstipulatespeoplehavesevendaysofffortheChineseLunarNewYearManycustomsaccompanytheSpringFestivalSomearestillfollowedtoday,butothershaveweakenedOnthethdayofthethlunarmonth,manyfamiliesmakelabaporridge,adeliciouskindofporridgemadewithglutinousrice,millet,seedsofJob'stears,jujubeberries,lotusseeds,beans,longanandgingkoTherddayofthethlunarmonthiscalledPreliminaryEveAtthistime,peopleoffersacrificetothekitchengodNowhowever,mostfamiliesmakedeliciousfoodtoenjoythemselvesAfterthePreliminaryEve,peoplebeginpreparingforthecomingNewYearThisiscalled"SeeingtheNewYearin"StoreownersarebusythenaseverybodygoesouttopurchasenecessitiesfortheNewYearMaterialsnotonlyincludeedibleoil,rice,flour,chicken,duck,fishandmeat,butalsofruit,candiesandkindsofnutsWhat'smore,variousdecorations,newclothesandshoesforthechildrenaswellasgiftsfortheelderly,friendsandrelatives,areallonthelistofpurchasingBeforetheNewYearcomes,thepeoplecompletelycleantheindoorsandoutdoorsoftheirhomesaswellastheirclothes,bedclothesandalltheirutensilsThenpeoplebegindecoratingtheircleanroomsfeaturinganatmosphereofrejoicingandfestivityAllthedoorpanelswillbepastedwithSpringFestivalcouplets,highlightingChinesecalligraphywithblackcharactersonredpaperThecontentvariesfromhouseowners'wishesforabrightfuturetogoodluckfortheNewYearAlso,picturesofthegodofdoorsandwealthwillbepostedonfrontdoorstowardoffevilspiritsandwelcomepeaceandabundancePeopleattachgreatimportancetoSpringFestivalEveAtthattime,allfamilymemberseatdinnertogetherThemealismoreluxuriousthanusualDishessuchaschicken,fishandbeancurdcannotbeexcluded,forinChinese,theirpronunciations,respectively"ji","yu"and"doufu,"meanauspiciousness,abundanceandrichnessAfterthedinner,thewholefamilywillsittogether,chattingandwatchingTVInrecentyears,theSpringFestivalpartybroadcastonChinaCentralTelevisionStation(CCTV)isessentialentertainmentfortheChinesebothathomeandabroadAccordingtocustom,eachfamilywillstayuptoseetheNewYearinWakinguponNewYear,everybodydressesupFirsttheyextendgreetingstotheirparentsTheneachchildwillgetmoneyasaNewYeargift,wrappedupinredpaperPeopleinnorthernChinawilleatjiaozi,ordumplings,forbreakfast,astheythink"jiaozi"insoundmeans"biddingfarewelltotheoldandusheringinthenew"Also,theshapeofthedumplingislikegoldingotfromancientChinaSopeopleeatthemandwishformoneyandtreasureSouthernChineseeatniangao(NewYearcakemadeofglutinousriceflour)onthisoccasion,becauseasahomophone,niangaomeans"higherandhigher,oneyearafteranother"ThefirstfivedaysaftertheSpringFestivalareagoodtimeforrelatives,friends,andclassmatesaswellascolleaguestoexchangegreetings,giftsandchatleisurelyBurningfireworkswasoncethemosttypicalcustomontheSpringFestivalPeoplethoughtthesplutteringsoundcouldhelpdriveawayevilspiritsHowever,suchanactivitywascompletelyorpartiallyforbiddeninbigcitiesoncethegovernmenttooksecurity,noiseandpollutionfactorsintoconsiderationAsareplacement,somebuytapeswithfirecrackersoundstolistento,somebreaklittleballoonstogetthesoundtoo,whileothersbuyfirecrackerhandicraftstohanginthelivingroomThelivelyatmospherenotonlyfillseveryhousehold,butpermeatestostreetsandlanesAseriesofactivitiessuchasliondancing,dragonlanterndancing,lanternfestivalsandtemplefairswillbeheldfordaysTheSpringFestivalthencomestoanendwhentheLanternFestivalisfinishedChinahasethnicgroupsMinoritiescelebratetheirSpringFestivalalmostthesamedayastheHanpeople,andtheyhavedifferentcustomsBuddhismisadharmicreligionandaphilosophyBuddhismisalsoknownasBuddhaDharmaorDhamma,whichmeansroughlythe"teachingsoftheAwakenedOne"inSanskritandPali,languagesofancientBuddhisttextsBuddhismwasfoundedaroundthefifthcenturyBCEbySiddharthaGautama,hereafterreferredtoas"theBuddha"OriginPrinceSiddharthaGautamaisbelievedbyBuddhiststohavebeenborninLumbiniandraisedinKapilavastunearthepresentdayIndianNepaleseborderAfterhisattainmentof"Awakening"(bodhipopularlycalled"Enlightenment"intheWest)attheageof,hewasknownasBuddhaorGautamaBuddhaHespentsomeyearsteachinghisinsights(Dharma)Accordingtoscholars,helivedaroundthefifthcenturyBCE,buthismoreexactbirthdateisopentodebateHediedaroundtheageofinKushinagara(India)BuddhismspreadthroughouttheIndiansubcontinentandintoneighboringcountries(suchasSriLanka)inthefivecenturiesfollowingtheBuddha'spassingItspreadfurtherintoAsiaandelsewhereoverthenexttwomillenniaDivisionsTheoriginalteachingsandmonasticorganizationestablishedbyBuddhacanbereferredtoaspresectarianBuddhism,butallthecurrentdivisionswithinBuddhismaretoomuchinfluencedbylaterhistorytowarrantinclusionunderthisnameThemostfrequentlyusedclassificationofpresentdayBuddhismamongscholarsdividespresentdayadherentsintothefollowingthreetraditionsorgeographicalorculturalareas:Theravada,EastAsianBuddhismandTibetanBuddhismAnalternativeschemeusedbysomescholarshastwodivisions,TheravadaandMahayana,withthelatterincludingthelasttwotraditionsaboveThisschemeisthatofordinaryusageintheEnglishlanguageSomescholarsuseotherschemesBuddhiststhemselveshaveavarietyofotherschemesBuddhismTodayIndianBuddhismhadbecomevirtuallyextinct,butisnowagaingainingstrengthBuddhismcontinuestoattractfollowersaroundtheworldandisconsideredamajorworldreligionWhileestimatesofthenumberofBuddhistfollowersrangefromtomillionworldwide,mostestimatesarearoundmillion,ormillionHowever,estimatesareuncertainforseveralcountriesAccordingtooneanalysis,BuddhismisthefifthlargestreligionintheworldbehindChristianity,Islam,Hinduism,andtraditionalChinesereligionThemonks'order(Sangha),whichbeganduringthelifetimeoftheBuddhainIndia,isamongsttheoldestorganizationsonearth|TaoismTaoism(orDaoism)istheEnglishnamereferringtoavarietyofrelatedChinesephilosophicaltraditionsandconceptsThesetraditionsinfluencedEastAsiaforovertwothousandyearsandsomehavespreadinternationallyTaoistproprietyandethicsemphasizetheThreeJewelsoftheTaonamely,compassion,moderation,andhumilityTaoistthoughtfocusesonwuwei("actionthatdoesnotinvolvestruggleorexcessiveeffort")spontaneity,humanism,andemptinessWuweiisoftenincorrectlytranslatedas("nonaction")andthiserrorhaspropagatedwidelyasaresultoftranslationsmadebyacademicswhoarenonpractisingTaoistsAnemphasisisplacedonthelinkbetweenpeopleandnatureTaoismteachesthatthislinklessenedtheneedforrulesandorder,andleadsonetoabetterunderstandingoftheworldTheChinesecharacter道,Tao(orDao,dependingontheromanisationscheme)means"path"or"way",butinChinesereligionandphilosophyithastakenonmoreabstractmeaningsTaoisrarelyanobjectofworship,beingtreatedmoreliketheIndianconceptsofatmananddharmaTheword"Taoism"isusedtotranslatedifferentChinesetermsDaojiaoTaochiao(道教"teachingsreligionoftheDao")referstoDaoismasareligionDaojiaTaochia(道家"schooloftheDao")referstothestudiesofscholars,or"philosophical"DaoismHowever,mostscholarshaveabandonedthedichotomyof"religious"and"philosophical"DaoismMosttraditionalChineseTaoistsarepolytheisticNatureandancestorspiritsarealsocommoninpopularTaoismOrganizedTaoismdistinguishesitsritualactivityfromthatofthefolkreligion,whichsomeprofessionalTaoists(Daoshi)viewasdebasedThissortofshamanismiseschewedforanemphasisoninternalalchemyamongthe"elite"TaoistsChinesealchemy,astrology,cuisine,severalChinesemartialarts,Chinesetraditionalmedicine,fengshui,andmanystylesofqigongbreathtrainingdisciplinesareintertwinedwithTaoismthroughouthistoryPrinciplesTaoisttheologyfocusesondoctrinesofwuwei("actionthatdoesnotinvolvestruggleorexcessiveeffort"),spontaneity,humanism,relativismandemptinessThisphilosophicalaspectofTaoismemphasizesvariousthemesfoundintheTaoTeChing(道德经)suchasnaturalness,vitality,peace,"yielding"(wuwei),emptiness(refinement),detachment,thestrengthofsoftness(orflexibility),andintheZhuangzisuchasreceptiveness,spontaneity,therelativismofhumanwaysoflife,waysofspeakingandguidingbehaviorTaoismisapeacefulreligionHistoryTaoism'soriginsmaybetracedtoprehistoricChinesereligionsinChinaTheyarefoundinthecompositionoftheTaoTeChing(rdorthcenturyBCE),oramidsttheactivityofZhangDaoling(ndcenturyAD)LaozireceivedimperialrecognitionasadivinityinthemidsecondcenturyCETaoismgainedofficialstatusinChinaduringtheTangDynasty,whoseemperorsclaimedLaoziastheirrelativeSeveralSongemperors,mostnotablyHuizong,wereactiveinpromotingTaoism,collectingTaoisttextsandpublishingeditionsoftheDaozangAspectsofConfucianism,Taoism,andBuddhismwereconsciouslysynthesisedintheNeoConfucianschool,whicheventuallybecameImperialorthodoxyforstatebureaucraticpurposesTheQingDynasty,however,muchfavoredConfucianclassicsandrejectedTaoistworksDuringtheeighteenthcentury,theimperiallibrarywasconstituted,butexcludedvirtuallyallTaoistbooksBythebeginningofthetwentiethcentury,Taoismhadfallensomuchfromfavor,thatonlyonecompletecopyoftheDaozangstillremained,attheWhiteCloudMonasteryinBeijingTaoismisoneoffivereligionsrecognisedbythePRC,whichinsistsoncontrollingitsactivitiesthroughastatebureaucracy(theChinaTaoistAssociation)

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