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首页 计算机硬件组成部分介绍(Introduction to computer hardware co…

计算机硬件组成部分介绍(Introduction to computer hardware components).doc

计算机硬件组成部分介绍(Introduction to com…

Missyoumy傻瓜
2018-12-19 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《计算机硬件组成部分介绍(Introduction to computer hardware components)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

计算机硬件组成部分介绍(Introductiontocomputerhardwarecomponents)计算机硬件组成部分介绍(Introductiontocomputerhardwarecomponents)Introductiontothehardwarecomponentsofthecomputer***********************************************************************************Thebasiccomponentsofacomputerhardwaresystem(fivemajorcomponents):ALU,controller,memory,inputdevice,andoutputdeviceTheprocessorandcontrollerarecollectivelyreferredtoasthecentralprocessingunit(CPU)Memoryisdividedintotwocategories:memoryandexternalmemoryTheinterfacesofCPU,memorystorageandconnectioninputandoutputdevicesarecollectivelyreferredtoashostcomputersThemicrocomputerhostisintegratedonthemainboardExternalmemory,inputdevicesandoutputdevicesarecollectivelyreferredtoasexternaldevicesCentralprocessingunit(CPU)Thecentralprocessorofthecomputer,alsoknownasCPU,isthecorepartofthecomputerItconsistsofAluandcontrollerAlu:acomponentthatperformsarithmeticandlogicoperationsController:computercommandsystemThecontrolleraccessesthememorythroughtheaddress,fetchesinstructionsfrommemorybythedecoderafteranalysis,accordingtotheanalysisresultsofthecorrespondingoperationinstructioncontrolsignaltotheotherparts,sothatallpartsofthecoordinationworkeverythingingoodorderandwellarrangedundercontrolofthecontrollerCommand:thecommandofcomputerforvariousoperationsInstructionsystem:acollectionofallinstructionsonacomputerFourbasicoperationsforexecutinganinstruction:MicroprocessorCPUisalsocalledmicroprocessor:奔腾奔腾奔腾…CPU的性能指标决定于时钟频率(主频)和字长。主频是指CPU的时钟频率。主频越高计算机的运算速度就越快。奔腾主频可达mhz以上奔腾则可达ghz、ghz。字长是指一个字的长度。字长越长数的表示范围越大运算精度越高且在相同时钟频率下运算速度就越快。微机字长经历了位四代变化位位位。计算机的存储机制存储器是计算机中用来存放所有数据和程序的记忆部件它的基本功能是按指定的地址存(写)入或者取(读)出信息。计算机中的存储器可分成两大类:一类是内存储器简称内存或主存另一类是外存储器(辅助存储器)简称外存或辅存。存储器由若干个存储单元组成每个存储单元都有一个地址计算机通过地址对存储单元进行读写。一个存储器所包含的字节数称为存储容量单位有B、KBMBGBTB等、、、。B=位(字节=位)KB=BMB=KBGB=MBTB=GB计算机的存储机制,内存内存:用来存放当前正在使用的或随时要用的程序或数据包括和RAMROM。Mainfeatures:fastaccess,smallcapacity,highpriceROM:readonlymemoryFeatures:canonlyread,cannotwriteafterpowerfailureinformationwillnotbelostMainlyusedtostoreafixedbasicinputandoutputprogramRAM:randomaccessmemoryFeatures:readableandwritable,butallinformationislostafterpowerfailureThesizeofmicrocomputermemorycapacity,generallyreferstothesizeofRAMAtpresent,thecommonmemoryconfigurationofmicrocomputerisMB,MB,MBorMBThecomputerdiskstoragemechanismStorage:usedtostoreortemporarilydonotneedtosavetheprogramordataWhenyouneedtousethediskoftheinformation,itmustbetransferredtotheRAMinCPUcanbeexecutedandprocessingMainfeatures:slowaccess,largecapacity,cheappriceMicrocomputermemoryingeneral:floppydisk,harddiskandcdFloppydiskmemory(floppydisk):composedoffloppydisk,floppydiskdriverandfloppydiskdrivecardMicrocomputersusuallyuseinchfloppydiskswithcapacityMBNote:thewriteprotectionportonthefloppydiskisthedeviceforsettingupthedataonthefloppydiskFloppydiskstorageinformationisstoredbytracksandsectororganizationsThetracksareconcentriccircleswithdifferentperimeter,buttheystorethesameamountofdataEachtrackisdividedintosectors,eachofwhichcanstoreseveralbytesThenumberofsectorsandbytesaredeterminedbytheformatterFormatting:dividingtracksandsectorsofthediskandwritingaddresslabelsforeachsectorTheformatteddiskgeneratesfourzones:boot,fileallocation,filedirectory,anddataWriteprotectiongap:controlfloppydiskreadandwriteoperationCapacitycalculationoffloppydisk:bytenumberpersectornumberpersectorpertrack*tracknumberperfacexnumberHarddiskstorage(referredtoasharddisk):composedofharddiskandharddiskdriveTheharddiskorganizesstorageinformationintheformofcylinder,headnumber,andareacodeThecylinderconsistsofaconcentriccylinderformedbythesametrackofasetofdisksinthelongitudinaldirection,andeachtrackandsectoronthecylinderaredividedintothesamediskTheharddiskisenclosedinametalbody,andthepositionofthedataontheharddiskisdeterminedbythreeparameters:thecylindernumber,theheadnumberandthesectornumberTherearemanykindsofharddisksusedbymicrocomputers,suchasGB,G,G,G,G,G,G,G,etcOpticaldiskstorage:composedofopticaldiskandopticaldiskdriverAtpresent,therearethreemaintypesofCDROM:CDROM(CDROM),compactdiscwriteonceandrewritableopticaldiscinchCDROMcapacityMB~GBComputerinputdeviceAninputdeviceisadevicethatinputsinformation(programs,data,sound,text,graphics,images,etc)intoacomputerAcommoninputdevices:computerkeyboardandmouse,graphicsscanner,barcodeinputdevice,touchscreen,lightpenetcExternalmemoryisalsoaninputdeviceillustrationkeyboardAccordingtothestructureofthemousecanbedividedinto:mechanicalandelectricalandphotoelectricmouseComputeroutputdeviceTheoutputequipmentofthecomputerismainlydisplay,printerandplotterExternalmemoryisalsoanoutputdeviceThedisplayhasaCRTdisplay,liquidcrystaldisplayandplasmadisplayetc,anddividedintoinch,inch,inch,inchflatThecontentofthedisplayiscomposedofpixels,thepixelsumisresolutionthecommonhighresolutionis:***thehighertheresolution,thebettertheclarityDisplayandhostinterfaceforvideocards,commongraphicscardshaveVGA,SVGAandsoonThenumberofsupportedcolorgraphicscolorisanimportantindexofgraphics,mainlydependsonthememorysizeofRAMWitharesolutionofxpixels,eachrequiredtodisplaycolors,isknownfrom=perpixelcoloroccupybit,atotalof**=BmemoryCommonprintersare:stylusprinters,laserprintersandinkjetprintersOthercomponentsofthecomputerMotherboard:thecomputerusesa"blocktype"architecture,themotherboardisaprintedcircuitboard,thereareanumberofrectangularslot,CPU,memory,graphicscards,multifunctioncards,etccanbeinsertedonthemotherboardThemultifunctioncardhasaserialport(usedtoconnectthemouse)andaparallelport(usedtoconnectprintersandotherperipherals)Inaddition,theSoundBlastercard,modemwillalsobeonthemotherboardInterface:theinputoutputinterfacecircuitisanessentialpartoftheinformationconversionbetweenthemicroprocessorandtheexternaldeviceandthebufferfunctionThebus(BUS)isacommonsignallinebetweenthecomponentsofamicrocomputerItisacommonchannelfortransmittingdataandinformationinthecomputerAccordingtothedifferenceofthetransmittedinformation,Thebusisdividedintoaddressbus(AB),databus(DB)andcontrolbus(CB)

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