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首页 地质实用英语复习要点

地质实用英语复习要点.doc

地质实用英语复习要点

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2019-04-21 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《地质实用英语复习要点doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

《地质实用英语复习要点》LessonText、Petroleum(rockoilfromtheLatinPetra,rockorstone,andoleum,oil)occurswidelyintheearthasgas,liquid,semisolid,orsolid,orinthemorethanoneofthesestatesatasingleplace石油(英语Petroleum一词,源于拉丁语petra和oleum,前者意为“岩石”或“石头”,后者意为“油”)以气态、液态、半固态、固态、或在某一个地方以一种以上形态广泛存在于地球中。Chemicallyanypetroleumisanextremelycomplexmixtureofhydrocarbon(hydrogenandcarbon)compounds,withminoramountsofnitrogen,oxygenandsulfurasimpurities从化学上讲,任何石油都是由烃(碳和氧)化合物组成的极其复杂的混合物,并含有少量作为杂质的氮、硫。氧、Liquidpetroleum,whichiscalledcrudeoiltodistinguishitfromrefinedoil,isthemostimportantcommercially液态的石油,为区别于炼制油,称为原油,在商业上是最重要的。、()Theoiloriginatesinasourcebed,andamarineshale,onceablackmudrichinorganiccompounds,isthoughttobeacommonsourcerock石油来源于烃源层,海相页岩(曾是一种富含有机化合物的黑色淤泥)被认为是一种常见的烃源岩()Theoilthenmigratestoapermeablereservoirrock,andtodothisitmaytravelforlongdistancesbothverticallyandhorizontally然后石油运移到可渗透的储集岩中,为此,它可能沿垂直和水平两个方向做长距离运移。NewwordsPetroleum石油,原油hydrosphere水界,水圈lithosphere岩石圈geomorphology地貌学,地形学stratigraphy地层学,区域地层hydrocarbon烃,碳氧化合物bitumen沥青methane甲烷sourcebed烃源层,生油层sourcerock烃源岩,油源岩reservoirrock储集岩trap圈闭,储油构造Lesson、Fromtheearliesttimesrecordedbyman,petroleumisfrequentlymentionedashavingimportantpartinthereligion,themedical,andeventheeconomiclifeofmanyregionsNotuntilafterthemiddleofnineteenthcentury,however,whenitwasfirstdiscoveredinlargequantitiesunderground,diditspotentialcommercialimportancebecomeapparent在人类最早的记载中,石油就因其在宗教、医药,甚至在许多地区的经济生活中起着重要作用而经常被述及。然而,直到世纪中叶首次从地下发现大量石油后,石油的潜在商业价值才显现出来。、Theactualdiscoveryofapoolismadebythedrill,buttheproperlocationofthewildcatwelltotestatrap,thedepthtowhichitshouldbedrilled,andthedetectionandoutliningoftheoilorgaspoolfromwhatisrevealedbythewellandothers,andwhollygeologicproblems油藏实际上是通过钻井发现的,但探测圈闭的初探井的正确井位、应钻深度或其它井所揭示的情况对油藏或气藏进行探测和描述,这些全属地质问题。Theyconstitutetheessenceofthegeologyofpetroleumandarethemostimportantworkofstratigraphyandstructuralgeology,orhemayhavetotakeaccountofacomplexcombinationofdata,involvingsuchvariousfieldsisstratigraphy,sedimentation,paleontology,geologichistory,fluidflow,structuralgeology,petrography,geophysics,geochemistry,andmetamorphism这些问题构成了石油地质学的精髓,且是石油地质学家的首要的任务,石油地质学家有时只需把地层学和构造地质学简单结合起来考虑即可,有时却必须考虑对各种资料的综合,这些资料可能涉及到地层学、沉积学、古生物学、地史学、流体流动学、构造地质学、岩相学、地球物理学、地球化学及变质作用等不同领域。Inadditiontoallthis,hemayhavetodrawonhisownandotherpeople'sknowledgeofmanyrelatedsciences,suchasphysics,chemistry,biology,andengineeringHemustdohisbestworkoutthegeologyofanareafromwhatisvisibleorwhatcanbemappedatsurface,andfromallavailablewellandgeophysicaldatafromdepthsranginguptotheremilesormorebelowthesurface除此之外,他可能还得凭借自己和别人掌握的许多相关科学,例如物理学、化学、生物学及工程学等方面知识。他必须根据地表上可以看到的或可以测绘的地质现象,以及所有可利用的井和距地表以下公里或更深处获得的地球物理资料,尽力弄清一个地区的地质情况。Hisprediction,however,mayoftenbebasedonthemostfragmentarydata,someofwhichareobtainedbyspecialistsorexpertswhomayormaynothaveaworkingknowledgeofgeology,orbygeologistswhohaveworkedwithnothoughtofthepetroleumpossibilitiesofregion然而,他的预测可能常常基于一些零散的资料,其中,有些资料是由那些可能有、也可能没有地质学工作经验的专家们获得,或者是由为意识到该区存在是有可能性的地质学家们的来的NewwordsPetroleumgeology石油地质学seepage油苗,渗漏exploration勘探,勘测sedimentaryrock沉prospectimperviousrock不渗透岩石commercialdeposit商业油气藏积岩structuralgeology构造地质学metamorphism变质,变质作用勘探区,远景区paleontologist古生物学家fossil古的,陈腐的,化石的化石LessonTEXT、Fivearedevelopedinthe"intermediate"crustalzonebetweentheoceaniccrustwhichaveragesmilesinthickness类是介于平均厚度为英里的大洋盆地之间的“中间”地壳带上发育起来的。Inadditiontotheeightbasintypesoutlined,basinsunderlainbyoceaniccrustexistbutarepresentlybeyondthereachofpresenteconomicoperations除了所述的八类盆地之外,在大洋地壳上还有一些盆地,但已超出了目前经济所能达到的开发范围。、Thesebasinsarelesssimple,multicyclebasins(usuallyorogenicMesozoicsedimentsoverPaleozoicplatformsediments)locatedinthemoreexteriorpartsofcontinentalcratonicareas这些盆地是较复杂的多旋回盆地(通常中生代造山作用形成的沉积物覆盖于古生代地台沉积物之上),它们位于大陆克拉通地区的靠外缘部分NewwordsTectonic构造的,区域构造的拉通盆地Paleozoic古生代tectonictype构造类型,构造形式cratonicbasin克carbonatereservoir碳酸盐储层reserves储量,埋underthrust俯冲,俯冲断层terrigenous藏量continentalmargin大陆边缘clastic陆源碎屑LessonTEXT、Thesesedimentsarerelativelysimplematerialsuchassandsalongbeachesandriverchannels,mudsoffshoreandinthelagoonsbehindthebeaches,andlimesasshellbedsandreefs这些沉积物是一些比较简单的物质,诸如沿海滩和河道分布的砂、近海岸的淤泥和海滩后侧泻湖中的淤泥以及介壳层和礁之类的灰质物。Theseancientsediments,piledlayeruponlayer,fromthesedimentaryrocksthatmakeuptheuppermostpartofthecrustoftheearth这些古代沉积物,堆积了一层又一层,形成了构成地壳最上面的沉积岩。WordsBuoyancy浮力,浮性limestone石灰岩,石灰石deformation变形,形变作用angularunconformity角度不整合rockoutcrop岩石露头LessonTEXT、Thepreservationoforganicmatterisalmostexclusivelyrestrictedtoaquaticsediments有机质的保存几乎仅局限于水生沉积物。Marineandfreshwaterplanktonandbacteriawhichare,andhavebeenthroughoutearthhistory,themajorproducersoforganicmatter,alsoaccountformostofthefossilorganicmatterpreservedinsediments海水和淡水中的浮游生物和细菌,不仅现在,而且过去整个地史中都是产生有机质的主要来源,也是沉积物中保存大多数化石有机质的起因。、Sedimentsoftencontainallochthonousorganicmatterthathasbeentransportedtotheareaofsedimentationfromelsewhere,buttheyusuallycontainautochthonousmaterialoriginatingattheplaceofsedimentation沉积物经常含有从异地搬运到本沉积区的外来有机质,但它们通常含有在沉积地生成的原地物质。Autochthonousorganicmatterisoftencloselyrelatedtospecificbiologicalmaterialswhilsttheallochthonousportionmaycontaindiageneticallyalteredorganicdebrisandreworkedmaterialswhichprobablyrepresentsthemorestablecomponentsoforganicmatterthathaveinpartalreadypassedthroughthegeochemicalcycle原地有机质往往与特定生物物质有密切的关系,而外来部分可能含有在成岩作用下蚀变的有机残渣和再造物质,这些再造物质可能代表有机质更稳定的组分,其中有一部分已经经历了地球化学循环。NewwordsHumiccoal腐殖煤用totalorganicmatter总有机质organicmaturation有机熟化作terrestrialplant陆生植thermalalteration热力蚀变photosynthesis光合作用物allochthonous外来的,异地的geochemical地球化学anoxic缺氧的LessonTEXT、classificationofthekerogentypesisderivedfromthecompositionofitsthreemajorTheatomiccomponents,carbon,hydrogenandoxygen,definedbytheatomicHydrogenCarbon(HC)vsOxygenCarbon(OC)ratios干酪根类型的划分基于干酪根的碳氢氧三种主要原子分子,由氢碳(HC)和氧碳(OC)原子比确定。Kerogenstakenatvariousdepthswithinaformationnormallylieonacommontrend,calledanevolutionpathbyTissotandWelte,ashydrogenandoxygenarelostduringmaturation由于在成熟过程中失去了氢和氧,从某一地层不同深度提取的干酪根一般都位于一条共同的趋势线上,蒂索和威尔特称之为演化途径。KerogensfromcloselyrelateddepositionalenvironmentsresultinthesamepathVanKrevelenfirstusedthistypeofplottocharacterizecoalsandtheircoalificationpath取自密切相关的沉积环境的干酪根其演化途径相同。范*克里维纶首先用这类曲线去描述煤及其煤化途径的特征。、Itshouldbenotedthatmarinesourcerocksgenerallycontainmixturesofthesekerogenfacies,thedominantcomponentdeterminingthemainhydrocarbonproductsduringmaturation应当指出,海相烃源岩通常含有这些干酪根相的混合物,在成熟过程中,他们是决定主要烃产物的基本成分。Thevitrinitereflectivityrange镜质体反射率NewwordsGeothermalgradient地温梯度地热增温率molecule烃分子fermentation发酵hydrocarbondepositionalenvironment沉积环境resinte树脂体,树脂沥青Lessonevolutionpath演化途径inertinite惰质体,惰质组TEXT、Themajorityofpetroleumreservesintheworldisfoundinancientsandstoneswhichhaveporosityandpermeability世界上大多数石油储量是在具有孔隙性和渗透性的古老砂岩中找到的。Whensandstonecontainspetroleumthatcanbeextractedbyknowntechnology,itisreferredtoassandstonereservoir若砂岩含有用已知技术可以开采的石油就称之为砂岩储集层。Sandstonereservoirarenormallycomposedofstableminerals(eg,quartz,feldsparandrockfragments),accessorymineralsandporessaturatedwithfluidsTobeclassifiedassandstone,individualsandgrainsmustbebetweenandmmindiameter砂岩储集层通常由稳定矿物(如石英、长石和岩石碎屑)、副矿物和饱和流体的孔隙组成。要化为砂岩一类的,其单个砂粒直径必须介于到毫米之间。Thequantityofporevolumeandthenatureoftheinterconnectionsbetweenporesmayberelatedtotheprimaryprocessesunderwhichthesandstoneaccumulated,ortheymayberelatedtosecondarychanges(diagenesis)thatarepostdepositional孔隙体积的数量和孔隙之间的连通性质可能与砂岩沉积时所处的原生作用有关,或者与沉积后的次生变化(成岩作用)有关。、Sedimentswithacommongenesishavesimilarlithologiesbecausethephysical,biologicandchemicalprocesseswithintheenvironmentaresimilar具有共同成因的沉积物有相似的岩性,因为沉积环境内的物理、生物、化学的作用是相似的。、Theapproachistorecognizelithologicdifferencesthatcanberelatedtoastratigraphiclevelatwhichauniquesetofprocessesbegantoinfluencesedimentationandwhentheystopped(egthedepositassociatedwiththepointbarofameanderingstreamchannel)该方法用于识别与一地层层为相关岩性的差异,在该层位内,一组特有的作用自始至终地影响沉积作用(如与曲流河道的曲流沙坝有关的沉积)Theprocesscontrolledgenetic。unitisalmostalwaysasmallerscaleunitthanaformation受作用控制的成因单元是规模几乎总是小于(地层)组的单元。ThegeneticunitmaybeequivalanttofaciesasusedbysomeauthorsThewordsmaybecombinedas"geneticfacies"or"environmentalfacies"成因单元可能相当于某些作者所用的“相”,这些术语可以合为“成因相”或“环境相”。、Sevenofthemostcommonenvironmentsofdeposition,wheresandstonereservoiraredeposited,areillustratedinthedepositionalmodel(Figure)七种最常见的砂岩储集层的沉积环境模型(图)。Theseare:fluvialpointbar(PB)deltaicdistributarychannel(DC)lacustrinedeltaandshoreline(L)deserteolian(E)marineshorelineanddeltafront(S)marineshelf(SH)and,marinedeepwater(DW)它们是:河成曲流沙坝(PB)三角洲分流河道(DC)湖成三角洲和湖岸线(L)风成沙漠(E)海岸线和三角洲前缘(S)海蚀陆棚(SH)和深海(DW)。Eachsandstonehasitsownuniquesetofinternalfeaturesandgeometrythatcontrolsthenatureofpetroleumproduction每一种砂岩都具有控制油气产出性质的自身特有的一组内部特征和几何形态。onecanIfobserveincoreoroutcroptheinternalfeaturesofinorganicandorganicsedimentarystructures,textures,paleonyologyandcomposition,theenvironmentofdepositioncanbereconstructedandusedasanaidinexploration如能从岩心或露头上观察出无机和有机的沉积构造的内部特征、结构、古生物和组成,就可以重建沉积环境并用作勘探中的一个手段。、Diageneticalterationistheruleratherthantheexceptionincarbonatesandtheseprocessesfrequentlymodifyorobscuretheprimarydepositionalporositycharacteristics就碳酸盐岩而言,成岩变化是规律而不是异常。这种变化作用往往是原生沉淀特征发生变化或难以分辨。、DolomitizationcanplayadualroleGenerally,itwillimproveareservoirbyincreasingtheporesize,atothertimes,porositymaybedestroyedwhendolomitizationcreatesadenseinterlockingcrystalmosaicDolomitizationpreferentiallyaffectsthefinegrainedmatrixmaterialmatrixandmaybeaccompaniedbysolutionoflagerskeletalgrainstoformvugs白云石化作用可起双重作用。一般来说,它会通过增加孔隙度使储集层得到改善,另一些场合,当它产生致密交织结晶镶嵌结构时,孔隙可能遭到破坏。白云石化作用优先影响细粒基质物质,并可能伴以大量骨架颗粒溶解,形成孔洞。NEWwordsporosity孔隙度accessorymineral副矿物primarypermeability原始渗透率Genesis起源,成因fluvial河流的,冲积的delta三角洲depositionalsetting沉积背景,沉积环境Supratidalenvironment潮上环境Recrystallization再结晶,重结晶过程补充:carbonateplatform碳酸盐岩台地diagenetic成岩的,成岩作用wirelinelog电缆测井diageneticprocess成岩翻译:南海处于欧亚板块、太平洋板块、印度板块三大板块交汇处,经历了复杂的地质作用,在其北部、西部、中南部形成了数目众多,类型各异的沉积盆地,石油地质、油气资源潜力巨大。其中南海北部陆架区已成为中国近海的主要油气产区之一。陆坡深水区的勘探也获得了重大突破。现今油气形成了地球化学概念是基于富含有机质细粒沉积物在有利于有机质保存的条件下沉积形成的,有机质沉积后,转化作用立刻在微生物活动发生的地方开始。甲烷是这一转化阶段对油气勘探有意义的重要成分。Precambrianshield前寒武纪地盾Bedload推移质Geophsicaldata地球物理数据Petroleumreservoir石油储层Continentalmargin大陆边缘Grabenbasin断陷盆地carbonatebasin碳酸盐盆地kerogen干酪根Basement基底Diageneticprocess成岩过程vitrinitereflectivity镜质体反射率deltalenvironment三角洲沉积环境saltplug盐柱oilgeneratingwindow生油窗totalhydrocarbon总烃subsurfacedeposit地下油藏primarymigration初次运移geothemalgradient地温梯度primaryporosity原生孔隙度stratigraphiccolumn地层柱状图Molecularweight分子量Interparticleporosity粒间孔隙度Landscape景观Heterogeneity异质性,不均匀性naturalscience自然科学grarben地堑,地堑带matrix矩阵,模型,基质intermontanebasin山间盆地

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