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首页 Home range size and habitat use of the red fox V…

Home range size and habitat use of the red fox Vulpes vulpes L.doc

Home range size and habitat use…

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2018-04-29 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《Home range size and habitat use of the red fox Vulpes vulpes Ldoc》,可适用于社会民生领域

HomerangesizeandhabitatuseoftheredfoxVulpesvulpesLAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyFinalReporttotheNationalFeralAnimalControlProgramAreportfromDeakinUniversityandtheDandenongCreekValleyCoordinatedFoxControlCommitteePreparedbyDrJohnWhite(SchoolofEcologyandEnvironment,DeakinUniversity)AnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyObjectivesofprojectThemainobjectiveofthisprojectwastodetermineifhabitatmanipulationhasthepotentialtobeusedasaviablefoxcontrolstrategyinagrourbanenvironmentsThismethodofcontrolwasproposedbecausecontroloptionsarelimitedattheurbanagriculturalinterfaceduetorisksassociatedwiththeuseofpoisonsBroadly,theprojectaimedtodetermineiftherewereanyresourcesinthesystemthatwereselectedorfavouredbyfoxesthatcouldbemanipulatedandconvertedtoalessfavouredstateTodeterminethisweneededto:,Characterisetheseasonaldietoffoxesinthisenvironmentanddetermineifanyfoodresourcescouldbemanipulated,Characterisethehomerangesizeandhabitatuseoffoxesinthisenvironmenttodetegroupedintoeightmaincategories:mammalremains,bones,invertebrates,feathers,blackberry,seeds,vegetationandunidentifiableitemsAnestimateoftheamountofeachiteminthescatwasrecorded(tothenearestofcomposition)foreachcategoryAnyhairpresentinthescatwasidentifiedunderamicroscopeusingthetechniquesofwholemountandcrosssectionasperBrunnerandComan()DataanalysisTodetermineiffoxeswereshowingpreferencetoparticularhabitatsintheirhomerange,Johnson’s()rankbasedpreferencetechniquewasusedTheproportionaluseofhabitatsbothduringthedayandatnightwerecomparedtotheproportionalavailabilityofhabitatsintheanimal’shomeFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyrange,describedbyJohnson()asthirdorderselectionTheanalysiswasconductedusingPrefer(PankratzandSchwartz,)WheresignificantdifferencesoccurredbetweenavailabilityanduseofhabitatstheWallerandDuncan()methodwasusedtodeterminethenatureofthesedifferencesFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyResultsHomerangeandhabitatuseTherangingbehaviouroffoxeswasdeterminedfromnineindividualsThisinvolvedindependenttelemetrylocations,atanaverageof(meanSE)fixesperfox(table)Themeanhomerangesizeoffoxesinthisstudywasha(meanSE)whenusingtheminimumconvexpolygonHomerangeanalysisusingtheharmonicmeanisoplethsuggesttheaveragehomerangesizemaybeassmallasha(meanSE)Thecorecomponentofthehomerange(HM),representingtheareamostutilized,wasonlyha(meanSE)(Table)TableHomerangeestimatesforallfoxesEstimatesarederivedfromtheminimumconvexpolygonmethod(MCP)andtheharmonicmeanmethod(HM)at,andutilisationisoplethsNumberoflocationsDurationHomerangeestimates(ha)FoxDiurnalNocturnal(Days)MCPHMHMHMFFFMMMMMMMeanSEFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyTheavailabilityofdifferenthabitattypeswithinthehomerangeoffoxesdifferedsignificantly(F=,p<),withareasofshortmanaged(,)grassbeingbyfarthemostabundanthabitattype(ofhomerange(meanSE))Areasofblackberrygorse,longgrassandreeds,anddensenativevegetationwereallequallyavailablewithintheanimals’homeranges,allbeit,atloweramountsthanareasofshortmanagedgrass(SNKp>)(Figure)ProportionofhabitatBlackberrygorseDensenativevegLonggrassreedsPaddockshortgrassHabitattypeFigureTheproportionofeachhabitattypeavailableinthefoxeshomerange()comparedwiththenocturnaluse()andthediurnalusage()ErrorbarsrepresentmeanstandarderrorInordertodeterminehabitatpreferenceoffoxeswithintheirhomerangetheuseofparticularhabitatswascomparedtotheavailabilityofhabitatsDuringFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategythenightfoxesexhibitednothirdorderselectionofhabitatswithintheirhomerange(F=,p>),suggestingthatnocturnalhabitatuseisrandom(,)(figure)Duringthedayhowever,foxesexhibitedsignificantpreferenceforhabitatswithintheirhomerange(F=,p<)Foxesexhibiteda(,)significantpreferenceforblackberryandgorseoverallotherhabitattypesduringtheday,withtheleastfavouredhabitatbeingpaddockorareasofshortgrass(figuretable)TableRankingmatrixfordiurnalhabitatselectionbyfoxes,comparingproportionsofradiolocationsofeachanimalineachhabitatwiththeproportionofeachhabitatavailableintheharmonicmeanhomerangeofeachanimalBlackberryorDensenativeLonggrassPaddockorRankGorseVegetationorreedsshortgrassBlackberryorGorseDensenativeNS=VegetationLonggrassNS=orreedsPaddockorshortgrassThesignshowswhetherthehabitatplacedinthecorrespondingrowwasmoreorless(signor)importantthanthecorrespondingcolumnAsinglesignrepresentsasignificantdeviationfromrandomatp<andadoublesignrepresentsasignificantdeviationfromrandomatp<,differencesarebasedontheWallerandDuncan()multiplecomparisonprocedureHabitatswererankedaccordingtotheirimportancefromone(theleastimportanthabitat)tothree(themostimportant)Whentheproportionofhabitatsinthehomerangewascomparedtotheproportionofhabitatsavailableinthecoreareas(HR),asignificantFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategychangeincompositionoccurred(F=,p<)Theresulting(,)changeincompositionindicatedblackberryandgorsebecamemoreprevalentinthecoreareasandpaddocksandshortgrassyhabitatsbecamelessprevalentinthecoreareas(Figure)TheseresultsareallsuggestingthatblackberryandgorseareprovidingcriticalresourcestofoxesinthisstudyThisisprobablyhighlightedmorebytheirpreferenceforthesehabitatsduringthedayABBbetweenHRandHRPercentchangeincompositionCBlackberrygorseDensenativevegLonggrassreedsPaddockshortgrassHabitattypeFigurePercentchange(meanSE)ofdifferenthabitatcomponentsbetweentheharmonicmeanhomerangeandtheharmonicmeanhomerange(core)ValuesgreaterthanzeroindicateandincreaseinthatcomponentinthehomerangewhencomparedtothehomerangeLettersassociatedwitherrorbarsindicatehomologoussubgroupsasrevealedbytheStudentNewmanKeulstest(α=)FinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyDietarystudiesAtotaloffoxscatswerecollectedandanalysedacrossfourseasonsfromallfivesitesThenumberofscatscollectedvariedaccordingtoseason(F=,p=)withsignificantlymorescatsoccurringinsummerand(,)autumnthaninwinterandspring(SNKp<)TheproportionofeachbroaddietarycategorywascomparedacrossseasonstodetermineiftherewereanydifferencesTheproportionofmammalianpreyinthedietdidnotdiffersignificantlybetweenseasons(F=,p=)(,)andcontributedtoofthefoxdietAnonsignificanttrenddoessuggestthatmammalsmaybemoreimportantinthedietduringthewinterandspring(figure)Fivemammalianspeciescontributedtothepresenceofmammalsinthediet:brushtailpossum,ringtailpossum,Europeanrabbit,blackrat,housemouseandthesugargliderWhileitwasnotpossibletodeterminetherelativecontributionofthesespeciestotheoveralldietofthefoxes,itwaspossibletodeterminewhatspeciesofmammalwereinscatswithmammalianhairpresent(n=)Theringtailpossum,blackrat,rabbitandbrushtailpossumwerethemostcommonlyencounteredmammalsinthescatsoffoxes(Table)NosignificanttrendsoccurredinthepresenceofthesespeciesacrossseasonsThebrushtailpossum,however,didappeartobemorecommonduringthespring,whenpopulationdensitiesarelikelytobeattheirhighestTheblackratalsoappearedtobemorecommoninthedietduringtheautumnandwinterThisperiodoftimewouldalsobewhenthepopulationisatitshighestwiththeinfluxofjuvenilesintothepopulationafterthespringandsummerbreedingFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyBonefragmentscontributedtoofthedietItisnotpossibletodeterminetheoriginofthesefragments,butitislikelythatagreatdealofthesefragmentsweretheresultofscavengingdiscardedfoodscrapsastherewasoftennohairinthescatsTheproportionofbonefragmentsinthedietdidnotdiffersignificantlybetweenseasons(F=,p=)(figure)(,)Birdremainscontributedtooftheannualdietanddidnotdiffersignificantlyacrossseasons(F=,p=)(figure)Itwasnot(,)possibletodeterminewhichspeciesofbirdshadbeenconsumedInvertebratescontributedasignificantamounttotheannualdiet()Theproportionofinsectsinthedietdifferedsignificantlyacrossseasons(F=,p=),withmoreoccurringinthespringdietthaninthe(,)winterdiet(SNKp<)(figure),thisperiodoftimealsocoincideswiththeperiodwhereinsectdensitiesareattheirhighestTheproportionofblackberryseedsinthedietdifferedwithseason(F=,p<)Blackberryseedswereabsentfromthedietin(,)winterandspring,butcontributedsignificantlytothesummerautumndiet(figure)AsblackberriesareonlyavailableforaperiodofthreetofourmonthsoftheyeartheyappeartobeaveryimportantfoodsourcewhentheyareavailableFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyOtherseedswhilecontributingafairlysmallamounttothediet()differedsignificantlybetweenseasons(F=,p=)Seedsweremore(,)commoninthesummerdietthanthewinterandspringdiet(SNKp<)(figure)Theseseedsaremainlyassociatedwithanimalseatingplums,applesandpears,allofwhicharegrownintheareaAsignificantamountofunidentifiedvegetationalsooccurredinthediet()Theproportiondidnotdiffersignificantlybetweenseasons(F=,(,)p=)(figure)PercentofdietInvertebrateSeedsBonesMammalBlackberryVegetationBirdDietaryitemFigureSeasonaldietarycompositionoffoxesintheDandenongcreekvalley=Autumn,,=Winter,=Spring,=SummerErrorbarsrepresentthemean(SE)percentageofeachiteminthedietFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyTablePercentagepresenceofmammalianhairinscatsbyseasonAllvaluesarethepercentageofscatscontainingmammalianhairValuesarenotindependentasthesamescatcancontainremainsofmorethanonespeciesSeasontotalTotalNoSpeciesAutumnWinterSpringSummerforyearofscatsRingtailpossumBrushtailpossumSugargliderBlackratHousemouseRabbitFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyDiscussionThisprojecthasbeensuccessfulinprovidingbaselinedataontheuseofhabitatsbyfoxesintheurbanagrointerfaceThistypeofinformationhasnotbeenpreviouslyprovidedinAustralia,withmostfoxhabitatuseresultsconcentratingmoreonhomerangesizebasedonnocturnaldatathanexclusivelytargetingdataontheuseofspecifichabitats(egSaundersetal)Thehomerangesizesreportedinthisstudy(habyMCPmethod)areverysmallincomparisontomostreportedstudiesoffoxhomerangesizeinAustraliaComanetal,reportedhomerangesizesintheorderofhectaresinsuburbanareas,andhectaresinagriculturalareasofVictoriaHomerangeestimatesfromSaundersetalinagriculturalareasofNSWwereapproximatelyhectaresWhyarethehomerangesofthefoxesinthisstudysosmallTheanswerprobablyliesintheavailabilityofresourcesinthesystemthisstudywasconductedinThereisanestablishedrelationshipbetweenhomerangesizeandresourceavailabilityformanyspecies,withhomerangesizedecreasingasresourcesavailabilityinanareaincrease(egDamuth,FridellandLitvaitis,HarestadandBunnell,)WeproposethattheincrediblysmallhomerangesofanimalsinthisstudyaretheresultofextremelyhighresourceloadsintheenvironmentAfurtherrelationshipexistsbetweenhomerangesizeandthedensityofanimalsAshomerangesizedecreasesthecarryingcapacityofanareaincreasesThisrelationshipwouldhelptoexplainwhyfoxdensitiesaresohighinurbanfringeareas,giventhesmallhomerangesizesOverall,theFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyhighfoxdensitiesintheurbanfringeenvironmentsaretheresultofoverabundantresources,withtheresourcesthataregenerallyattributedtochangesinhomerangesizebeingfoodandshelterTheuseofhabitatatnightsuggeststhatfoxesutilisetheirhabitatatrandomandthereforenocturnalhabitatuseprovidesuswithfewopportunitiesforthedevelopmentofahabitatmanipulationstrategyforfoxesThehabitatuseduringtheday,however,isfarmorerevealingFoxesduringthedayareshowingastrongpreferencetopatchesofblackberryorgorseoverallotherhabitattypesThissuggeststhattheresourceofdensestructurefor‘safe’diurnalrestingsitesmaybeinvolvedinlimitingfoxpopulationsThedietaryresultsfromthisstudy,likethenocturnalhabitatusedata,suggestverylittleasfarasthedevelopmentofamanagementstrategyforfoxesThefoxdietishighlyvariablethroughouttheyearandiscomposedofmanydifferentfooditemsMostofthesefooditemsappeartobeusedattimeswhenyouwouldexpecttheseitemstobemostabundantintheenvironment(egblackratsmorecommoninautumnandwinterandblackberrymorecommoninsummerandautumn)Overall,thedietdatasuggeststhatfoxestakeadvantageofallfoodresourcesastheybecomeavailableTheseresultsprovideuswithagreatdealofinformationtogenerateapotentialmanagementstrategyforfoxesinurbanfringeareasFoxesmakestrongandactiveselectionofspecifichabitattypesfordiurnalrestingareasThesehabitatsarecomprisedoftwoweedspecies(blackberryandgorse)FinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyTheavailabilityofthesetwospeciesofplantcouldbereduceddramaticallybygoodlandmanagementpracticesEffectivelyahabitatmanipulationstrategyforfoxcontrolcouldbedevelopedonthebasisofremovingblackberryandgorseWhateffectwouldtheremovalofblackberryandgorsehaveonfoxdensitiesItismostlikelythatremovalofthesespecieswouldhaveasignificanteffectontheavailabilityofsafediurnalrestingresourcesAreductionofsucharesourcewouldforceanimalstoincreasetheirhomerangesizestoincludediurnalrestinghabitatsThisinturnshouldreducethedensityoffoxesintheseareasduetoincreasedcompetitionforadepletedresourceIfthesehabitatsarealmostcompletelyremovedwewouldexpecttoseeasignificantreductioninthedensityoffoxesthatcanbemaintainedintheseareasThisprocesshasbeendescribedasapopulationfollowinganegativefeedbackloop(CaughleyandSinclair,)Thisisalsotheattractiveaspectofhabitatmanipulation,aswecanexpectthepopulationtomaintainitselfatthislowereddensityiftheresourceismaintainedatlowlevelsThisisconceptuallydifferenttomortalitybasedcontrolstrategieswherethepopulation,oncereducedindensity,iscontinuallytryingtoreboundtowardsthedensitythattheresourcesinthesystemaredictatingDevelopingsuchastrategybasedontheremovalofblackberryandgorsehasanumberofadvantagesItallowsustointegratepestandweedmanagementintoonestrategythatencouragesgoodlandusepracticesRemovalofthesetypesofhabitatshouldalsohaveflowoneffectsforotherFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategypestspeciessuchasrabbitsandtheblackrat,bothofwhichutiliseblackberryandgorseReductioninthetwospeciesandtheabsenceofblackberryasasummerautumnfoodresourceshouldfurtherenhanceanydensityreductionassociatedwiththeremovalofthesehabitatsIfthedensityoffoxesisassociatedwiththeavailabilityofpatchesofdensestructuralvegetationitishighlylikelythatthisstrategycouldbecarriedtomanyagriculturalareasOtherthanblackberryandgorsewhicharewidelyspreadinsouthernAustralia,plantssuchasboxthornandlantanamayalsobecapableofprovidingasimilarresourceinotherareasHencethisstrategymaybetransferabletoothersitesIntegratingthisstrategywithcurrentbaitingprogramsshouldhavelargelongtermeffectsonfoxdensitiesinmanyagriculturalareasTheseresultswhilerepresentingverystrongrelationshipsshouldbeviewedwithalittlecareOftheanimalsthatwerecollaredwewereonlyabletogetenoughradiolocationsforanimalsThisisonlyasmallsampleanditmaybebeneficialtogetinformationonmoreanimalsacrossavarietyoflandtenuresTogetthisinformationitwillprobablybeworthinvestigatingsatellitetrackingasanalternativemethodofdatacollectionWheretofromhereTheDandenongCreekValleyCoordinatedFoxControlCommitteeisdedicatedtoreducingfoxdensitiesintheareaThisresearchhasprovidedvaluableinformationfromwhichtodevelopamanagementstrategyRemovalofblackberryandgorseisnowbeingviewedandencouragedasastrategyforFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategycontrollingfoxesThecommitteeiscurrentlydevelopingbrochuresonthisstrategyandthemediaarebeingapproachedtogetthisinformationtothepublicWearealsocontinuingtopresentseminarstolocalcommunitygroupstoencourageuptakeofthestrategyOurmainfocusnowisuptakeanddevelopingalongtermmonitoringstrategyAcknowledgementsWewouldliketothankanumberofindividualsandorganisationsfortheirparticipationin,andsupportofthisstudyFirstly,allthemembersoftheDandenongCreekValleyCoordinatedFoxControlCommitteefortheirpassionenthusiasmandsupportofthecurrentprojectThenumerousstudentsofDeakinUniversitythathaveworkedonthisproject,particularlyRobGubiani,KellySnell,NathalieSmallman,DaveTaggandAnneMortonWearealsoextremelygratefultotheNationalFeralAnimalControlProgramfrogenerousfinancialsupportofthisprojectMostofthisresearchcouldnothavebeenconductedwithoutthesupportoftheNFACPFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyReferencesAebischer,NJ,Robertson,PAandKenward,RE()CompositionalanalysisofhabitatusefromanimalradiotrackingdataEcology,Boulanger,JGandWhite,GC()AcomparisonofhomerangeestimatorsusingMonteCarlosimulationJournalofWildlifeManagement,Brunner,HandComan,BJ()TheIdentificationofMammalianHair(InkataPress:Melbourne)Brunner,HandWallis,RL()RolesofpredatorscatanalysisinAustralianmammalresearchTheVictorianNaturalist,Burbidge,AAandMcKenzie,NL()PatternsinthemoderndeclineofWesternAustralia’svertebratefauna:causesandconservationimplicationsBiologicalConservation,Catling,PCandBurt,RJ()WhyareRedFoxesabsentfromsomeEucalyptforestsineasternNewSouthWalesWildlifeResearch,Caughley,GandSinclair,ARE()WildlifeecologyandmanagementBlackwellSciences,Cambridge,Massachusetts,USAFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyComan,BJ,Robinson,JandBeaumont,C()Homerange,dispersalanddensityofRedFoxes(VulpesvulpesL)inCentralVictoriaWildlifeResearch,Damuth,J()Homerange,homerangeoverlap,andspeciesenergyuseamongherbivorousmammalsBiologicalJournaloftheLinneanSociety,Fridell,RAandLitvaitis,JA()InfluenceofresourcedistributionandabundanceonhomerangecharacteristicsofsouthernflyingsquirrelsCanadianJournalofZoology,Harestad,ASandBunnell,FL()Homerangeandbodyweight–areevaluationEcology,Harris,S()Anestimationofthenumberoffoxes(VulpesvulpesL)intheCityofBristol,andsomepossiblefactorsaffectingtheirdistributionJournalofAppliedEcology,,Harris,S,Cresswell,WJ,Forde,PG,Trewella,WJ,Woollard,TandWray,S()Homerangeanalysisusingradiotrackingdata–areviewofproblemsandtechniquesparticularlyasappliedtothestudyofmammalsMammalReview,FinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyJarman,P()‘TheRedFox–anexoticlargepredatorInTheEcologyofExoticAnimalsandPlants:someAustraliancasestudiesEdRLKitchingpp(JohnWileyandSons:Brisbane)Johnson,DH()ThecomparisonofusageandavailabilitymeasurementsforevaluatingresourcepreferenceEcology,Marks,CAandBloomfield,TE()Distributionanddensityestimatesforurbanfoxes(Vulpesvulpes)inMelbourne:implicationsforrabiescontrolWildlifeResearch,Mohr,CO()TableofequivalentpopulationsofnorthAmericalsmallmammalsAmericanMidlandNaturalist,Morton,SR()TheimpactofEuropeansettlementonthevertebrateanimalsofaridAustralia:aconceptualmodelProceedingsoftheEcologicalSocietyofAustralia,Prankratz,CandSchwartz,M()Prefer:PreferenceAssessmentNorthernPrairieScienceCenter,Jamestown,NorhtDakota,USARolls,EC()TheyAllRanWild(AngusandRobertson:Sydney)Sallee,K()BiotasEcologicalSoftwareSolutions,Sacramento,USAFinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategySaunders,G,McIlroy,J,Berghout,M,Kay,B,Gifford,E,Perry,RandVandeVen,R()TheeffectsofinducedsterilityontheterritorialbehaviourandsurvivaloffoxesJournalofAppliedEcology,Seebeck,JH()MammalsintheMelbourneMetropolitanAreaTheVictorianNaturalist,Southwood,TRE()EcologicalMethods:withparticularreferencetothestudyofinsectpopulationsChapmanandHall,LondonSullivan,TP,Sullivan,DS,Hogue,RAandWagner,RG()Populationdynamicsofsmallmammalsinrelationtovegetationmanagementinorchardagroecosystems:compensatoryresponsesinabundanceandbiomassCropProtection,Swihart,RKandSlade,NA()TestingforindependenceofobservationsofanimalmovementsEcology,Triggs,B()Tracks,ScatsandOtherTraces:afieldguidetoAustralianmammals(OxfordUniversityPress:Melbourne)Waller,RAandDuncan,DB()ABaylesruleforthesymmetricmultiplecomparisonsproblemJournaloftheAmericanStatisticalAssociation,FinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyWhite,J,HorskinsKandWilson,J()ThecontrolofrodentdamageinAustralianmacadamiaorchardsbymanipulationofadjacentnoncrophabitatsCropProtection,White,J,Wilson,JandHorskins,K()TheroleofadjacenthabitatsinrodentdamagelevelsinAustralianmacadamiaorchardsystemsCropProtection,FinalreporttotheNFACPPageAnassessmentofhabitatmanipulationasafoxcontrolstrategyAttachmentsAttachmentBudgetstatementforNFACPgrantAttachmentCopyofpaperintheVictorianNaturalistFinalreporttotheNFACPPag
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Home range size and habitat use of the red fox Vulpes vulpes L

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