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首页 英语语法大全 Cobuild_English_Usage

英语语法大全 Cobuild_English_Usage.doc

英语语法大全 Cobuild_English_Usage

马启之
2017-08-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《英语语法大全 Cobuild_English_Usagedoc》,可适用于外语资料领域

英语语法大全CobuildEnglishUsageCOLLINSCOBUILDCOLLINSBirminghamUniversityInternationalLanguageDatabaseENGLISHGRAMMARCOLLINSPUBLISHERSTHEUNIVERSITYOFBIRMINGHAMCOLLINSLondonandGlasgowCollinsELTGraftonStreetLondonWXLACOBUILDisatrademarkofWilliamCollinsSonsCoLtdWilliamCollinsSonsCoLtdFirstpublishedAltrightsreservedNopartofthisbookmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans,electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise,withoutthepriorpermissioninwritingofthePublisherISBNXPaperbackISBNCasedPrintedandboundinGreatBritainbyRichardClayLtd,Bungay,SuffolkNOTEEnteredwordsthatwehavereasontobelieveconstitutetrademarkshavebeendesignatedassuchHowever,neitherthepresencenorabsenceofsuchdesignationshouldbelrAfyedasaffectingthelegalstatusofanytrademarkContentsEditorialteamIntroductionNoteonExamplesGuidetotheUseoftheGrammarGlossaryofGrammaticalTermsCobuildGrammarChartChapterReferringtopeopleandthingsNounsPronounsDeterminersChapterGivinginformationaboutpeopleandthingsAdjecontoquotecontrastedwithreportedclausespositionreportingverbssayasreportingverbaskasreportingverbforquestionslists,showingthepurposeofanutterancereferringtolearningandperceivingfactsfollowedbyadverbsorprepositionalphrasesmakingtheverbinthereportingclausenegativelistofverbsusedinquotestructuresindicatingthemannerofspeakingpositionofverbandquotelistofverbsthatgowith'that'clausesreportingverbsfollowedbya'to'infinitivereportingsuggestionsreportingintentions,reportinguncertaintyusedforpolitenessverbsusedinpassivefollowedby'to'infinitive,typicalsubjectsinreportstructuresmentioningthehearerasdirectobjectspecifyingthesourceofinformationlistsofverbsthatcanhavenounsasobjectinsteadofreportingclauseusingsaywithageneralobjectindicatingsubjectmatterafterabout,oforonrelatednounsunrelatednounsthatcanbefollowedby'that'clausesreportingverbsfollowedbysoasperformativeverbsreportstructures=>reportedquestionstypesofreportedclause'that'clausesorderofclausesreportingrequestsoradvicereportingsuggestionsreportingintentions,reportinguncertaintytimereferencechoosingmodalsforthereportedclausehavetoinreportedclausesusedtoinreportedclausesreportingconditionalschoosingapronounchoosinganadjunctoftimechoosingthereferencetoplaceusedforpolitenessmakingapoliterequestreportingverbinpassiveseemandappearinreportstructurestypicalsubjectsofreportingverbsnotmentioningthespeakermentioningthehearerasdirectobjectmentioningthehearerinaprepositionalphrasereflexivepronounsasobjecttosaywhatsomeonethinksresultclausesalwaysafterthemainclausebeginningwithso,andso,andandbeginningwithsothatusingsothatorsoaswithadjectivesusingsothatwithmany,few,much,orlittleusingsoforemphasisusingsuchthatwithnounsusingsuchatthebeginningofthesentencesuchfollowedby'that'clause,orbyasanda'to'infinitiveusingotherwise,else,ororelserhetoricalquestions,righttotherightexpressingdirection,roundasadverbaspreposition,S'sseeapostrophessamestructuresusingsameforcomparisonsubmodifiersusedinfrontofsame,referringbacktowhathasbeenmentionedsayasreportingverbusedwith'if'clausesor'whether'clausesusedastransitivereportingverbonlywithverygeneralobjectusedtodescribewhatisinabooksecondseeordinalnumbersseeusedwith'if'clausesor'whether'clausesseeingthatatstartofreasonclausesseemaslinkverbfollowedbytobeandacomplementinreportedstructuresafterthereseldomasbroadnegativemodifiedbyso,very,too,orprettysemicolonsusedtolinkclausessemimodalsdareandneedusedtosentenceadjunctsindicatingareactionoropinionqualifyingwhatyouaresayingspecifyingwhoseviewpointisinvolvedindicatingaqualityindicatingyourjustificationforastatementassuminghearer'sagreementindicatingrealityornonrealitymakingyourattitudeclearusedwithspeakingexpressinggeneralizationschangingthetopicofaconversationintroducingacommentinconversationusedforemphasissentenceadverbialsseesentenceadjunctssentencessequenceoftensesinreportstructuresintimeclauses,inconditionalclausesseveralasgeneraldeterminerwithcountnounswithcountnounsinthepluralfollowedbytimesasadjunctoffrequencyfollowedbyadefiningrelativeclauseshallnegativeformshan'treferringtothefuture,,Rexpressingcertaintyaboutthefutureshallnotusedtoexpressprohibitiongivinganorderofferingtodosomethingmakingsuggestionsstatingintentionsexpressingtheimportanceofafutureactionusedinreportedclausesshan'tseealsoshallsheusedtorefertoships,cars,andcountriesshouldnegativeformshouldn'texpressinglikelihoodexpressingexpectationaboutthefutureexpressingexpectationaboutthepastshouldnotusedtoexpressunacceptabilityshouldlikeusedtomakearequestofferingtodosomethingmakingasuggestionexpressingawishexpressingtheimportanceofdoingsomethingintroducingwhatyouaresayingexpressinganopinionusedinreportstructures,,usedinconditionalclauses,shouldn'tseealsoshouldmakingasuggestionshowusedinpassivefollowedbya'to'infinitivesimplepastreferringtothepresentreferringtothepastusedwithadjunctsoffrequencyformofsimplepastRsimplepastpassiveRsimplepresentreferringtothepresentreferringtogeneraltruths,referringtoregularactionsreferringtoworksoffictionsayusedtodescribewhatisinabookusedincommentariesusedwithreportingverbsusedwithperformativeverbsexpressingregularity,withadjunctsoffrequencyusedinnarrativereferringtothepastexpressingfirmplansforthefutureusedintimeclausesformofsimplepresentRsimplepresentpassiveRsincewiththepresentperfectinadjunctsofdurationintimeclausesinreasonclausessingularnounsconcordwithverbsreferringtothingsthatareuniqueusedwithdelexicalverbsusedwithsupportingmaterialusedasacomplement,withausedwiththe,soinnotsoasstructuresorsoinadjunctsoffrequencysoastoinnonfinitepurposeclausessoorsothatinfinitepurposeclausessothat,so,orandsoinresultclausessothatandsoaslinkingclauseswithsamesubjectusualtorepeatsubjectusedtoavoidrepetitionuseofdososomeasgeneraldeterminerwithcountnounsusedwithuncountnounsusedwithcountnouns,usedwithnumbersfollowedbyadefiningrelativeclausesomebodysomeonesomethingsomewheresoonerwouldsoonerusedtoexpressapreferencenosoonerbeforeatimeclausespeakingusedwithsentenceadjunctsspecificdeterminerslistuseoftheasaspecificdeterminerthis,that,these,andthosepossessivedeterminersspiteinspiteofinnonfiniteconcessiveclausessplitinfinitivesstillinfrontoforafteracomparativereferringtoasituationthatiscontinuingwitha'to'infinitivetosaysomethinghasnothappenedassubmodifierafteracomparativesubjectconcordofsubjectandverb,,,,,usualposition,positionin'yesno'questionspositionin'wh'questionsimpersonalsubjects,inversion,ofnonfiniteclauses,ofrelativeclausesdifferentinmainclauseandnonfiniteclausenotrepeatedinlinkedclauses,ofpassiveverbssubjectpronounsusedafterasasstructuresubjunctivereportingsuggestionsin'that'clausesafterarrangeorrequireafterwhetherinconditionalclausesinfinitepurposeclausesbeginningwithlestsubmodifierswithcolouradjectiveswithlikewithqualitativeadjectives,tointensifymeaningexpressinganopinionreducingtheeffectofqualitativeadjectivesindicatingtheextentofaqualityusedwithclassifyingadjectivesadequately,sufficiently,andacceptablytooinfrontofpredicativeadjectivesusedwithcomparativesandsuperlativesusedwithquantifiersusedwithnotusedinfrontofadverbssubordinateclausesseeadverbialclauses,nonfiniteclauses,relativeclauses,andreportingclausessubordinatingconjunctionstableusedinadverbialclausessubordinationsubsequentusedtoshowpositioninsequencesubsequenttousedtorelateoneeventtoanothersuchinnotsuchaasstructurefollowedby'that'clause,orbyasanda'toinfinitiveinaresultclauseusedtoreferbacktosomethingalreadymentionedusedtoreferforwardsuffixesaddedtonouns,referringtogenderseealsonegativeaffixessuperlativeadjectivespositioninnoungroupnormallyprecededbytheusedasmodifiersinfrontofanounusedascomplementsstructuresfollowingasuperlativeomissionoftheinfrontofasuperlativewithadjectivesendinginableoribleusedasheadwordsusedwithordinalnumbersleastandtheleastsubmodifyingsuperlativesformationRsuperlativeadverbsusualformirregularformsstructures:optionaluseoftheusedassubmodifiersformationRTtagquestionsafterbroadnegativesseealsoquestiontagstakeasdelexicalverbnounsthatgowithdelexicaltake,followedbynoungroupasadjunctofdurationtenses=>future=>pastcontinuous=>pastperfect=>presentcontinuous=>presentperfect=>simplepast=>simplepresentchoiceoftenseintimeclauseschoiceoftenseinconditionalclauseschoiceoftenseinreasonclausessummaryofactiveandpassivetensesRverbsthatarenotusuallyusedincontinuoustensesRseealsoRthanincomparativestructuresfollowedbycomparativeadverbsthatasdemonstrativepronounasrelativepronoun,,asspecificdeterminerfollowedbyspecifictimereference,asadjunctassubject,object,orcomplementofarelativeclause,notthatinconcessiveclausesreferringbacktosomethingalreadymentioned,'that'clausesomissionofthatusedinreportstructures,,,listofverbsthatgowith'that'clausesreportingsuggestionsreportinganintendedactioncontainingamodalorsubjunctiveusedinimpersonalitstructures,usedafternounsrelatedornotrelatedtoreportingverbsusedafteradjectivesusedafteritasimpersonalsubjectoflinkverbandadjectiveusedascomplementofbeusedassubjectofverbfollowingadjectiveinpredicativepositionafterwouldtoexpressawishtheusedinfrontofanycommonnounpronunciation,referringtospecificpeopleorthingsusedwithpropernounsandsingularnounsreferringtospecificplacesandorganizationsreferringtoallmembersofagroupreferringbackpositionofmodifiersinnoungroupswiththeandmodifiersaddingqualifierstonoungroupswhichbeginwiththeusedwithuncountnounsusedforemphasisusedwithcomparativesandsuperlatives,,,,usedwithgeneraldeterminersusedwithnumbersusedtoshowpossessioninsteadofpossessivedeterminersusedwithpartsofthebodyusedwithdaysoftheweektheirtheirsthemthemselves,usedtorefertoonepersonthenasadjunctreferringtoaknowntimefollowingan'if'clauselinkingclauses,usedtoreferbacktoatimethathasalreadybeenmentionedthereusedtoreferbacktoaplacethathasbeenalreadymentionedwithseemorappearwiththepassiveofareportingverbandtobefollowedbyexist,remain,arise,follow,orcomethereaboutsorthereaboutsintimeexpressionsthere'dthereiscontrastedwithadverbofplacetherepronunciationofthereusingthereisorthereare:concordwithfollowingnoungroupcontractedformswithadjectivesindicatinglikelihoodwithnoungroupandanadjunctwithnoungroupandpresentparticiplethere'llthere'stheseasdemonstrativepronounasspecificdeterminer,usedtoreferbackusedtoreferforwardtheyusedtorefertoonepersonusedtorefertopeopleingeneralthirdseeordinalnumbersthisasdemonstrativepronounasspecificdeterminer,referringbacktosomethingalreadymentioned,referringforwardthoseasdemonstrativepronounasspecificdeterminerusedwithrelativeclauses,usedtoreferbacktosomethingalreadymentionedthoughusedinconcessiveclauses,seealsoasif,asthoughthousandthousandsusedforemphasisthustillfromtillinadjunctsofdurationintimeclauses,timeontimeatthesametimeeverytimeandeachtimebywhichtimetimeunitsoftimetimeclausesafteradjunctsoftimechoiceoftense,expressingcircumstancesexpressingrepeatedeventsoneeventhappeningafteranothernonfinitetimeclausescontainingprepositionalphraseoradjectivetimeexpressionsspecifictimeexpressionsclocktimestimesofthedayreferringtoyearsuseofatuseofinuseoftheorawithadayoftheweekuseofonorderofinformationnonspecifictimeexpressionsalmostandnearlyonlyafterbeuseoforthereaboutsuseofduringforperiodsoftimeuseofoverforperiodsoftimeuseofbefore,priorto,andafterbeforeandafterusedtoshoworderofeventseventshappeningatthesametimeuseofbytorefertoanearliereventusedasqualifiersormodifierstitlesasobjectcomplementsseealsopropernounstoafterpredicativeadjectivesexpressingarangeofnumberslistofnounsusuallyfollowedbytoasheadofprepositionalphrasecontainingindirectobjectinreportstructures,atstartofprepositionalphrasementioningthehearerinareportstructurefollowedbyrelativepronounasindirectobject'to'infinitiveclausesasqualifierslistofnounthatusuallyhavea'to'infinitiveclauseafterthem'to'infinitivesafteradjectives,afterordinalnumbersuseoftransitiveverbsinthe'to'infinitiveformwithoutanobjectaftercomplements,introducinganobjectcomplementinphrasestructures,,,expressingreasonforanactionusedwithnotpositionsofadjunctsaddingmoreinformationafteranindefiniteplaceadverbafterreportingverbs,afterseemorappearafterarrangeafterprove,require,orshowinthepassiveafternounsrelatedtoreportingverbsafterprepositionand'wh'wordafterwereinconditionalclausesnonfinitepurposeclausesafterasiforasthoughlinking'to'infinitiveclauseswithandororinimpersonalitstructuresformRtoousedtosubmodifygeneraldeterminersinfrontofmany,much,orfewsubmodifyinganadjectivefollowedbyforora'to'infinitivetransitiveverbstypesofobjectthatgowithtransitiveverbslistoftransitiveverbsverbswhoseobjectsarepeopleverbswhichneedtobefollowedbyanadjunctlistofverbsofmovementandpositionusedwithoutanobjectusedwithreflexivepronounsasobjectslistofverbswhicharetransitiveinsomemeaningsandintransitiveinothersabsenceofobjectwhenthisisclearlistofnormallytransitiveverbswhichcanbeusedwithoutanobjectabsenceofobjectafteratransitiveverbbecausetheobjecthasbeenrecentlymentionedlistofnormallytransitiveverbswhichcanbeusedwithanomittedobjecttransitivephrasalverbs,,,listoftransitivephrasalverbs,,,,listoftransitivecompoundverbsverbsfollowedbyanobjectcomplementverbsfollowedbyanobjectandasuseoftransitiveverbsinphrasestructureslistofverbsrelatedto'ing'adjectivescoordinationoftransitiveverbsseealsodelexicalverbstryinphrasestructureswithandtwiceUununcountablenounsseeuncountnounsuncountnounsconcordwithverbslistofcommonuncountnounslistofuncountnounswhicharecountnounsinotherlanguagesreferringtoamountofsomethingexpressedbyanuncountnounusedascountnounstoexpressquantityusedasmassnounsnounsthatcanbeuncountorcountlistofuncountnounswhichendinsusedwiththeusedwithaoranwhenthenounismodifiedorqualifiedprecededbysomeusedindelexicalstructuresuntilinnegativeclausesinadjunctsofdurationtoindicatewhensomethingstoppedfromuntilintimeclauses,ususedtoinsteadofwouldtorefertoirregulareventsinthepast,inreportedclausesVvariousverbalnounssee'ing'nounsverbs=>compoundverbs=>delexicalverbs=>ditransitiveverbs=>ergativeverbs=>intransitiveverbs=>linkverbs=>performativeverbs=>phrasalverbs=>reciprocalverbs=>reflexiveverbs=>reportingverbs=>transitiveverbslistofverbsfollowedbyadjunctsofdirectionlistofverbsfollowedbyadjunctsofpositionverbsusedintransitiveorintransitiveclauseslistofverbswhicharetransitiveinsomemeaningsandintransitiveinothersomittingtheobjectlistsofnormallytransitiveverbswhichcanbeusedwithoutanobject,verbswhichtakeadirectobjectorprepositionalphraseverbswhichactlikelinkverbswhenfollowedbycertainprepositionspositionofmainverbin'yesno'questionlistofverbsusedtospecifypositionconcordwithplacenamesverbsthatdonotrefertospeechorthoughtbutcanbefollowedbya'that'clausechoiceoftenseintimeclausesusingandtolinkidenticalverbsforemphasislistsofverbsusuallyusedinthepassivelistsofverbsrarelyusedinthepassivelistofverbsreferringtoneedsorwantsthatcanbeusedincleftsentenceslistofverbswhichcanhaveimpersonalitasobjectlistofverbsusedwithimpersonalittodescribetheweatherverbsusedwithimpersonalitassubjectverbformsRformingparticiplesRpronunciationR,R,RlistofverbswithirregularpastformsandpastparticiplesRformsofauxiliariesRformationoftensesRverbsnotusuallyusedincontinuoustensesRnonfiniteverbgroupsRveryasemphasizingadjectiveassubmodifiersubmodifyinglikesubmodifyingsuperlativessubmodifyinggeneraldeterminersvocativespositioninsentenceusingtitlesandsurnamesvoiceseeactive,passiveWwantinphasestructures,,usedinmakingrequestswaytheway,inaway,andintheway,usedlikeconjunctionsinclausesofmannerwewellaftercould,might,ormaytoexpressstrongpossibilitywereinconditionalclauseswitha'to'infinitive,insteadofwasafterasiforasthoughwhatasinterrogativepronounin'wh'questions,whataboutorwhatofinquestionswithoutaverbinnominalrelativeclausesincleftsentencesinexclamationswhateverin'wh'questionsinconditionalclauseswhatsoeverwhenin'wh'questions,inrelativeclauseswhenever,wherein'wh'questionswithadjectivessuchasnecessaryorpossibleinplaceclausesinrelativeclauses,whereaswherebywhereuponwhereverin'wh'questionswithadjectivessuchasnecessaryorpossibleinplaceclauseswhether'whether'clausesusedtoreportquestionslistofverbsthatcancomebefore'whether'clausesin'to'infinitiveclauses,withorwhichasrelativepronoun,,,,asinterrogativepronounin'wh'questions,ofwhichinsteadofwhoseinrelativeclausesinrelativeclausescommentingonthewholeofthemainclauseinclausescommentingonasituationortimewhicheverinconditionalclausesinnominalrelativeclauseswhileintimeclauses,inconcessiveclauses,whilstintimeclausesinconcessiveclauses,whoasrelativepronoun,,,asinterrogativepronounin'wh'questionsuseofwhocontrastedwithwhomwhoeverin'wh'questionsinconditionalclausesinnominalrelativeclauseswhomasrelativepronoun,,,asinterrogativepronounin'wh'questionsuseofwhomcontrastedwithwhoofwhominsteadofwhoseinrelativeclauseswhoseasrelativepronoun,,asinterrogativepronounin'wh'questions,replacedbyofwhichorofwhominwrittenEnglish'wh'questionswordorderquestionswithoutaverbuseofwhoandwhomuseofwhoseuseofwhichuseofwhenandwhereuseofwhyuseofhowhowcombinedwithotherwordsin'wh'questionsuseofwhatwhatcombinedwithiforforin'wh'questionsuseofwhatever,wherever,andwhoeveruseofwhataboutorwhatofwithnoverbnegative'wh'questionsbeginningwithwhytomakesuggestionsreporting'wh'questions'wh'wordslistwordorderin'wh'questionsusedafterapreposition,followedbya'to'infinitivenominaluseof'wh'clausesusedtoreport'wh'questionsverbsthatcancomebeforeclausesstartingwith'wh'wordsseealso'wh'questionswhyin'wh'questions,negative'wh'questionsbeginningwithwhyusedtomakesuggestionsuseofwhyandwherebyindefiningclauseswillnegativeformwon'tshortenedto'llafterapronounreferringtothefuture,,Rreplacedbywouldinreportstructuresexpressinglikelihoodexpressingcertaintyaboutthefuturewillnotusedtoexpressprohibitionusedininstructionsusedtoaskforhelpusedtogiveanorderusedtomakeanofferorinvitationusedtostateintentionswillnotusedtoexpressunwillingnesstodosomethingusedtoexpressthenecessityofanactionusedwithdareusedtoformthefuturetense,Rusedinreportedclauseswithafterpredicativeadjectivesmainuseasprepositionuseinreportstructuresuseinpassiveconstructionslistsofverbsusedwithwithinthepassivewithininadjunctsofdurationwonderasreportingverbusedwithan'if'clauseora'whether'clauseusedtomakeapoliterequestwon'tasshortenedformofwillnotusedtoexpressunwillingnesstodosomething,wordorderpositionofadjectives,positionofnumbers,,positionofobjectsofditransitiveverbspositionofobjectsofphrasalverbspositionofprepositioninphrasalverbsorderofsubject,verb,andcomplement'yesno'questionsnegativenonfiniteclausesnegativestatements,,,positionofbroadnegativespositionofadjuncts,,timeexpressionsorderofsubjectandverbafteradjunctspositionofadverbs,,,positionofobjectsofprepositionsorderofprepositionalphrasesandafteraverbpositionofprepositionalphrasesorderofsubjectandintransitiveverbafteraprepositionalphrasequotestructuresreportstructures,adverbialclausesputtingtheverbfirstinsomeconditionalclausesresultclauses,ofsentencescontainingresultclausesconcessiveclausesplaceclausesrelativeclausespositionofnonfiniteclauses,orderofelementsinaclausepositionofcomplementinpassiveconstructionspositionoffocusingadverbspositionofvocativeworseassuperlativeofbadlyasadverbofdegreeassuperlativeofbadRworstascomparativeofbadlyasadverbofdegreeascomparativeofbadRwouldnegativeformwouldn'tshortenedto'dafterapronounusedinsteadofwillinreportstructuresreferringtoregulareventsinthepastreferringtothefutureinnarrativewithnottoexpresspastreluctance,expressinglikelihoodexpressingpossibilityinthepastusedininstructionsaskingforhelpwouldlikeusedtogiveanorderwouldlikeusedtomakearequestusedtomakeanofferorinvitationwouldlikeusedtoexpressawishwouldnotusedtoexpressanegativewishwouldratherorwouldsoonerusedtoexpressapreferenceexpressingawishaboutthepastfollowedbya'that'clausetoexpressawishusedinexpressinganopinionusedwithdareusedinreportedclauseswouldn'tasshortenedformofwouldnotusedtomakeanofferorinvitationusedtoexpresspastunwillingnesstodosomethingYyaddedtocolouradjectives'yesno'questionspositionofauxiliary,subject,andmainverbpositionoftheauxiliarydobeorhaveasmainverbtagquestionsrhetoricalquestionsreporting'yesno'questionsyetusedwithcomparativesandsuperlatives,referringtoanexpectedsituationusedafteradjunctsofdurationwithforusedtolinkclauses,usedtolinkadjectivesusedtolinkadverbsyouusedtorefertopeopleingeneralyouryoursyourself,yourselves
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