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首页 美国文学整理

美国文学整理.doc

美国文学整理

xiang众伟
2017-09-20 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《美国文学整理doc》,可适用于综合领域

ChapterI TheColonialPeriodAndthCenturyLiteratureofPuritanismI  HistoryBackground⏹EarlysettlementinAmerica,theearlysettlers⏹Puritansandpuritanism⏹FeaturesofAmericanpuritanism⏹StrugglesbetweentheAmericanIndiansandthesettlers,thefalloftheAmericanIndiantribes⏹Puritanismexertedgreatinfluenceintheintellectualandeconomiclifeofthesettlers⏹ConflictsandbattlesbetweentheEuropeancolonists  Puritansandpuritanism⏹PuritanswasthenamegiveninthethcenturytothemoreextremeProtestantswithintheChurchofEnglandwhothoughttheEnglishReformationhadnotgonefarenoughinreformingthedoctrinesandstructureofthechurchTheywantedtopurifytheirnationalchurchbyeliminatingeveryshredofCatholicinfluenceInthethcenturymanyPuritansemigratedtotheNewWorld,wheretheysoughttofoundaholyCommonwealthinNewEnglandPuritanismremainedthedominantculturalforceinthatareaintothethcenturyPuritansbelievedthathumanbeingswerepredestinedbyGodbeforetheywerebornSomewereGod'schosenpeople(God'select)whileotherswerepredestinedtobedamnedtohellThesuccessofone'sndrepresentedbyEzraPound,AmyLowell,andothers,aimingatclarityofexpressionthroughtheuseofprecisevisualimagesThedevelopmentofimagistmovement()In,itfirstbeganinLondon,TEHulmefoundeditandtheorizedthepoetictechniques()  From,EzraPoundtookitoverinAmerica,andlaiddownthethreeImagistpoeticprinciples()  From,AmyLowelltookitoverandpusheditinto“Amygism”,expandedthepoeticprinciplesintosixThethreeimagistpoeticprinciples()Directtreatmentofthe“thing,”whethersubjectiveorobjective()  Touseabsolutelynowordthatdoesnotcontributetothepresentation()  Asregardingrhythm,composeinthesequenceofthemusicalphrase,notinthesequenceofametronomeSomerepresentativeimagistpoetsandpoems()HD’s“Oread”()WilliamCarlosWilliams’ “TheRedWheelbarrow”()CarlSandburg’s“Fog”EzraPound()HislifeHisworks:  Cathay《华夏》《神州集》()collectionofChinesetranslations  Cantos《诗章》()themodernepic,Pound’s“intellectualdiarysince” HughSelwynMauberley《休·赛尔温·莫伯利》() Toappreciate“InAStationOfTheMetro”withthetheoriesofImagistpoetryEzraPound’sLife(EzraLoomisPoundwasborninHailey,IdahoinbutspenthisformativeyearsinWyancote,Pennsylvania,wherehisfatherwasanassayertotheUnitedStatesMintHestudiedattheUniversityofPennsylvaniafortwoyearsthentransferredtoHamiltoncollege,receivingadegreein  (AfterteachingRomanceLanguagesatWabashCollegeinIndianafortwoyears,heresignedandtravelledtoSpain,ItalyandEngland,where,astheliteraryexecutorofthescholarErnestFenellosa,hebecameinterestedinthepoetryoftheChineseandJapaneseEzraPoundfoundedtheImagistmovementinpoetry,whichencouragedexperimentingwithdifferentverseforms,andopposedrepresentationalartinfavorofabstractforms(EzramarriedtheartistDorothyShakespearinandinbeganalifelongrelationshipwithviolinistOlgaRudgeInhemovedtoItalyandbecameinvolvedinFascistpolitics,anddidnotreturntotheUnitedStatesuntil,whenhewasarrestedforbroadcastingfacsictpropagandaviaradiototheUnitedStatesduringWWII,onchargesoftreason  In,hewasacquitted,deemedunfitfortrial,anddeclaredinsaneHewascommittedtoStElizabeth'sHospitalinWashington,DCAftermanylettersandappealsfromfriendsandwriters,includingRobertFrost,EzrawonhisreleasefromthehospitalinHesoonreturnedtoVenice,wherehedied,arecluse,inInAStationOfTheMetro(Theapparitionofthesefacesinthecrowd(Petalsonawet,blackbough地鐵車站人群中這些面孔幽靈般顯現濕漉漉的黑枝條上朵朵花瓣。Appreciateof“InAStationOfTheMetro”objects:thefacesinthedimanddampcontextimage:flowerpetalsonawet,blackboughThedictioninthepoemisconcise,directanddefinite,andthereisnotraditionalrhymeorrhythminthispoem,whileitstillsoundsmusicalEdwinArlingtonRobinson()wonthreePulitzerPrizesMajorpoetry  TorrentandtheNightBefore()《急流与昨夜》  ChildrenoftheNight()  CaptinCraigandOtherPoems())  TheTownDowntheRiver()《河下游的城镇》(dedicatedtoRoosevelt,included“MiniverCheevy”)“RichardCory”“MrFlood’sParty”《弗罗德先生的酒会》Poeticfeatures理查·珂利每当理查珂利走进闹市我们街上的人两眼瞪圆:他从头到脚是地道的绅士潇洒纤瘦风度翩翩。 他衣着永远淡雅素净他谈吐永远文质彬彬当他向人问好人们不禁怦然心动他走路光彩照人。他有钱是呵富比王侯令人钦佩地读遍各种学问总而言之他总是无所不有谁都盼望能有他的福分。 我们苦干等着福光降临整月没肉吃面包讨人嫌而理查珂利在宁静的夏夜回家朝自己脑袋放一颗子弹。AppreciationThepoemiscomposedoffourquatrains,inwhichtheminiatureportraitofRichardCoryisdepicted:agentleman,richandhuman,whoseemstohavethebestthingsintheworldButonenight,heputanendtohislifeReadersareleftaskingwhy,andRobinsondoesnotgiveananswerItisRobinson’sbestknownstatementonthehollownessofconventionalsuccessItrevealsthethemeof“failure”–thesuccessofmaterialpossessioncannotsatisfyanobleheartPoeticFeatures RobinsonwasapoetoftransitionTheearlythcenturysawAmericanpoetryexperimentingwithnewformsandcontentHewasnotedformasteryofconventionalformsHelovedthetraditionalsonnetandquatrainandheofternusedtheoldfashionedlanguageofromanticpoetryButhispoetryoftenfocusedonthemodernproblemsHeusedthetraditionalformstoexpressthemodernfearsanduncertaintyinhisowneraHispoetryincludessuchtypicalelementsascharacterization,indirectandallusivenarration,contemporarysetting,psychologicalrealismandinterestinexploringthetanglesofhumanfeelingsandrelationshipsRobertFrost()Honorsprizes –anunofficialPoetLaureate wonPulitzerPrizefourtimesMajorcollectionsofpoems(NorthofBoston《波士顿以北》       ( MendingWall《补墙》(MountainInterval《山间》(  TheRoadNotTaken《未选择的路》(NewHampshire《新罕布什尔》(  FireandIce《火与冰》(  StoppingbyWoodsonaSnowyEvening《雪夜林边小立》(WestRunningBrook 《西流溪》(AFurtherRange《又一片山脉》(  Design《设计》(acollectionof“darkpoems”)(AWitnessTree 《见证树》Poeticfeatures(FrostisamodernpoetfollowingthetraditionalmodesofpoetryMostofhispoetryisnaturepoetryIthasasurfacesmoothnessandsimplicityThen,suddenly,thesurfacebreaksunderourfeet,likeiceonapondFrostwrotehispoemsintraditionalrhymesandmetricalformslikeblankverseManyofhispoemsaredramaticnarrativesandcanbeappreciated,likeprosefiction,fortheircharacterizationsandplotdevelopmentHispoemsarefreeoftheornate,poeticdictionwhichwassocommoninthethcpoetry,andoneofhismostimpressiveachievementswashisabilitytocombinecolloquialspeechpatternswithtraditionalverseformsAccordingtoFrost,agoodpoem“beginsindelightandendsinwisdom”未选择的路黄色的树林里分出两条路可惜我不能同时去涉足我在那路口久久伫立我向着一条路极目望去直到它消失在丛林深处。但我却选了另外一条路它荒草萋萋十分幽寂显得更诱人更美丽虽然在这条小路上很少留下旅人的足迹。那天清晨落叶满地两条路都未经脚印污染。啊留下一条路等改日再见!但我知道路径延绵无尽头恐怕我难以再回返。也许多少年后在某个地方我将轻声叹息将往事回顾:一片树林里分出两条路而我选择了人迹更少的一条从此决定了我一生的道路。AppreciationInthispoem,thepoetdescribesanarchetypalhumansituationwheremanisfacedwiththedifficultyofmakingchoicesThe“roads”maysignifymanyofthe“choices”inlife,lifewouldcomeandgoinfullcircleandtheroadsmakenodifferencesafterallYetonceyoumakeachoice,youmaymissmanyotherchoices,thepoetseemstocomplaintthatlifeistooconfiningtoofferusmuchleewayforoptionsIntheline“Itooktheonelesstraveledby”,thepoetmayindicatethathestandsasidefromtheModernistendeavorofhistimehedidnotseementhusiasticaboutexperimentationinform,butkeepsfaithinthetraditionalformsofpoetry雪夜林边小立(飞白译)我想我认识树林的主人他家住在林边的农村他不会看见我暂停此地欣赏他披上雪装的树林。我的小马准抱着个疑团:干嘛停在这儿不见人烟在一年中最黑的晚上停在树林和冰湖之间。它摇了摇颈上的铃铎想问问主人有没有弄错。除此之外唯一的声音是风飘绒雪轻轻拂过。树林真可爱既深又黑但我有许多诺言不能违背还要赶多少路才能安睡还要赶多少路才能安睡。AppreciationThepoemrepresentamomentofrelaxationfromtheonerousjourneyoflife,analmostaestheticenjoymentandappreciationofnaturalbeautywhichiswholesomeandrestorativeagainstthechaoticexistenceofmodernmanToapersonpassingthroughthewoodsonhiswayfromonevillagetoanother,whichsymbolizesobligationsoflife,the“darkanddeep”naturalworldofthewoodsproveslovelyandfascinatingthepassengerwouldliketostayforeverincomfortingnaturefromtheexactinglifeofcommitments,buthechangeshismindonsecondthoughtSomewhatrechargedbyhisbriefstayinnature,hefeelsbetter,remembersthathehas“promisestokeep”,andisnowreadytofacethe“miles”stretchingbeforehimTSEliot()–aNobelPrizewinnerinApoet AplaywrightAliterarycriticAlostleaderInheannouncedthathewasaroyalistinpolitics,aclassicistinliterature,andanAngloCatholicinrelition,adeclarationwhich,thoughitshockedfew,angeredandhurtagoodmanyfollowers(Representativepoems:(TheLoveSongofJAlfredPrufrock(,withanotablemodernemotionalcoloring)(TheWasteLand(,readlikethemanifestoofthe“LostGeneration”)(AshWednesday()(FourQuartets(,indicatesthathehadturnedconservative)Representativedramas:SweeneyAgonistesMurderintheCathedralTheCocktailPartyTheConfidentialClerk()Representativecriticalessay:TheSacredWood(whichcontained“TradidionandIndividualTalent”)(()Thebasicthemeofhiscriticism:(Aconcernedwiththerelationshipbetweentraditionandindividualtalent,andbetween    thepast,thepresent,andthefuture(B“impersonaltheory”onpoetsandpoetry(“非人格化”)(C“objectivecorrelative”principleincomposingpoems(“客观对应物”)TheLoveSongofJAlfredPrufrock()(Letusgothen,youandI,WhentheeveningisspreadoutagainsttheskyLikeapatientetheriseduponatableLetusgo,throughcertainhalfdesertedstreets,ThemutteringretreatsOfrestlessnightsinonenightcheaphotelsAndsawdustrestaurantswithoystershells:StreetsthatfollowlikeatediousargumentOfinsidiousintentToleadyoutoanoverwhelmingquestionOh,donotask,"Whatisit"LetusgoandmakeourvisitTheLoveSongofJAlfredPrufrock()IntheroomthewomencomeandgoTalkingofMichelangeloTheyellowfogthatrubsitsbackuponthewindowpanesTheyellowsmokethatrubsitsmuzzleonthewindowpanesLickeditstongueintothecornersoftheeveningLingereduponthepoolsthatstandindrains,Letfalluponitsbackthesootthatfallsfromchimneys,Slippedbytheterrace,madeasuddenleap,AndseeingthatitwasasoftOctobernight,Curledonceaboutthehouse,andfellasleepApprciateofTheLoveSong()Theformofthepoem:   soliloquyandinteriormonologue()Theironicmeaningofthetitle: A“LoveSong”isinfactabouttheabsenceoflove BThenameofPrufrockisthatofafurnituredealerinStLouisHisinitial“J”soundstonyandclassy,givingoneasenseoftheupperclasstowhichhebelongs CTheepigraphistakenfromDante’sInferno,itsimplicationisthatPrufrockis,likeGuido,alsoinHellorahellishsituationSincePrufrockisnotguiltyofanythingandGuidois,theresemblanceishighlyironicitalsoimpliesthatmodernmaninhabitsanightmarishinferno()ThesignificanceoftheimageofPrufrockItdepictsatimidmiddleagedmangoing(orthinkingofgoing)toproposemarriagetoaladybuthesitatingallthewaytherePrufrockistheimageofanineffectual,sorrowful,tragicthcenturyWesternman,possiblythemodernintellectualwhoisdividedbetweenpassionandtimidity,betweendesireandimpotenceHistragicflawistimidityhis“curse”ishisidealismKnowingeverything,butabletodonothing,hilivesinanareaoflifeanddeathandcaughtbetweenthetwoworlds,hebelongstoneitherHecraveslovebuthasnocouragetodeclarehimselfHedespairsoflifeHediscoversitsemptinessandyethasfoundnothingtoreplaceitThusthepoemdevelopsathemeoffrustrationandemotionalconflict《荒原》赵萝蕤译一、死者葬礼(四月是最残忍的一个月荒地上长着丁香把回忆和欲望参合在一起又让春雨催促那些迟钝的根芽。冬天使我们温暖大地给助人遗忘的雪覆盖着又叫枯干的球根提供少许生命。夏天来得出人意外在下阵雨的时候来到了斯丹卜基西我们在柱廊下躲避等太阳出来又进了霍夫加登喝咖啡闲谈了一个小时。我不是俄国人我是立陶宛来的是地道的德国人。而且我们小时候住在大公那里我表兄家他带着我出去滑雪橇我很害怕。他说玛丽玛丽牢牢揪住。我们就往下冲。在山上那里你觉得自由。大半个晚上我看书冬天我到南方。AmericanModernFictionIIntroductionofthesIIFScottFitzgeraldIIIErnestHemingwayIV WilliamFaulknerIIntroductionofthes–the“JazzAge”⏹()Thereappearedaneconomicboom,adeceptiveaffluencetherewasafeelingthattherewasmoneyeverywhere⏹()Automobilesandmassmediawidenedthehorizonofthepeople,enrichedandimpactedthewayofpopularthinking⏹()Oldmoralcodeswerebreakingdowneverythingthatinvolvedwomenunderwentarapid,palpablechangenewindustriesemergedtocatertowomen’sneeds,newinstitutionswereestablishedtoappealtowomen’stasteThenewwomenwerecalled“flappers”The“JazzAge”TheJazzAgedescribestheperiodfrom,theyearsbetweentheendofWorldWarIandthestartofwiththeRoaringTwentiesendingwiththeriseoftheGreatDepressionTheagetakesitsnamefromFScottFitzgeraldandjazzmusic,whichsawatremendoussurgeinpopularityamongmanysegmentsofsocietyAmongtheprominentconcernsandtrendsoftheperiodarethepublicembraceoftechnologicaldevelopmentscars,airtravelandthetelephoneaswellasnewmodernisttrendsinsocialbehavior,thearts,andcultureAgreatthemeoftheagewasindividualismandagreateremphasisonthepursuitofpleasureandenjoymentinthewakeofthemisery,destructionandperceivedhypocrisyandwasteofWWIandprewarvaluesFlappersThetermflapperinthesreferredtoa"newbreed"ofyoungwomenwhoworeshortskirts,bobbedtheirhair,listenedtojazzandflauntedtheirdisdainforwhatwasthenconsidered"decent"behaviorTheflapperswereseenasbrashintheirtimeforwearingmakeup,drinkinghardliquor,treatingsexinamorecasualmanner,andsmokingcigarettes,andotherwisefloutingconventionalsocialandsexualnorms⏹()AllsocialreformsandallassertionofsocialandreligiousrightsweretreatedwithleasttoleranceMinorities,AfricanAmericansandnewerimmigrantpeoplewerediscriminatedagainstit’sanareaofgreatpopularcontemptforthelaw⏹ ()Lossoffaith,senseoflifebeingfragmented,chaotic,anddisjunctive,andfeelingofgloomanddespairwereintensifiedbythedevelopmentofmodernscienceIIFScottFitzgerald()–thespokesmanofthe“RoaringTwenties”,the“JazzAge”⏹Hislife⏹Hisworks⏹AmericanDreamandTheGreatGatsbyHislife⏹joinedthearmybutneversentabroad⏹  hismarriagewithZeldaSayre,asocialgirl,madehimwriteformoneyinordertosupporttheirexpensivelifestyle⏹  loneliness,alcoholandtheawarenessthathewasdissipatinghistalentcombinedtobreakhimdownHisworks⏹ThisSideofParadise()thefirstnovel,exactlycaughtthetoneoftheage⏹Twocollections:FlappersandPhilosophers()(Whodo“flappers”referto)⏹TalesoftheJazzAge()  (Whendoes“jazzage”referto)⏹TheBeautifulandtheDamned()⏹TheGreatGatsby()⏹TenderistheNight()⏹TheLastTycoon()AmericanDreamandTheGreatGatsby⏹()ReadthestoryofTheGreatGatsby,trytofigureoutwhatisGatsby’sAmericanDreamWhorepresentshisdream⏹  ()WhatisthesignificanceoftheimageofGatsbyTheStory FitzgeraldpresentstheriseandfallofJayGatsby,asrelatedinafirstpersonnarrativebyNickCarrawayCarrawayrevealsthestoryofafarmer'ssonturnracketeer,namedJayGatzHisillgottenwealthisacquiredsolelytogainacceptanceintothesophisticated,moneyedworldofthewomanheloves,DaisyFayBuchananHisromanticillusionsaboutthepowerofmoneytobuyrespectabilityandtheloveofDaisythe"goldengirl"ofhisdreamsareskillfullyandironicallyinterwovenwithepisodesthatdepictwhatFitzgeraldviewedasthecallousnessandmoralirresponsibilityoftheaffluentAmericansocietyofthes⏹AmericaatthistimeexperiencedaculturalandlifestylerevolutionIntheeconomicarena,thestockmarketboomed,therichspentmoneyonfabulouspartiesandexpensiveacquisitions,theautomobilebecameasymbolofglamourandwealth,andprofitsweremade,bothlegallyandillegallyThewhirlwindpaceofthispostWorldWarIeraiscapturedinFitzgerald'sGatsby,whosetragicquestandviolentdeathforetellthecollapseofthateraandtheonsetofdisillusionmentwiththeAmericandream⏹Bytheendofthenovel,thereaderslowlyrealizesthatCarrawayistransformedasherecognizesGatsby'smoralsuperioritytotheBuchanansInfact,thetriumphofGatsby'slegacyisreachedbyNickCarraway'sruminationsattheendofthebookaboutGatsby'svaliant,howeverfutile,attemptstoregainhispastloveThediscrepancybetweenGatsby'sdreamvisionandrealityisaprominentthemeinthisbookTheGreatGatsbyisaconcentratedmeditationon"theAmericandream,"understoodasthefaiththatanyone,evenofthemosthumbleorigins,canattainwealthandsocialstandingintheUnitedStatesthroughtalentandindividualinitiativeFitzgeraldexploresthecompellingappealofthisdream,andthecircumstancesthatrenderitasdeceptiveasitisenduringThesignificanceoftheimageofGatsby⏹AGatsby’slifefollowsaclearpattern:atfirst,adream,thenadisenchantment,andfinallyasenseoffailureanddespairGatsby’spersonalexperienceapproximatesthewholeoftheAmericanexperienceuptothefirstdecadesofthethcentury⏹BGatsbyisontheonehand,charminglyinnocentenoughtobelievethatpastcanberecoveredandresurrected,butontheotherhand,bothcorruptandcorrupting,tragicallyconvincedofthepowerofmoneyHispersonallifehasassumedamagnitudeasa“culturalhistoricalallegory”forthenationIIIErnestHemingway()–thespokesmanofthe“LostGeneration”NobelPrizewinnerin⏹Hislife⏹Hismajorworks⏹Hemingwaytheme,HemingwaysituationsHemingwayhero⏹ThesignificanceoftheimageofLieutenantHenry⏹Hemingway’swritingstyleHislife⏹influencedbyhisfather,Hemingwaywasfondofsports,likeboxingandfootball⏹hewenttoEuropetojointheFirstWorldWarasanambulancedriverthiswarexperienceprovedsoshatteringandnightmarishthathislifeandwritingswerepermanentlyaffectedHismajorworks⏹TheSunAlsoRises()(itpaintstheimageofawholegeneration,theLostGenerationJakeBarnes’physicalimpotenceisatokenofmodernman’sspiritualimportance)⏹AFarewelltoArms()(FredericHenry,thestorywassetinWorldWarI)⏹ForWhomtheBellTolls()(RobertJordan,thestorywassetintheSpanishwar)⏹TheOldManandtheSea()(Santiago)Hemingwaytheme,HemingwaysituationsHemingwayhero⏹Theme:“graceunderpressure”⏹Situations:areusuallycharacterizedbychaosandbrutalityandviolence,bycrimeanddeath,andsport,harddrinkingandsexualpromiscuity⏹Hero,whotriedhardandlearnedtolivein“graceunderpressure”,possesseswhatBertrandRussellterms“despairingcourage”,whichenablesamantobehavelikeaman,toasserthisdignityinfaceofadversitywhoiswoundedbutstrong,moresensitiveandwoundedbecausestronger,enjoysthepleasuresoflife(sex,alcohol,sport)infaceofruinanddeathandmaintains,throughsomenotionofacode,andidealofhimselfThesignificanceoftheimageofLieutenantHenry:⏹HeisaHemingwayhero,anaveragemanofdecidedlymasculinetastes,sensitiveandintelligent,amanofaction,andoneoffewwordsHeisanindividualist,aloneevenwhenwithotherpeople,somewhatanoutsider,keepingemotionsundercontrol,stoicandselfdisciplinedinadreadfulplacewhereonecannothavehappinessFredericHenryiscompletelydisillusionedHehasbeentothewar,hasseennothingsacredandgloriousbuthasfounditlikeaveritableChicagoslaughterhouseLikeJakeBarnes,hehatesthewar,feels“alwaysembarrassedbythewordssacred,glorious,andsacrificeandtheexpressioninvain”Hemingway’swritingstyle⏹InfluencedandschooledbyMarkTwain,EzraPound,SherwoodAndersonandGertrudeStein,hedevelopedthecolloquialstyle,andtriedtoachieveconcisioninhiswriting⏹Thewordsareconcrete,specific,morecommonlyfound,moreAngloSaxon,casualandconversational,andheemployedthenofteninasyntaxofshort,simplesentences,whichareorderlyandpatterned,conversational,andsometimesungrammaticalWilliamFaulkner()–NobelPrizeWinnerof⏹Hislife⏹Hismajorworks⏹Faulkner’sSouthernComplexTheMajorworksofFaulkner⏹Soldier’sPay(),Mosquitoes()⏹Satoris()(thefirstofhisYoknapatawphanovels“约克纳帕特法县”,whichcomposedofnovels)⏹TheSoundandtheFury()《喧嚣与骚动》⏹AsILayDying()《我弥留之际》⏹Sanctuary()《圣殿》⏹LightinAugust()《八月之光》⏹Absalom,Absalom!()《押沙龙押沙龙!》⏹GoDown,Moses()《去吧摩西》⏹ARoseforEmily 《献给艾米丽的一朵玫瑰》TheSoundandtheFury⏹ItwasperhapsFaulkner’sfinestnovelIttellsthetragicstoryoftheCompsonfamilyfromfourdifferentpointsofview:Benjy,theidiotQuentin,hisbrother,whokillshimselfatHarvardJason,theevil,moneyhungrybrotherandDilsey,theblackservantwhokeepsthefamilytogetherwithherloveTheCompsonshavesoldtheirpastureinorderthatthefavoredson,Quentin,mayattendHarvardQuentinandhissuicideareamockingmemory,likethefencethatseparatestheCompsonsfromtheirlandBenjyspendsmuchofeachdaymooningbesidethefence,ahulkingsymbolofhisfamily’sdecayedfortunesTrappedinthechangelessvaultofhisownmind,Benjycanonlyrevisitthetreasuredscenesofchildhood,whichareasrealtohimastheweedthatgrowsbythefenceTechniqueinTheSoundandtheFury⏹Itsinnovativestreamofconsciousnesstechniqueestablisheseachcharacter’sfundamentalstateofsolitudeandtheirindividualexperienceoflossThenovelcontainsmanyfeatureswhichappearinlaterFaulknernovelsOnefeatureistheuseoflimitedpointofviewEachofthefourcharactersseerealityonlyinhisorherownwayEachlivesinhisorherownrealityThepastisthepresentforthecharactersinthenovelbecausetheyareunabletoreconciletheeventsofthepastwiththeirlivesinthepresentFaulkner’sspecialtechniqueofnarrationisanotherfeatureThereaderisputintothecenterofthestorywithoutanypreparationTheymustputtogetherthefactsofthestorybythemselvesInalmostallofFaulkner’sstories,timeistreatedinaspecialwayHeusethe“continuouspresent”styleofwritingPast,presentandfutureeventsaremixedInordertogainatrulycomprehensivesenseofwhathastakenplace,thenovelwouldhavetobereadandrereadARoseForEmily⏹ARoseForEmilyistherepresentativeofFaulkner’sshortstoriesanddemonstratesFaulkner’sconsistentthoughtsandstyleEmilywasborninalocalprestigiousfamilywhichhaddeclinedinhertimeInheryouth,herfatherbannedherfrommarriageanddroveawaythoseyoungfellowswhofellinlovewithherAfterthedeathofherfather,shestillkepthisportraitanddidn’tallowhiscopsetoburiedLater,shefellinlovewithHomerBarron,aforemaninthenorthwhowaspavingroadsinherhometownTheyweresupposedtogetmarriedHowever,HomerBarronwasnowheretobefoundEmilylockedherselfindoorsuntilshefellseriouslyillanddiedatAfterthedeathofEmily,peopleopenedaroomthatwas deckedandfurnishedasforabridalTheydiscoveredthecopseofHomerBarronlyinginbedUnderthecompositionofFaulkner,thestorywascharacterizedwithhisuniquethemeandstyl
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