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首页 常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨 [字体大中小](Discussion on propositi…

常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨 [字体大中小](Discussion on proposition design of physics examination paper in junior high school in Changde).doc

常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨 [字体大中小](Discus…

浮生若如梦_
2018-12-12 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨 [字体大中小](Discussion on proposition design of physics examination paper in junior high school in Changde)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨字体大中小(DiscussiononpropositiondesignofphysicsexaminationpaperinjuniorhighschoolinChangde)常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨字体大中小(DiscussiononpropositiondesignofphysicsexaminationpaperinjuniorhighschoolinChangde)ToexplorethepropositiondesignofChangdecityjuniormiddleschoolphysicaltestfont:HYPERLINK"javascript:fontZoom()"HYPERLINK"javascript:fontZoom()"HYPERLINK"javascript:fontZoom()",propositions,principlesandrequirementsTheauthorpointsoutthatthephysicalcurriculumstandard,learningevaluationistopromotethedevelopmentofstudentsinknowledgeandskill,processandmethod,emotionattitudeandvalues,findthepotentialofstudentstounderstandthedevelopmentneedsofthestudents,sothateachstudentcanseethemselvesthroughtheevaluationinthedevelopmentofstrength,reinforcementlearningconfidenceSo,examinationalsoshouldbebasedoncurriculumstandards,examinethecontentsandrequirementsshouldbeconsistentwiththeprovisionsofthecurriculumstandardSpecifically,thequestionslifesystemshouldfollowthefollowingprinciples:()weshouldpayattentiontothebasicknowledgeandbasicskills,topreventmorethanoverstatingthecurriculumstandards()payattentiontoselectmaterialsarefamiliarfromthereallifeofstudents,studentsexaminetheextractionofinformation,abilityofanalyzingandhandlingtheproblemsintheactualsituation,toguidethedevelopmentofteachingwithstudents'reallifeandsocialreality,payattentiontoscienceandtechnology()weshouldpayattentiontotheexaminationofscientificinquiryability,andguidetheteachingtopayattentiontotheinquiryprocessandmethod()thetestofexpressionshouldbescientificandrigorous,smooth,clear,conciseandcleargraphics,layoutreasonableandbeautiful,whichisconvenientforstudentstoansweryou,refusedtoambiguousexpressionandinducestudentstobetrickyquestion,strangequestions,problems()thepropositionisfocusontheunderstandingofstudents'academiclevel,shouldnotdwellonminorproblemsTheexaminationquestionsshouldbetrulyabletotestouttheactuallevelofstudents,forstudentsatdifferentlevelsofthetruelevelofplaytypesandfunctionsandcharacteristicsoftestquestionsStudents'academicproficiencytestshouldselectappropriatetestquestions,andpayattentiontotherationalityofthestructureofthequestions,soastorealizethecomplementationofthedetectionfunction,andhelptoachievetheoveralltestobjectivesThephysicsacademicassessmentquestionscommonlyusedare:selectionandfillintheblanks,shortanswerquestions,anddesignandcalculationofexperimentalproblemsandopenquestionschooseandfillintheblanksChooseandfillintheblanksto"choosereaction"test,ortestThistestiscalledobjectivejudgmenttopic,matchingandotherformsThiskindoftestisusuallynotacompletestatementofstudentsthroughtheselectionorfillintheblankstoformacompletestatement,thetestfeatureissimple,studentscancompletealargenumberofthesubjectinashortperiodoftimeThisproblemismainlyusedtoteststudents'knowledgeandskills,sometimesalsocanexaminethehigherlevelofthinkingabilityThepropositionofchoosingandfillingintheblanks:()thequestionshouldbemadeupofanindependentquestionandclearlystated()donotusenegativesentencesinthequestions,andthenegativewordsinthequestionsmustbeclearlymarkedinthetopicoftheuseofnegativesentences()thechoiceofquestionsshouldbeconsistentwiththegrammarofthequestionsTheoptionsaresimilarinlengthandform,anddonotrevealcluestothecorrectanswers()randomlyarrangethelocationofthecorrectoptionintheinterferenceitem,andtheinterferenceitemshouldbetheresultofthewronganswerintheactualtarget()theanswertofillintheblanksshouldbeconcise,avoidingambiguityandambiguity,Itcaninvolvesomesimplecalculation,butthedifficultyisnottoohigh()choosingandfillingintheblanksaremainlyusedtoexaminethemasteryofstudents'knowledgeandskills,andtoavoidduplicationandmemoryofphysicalconceptsandlaws,theyshouldbediscriminated,appliedandunderstoodinacertainsituationsimpleandcalculationWiththesimplecalculationproblembelongstotheconstructionof"reaction"test,orsubjectivequestionsThesequestionsfocusonexaminingthestudentstousephysicalknowledgeandmethodsofanalysis,theabilitytosolvepracticalproblems,theuseofphysicalconceptsandrulesofinterpretation,inference,discourse,textorganizationandexpressionabilityandabilitytousephysicalformulatheabilityofthiskindofproblemisusuallymorecomplexphysicalsituationsandphysicalprocess,reflectthecomprehensiveanalysisabilityofstudentsthroughthetestUsetheessentialsandcalculationoftheproposition:()theanswertoaquestionisusuallyintheformofadirectquestion,andoccasionallythereisablankfillingtype()withthecontentofEnglishdirectshortansweranswernotthinking,shouldbeopen,fromdifferentanglesanddirectionstoexaminestudents'understandingandapplicationofphysicalconceptsandlaws,reflectthestudentsofdifferentlevel()thequestionofasimpleanswershouldnotbetoocomplicatedforthestudentstoanswerandfacilitatethejudgmentoftheteacher()calculationquestionsshouldbecreatedbyacertainimpersonalsituation,andsomelistsofconditionsordatashouldbeavoided()thelanguageofthestatementisscientific,concise,understandableandunambiguous,andthedataprovidedareappropriateandreasonable()thecalculationquestionpursuestheunderstandingofthephysicalprocessandthecomprehensiveapplicationofthephysicalmethod,ratherthandeliberatelypursuingtheskillsofsolvingproblemsexperimentanddesignquestionsExperimentanddesignproblemsisnotaseparateitemintheclassification,tofillintheblanks,generalchoice,shortanswer,orotherformsofdesigncalculation,giventheimportanceofexperimentanddesigninthephysicssubjectsoaloneusuallylistinphysicaltestThesequestionsmainlytestobservationcheckstudentsanalysisability,handsonability,informationcollectionandprocessingability,judgmentabilitytoquestiondesignandapplicationability,canbetterreflectthecomprehensivequalityofthestudentsPropositionofexperimentanddesignquestions:()theexaminationofbasicmeasuringtoolsandinstrumentsandthebasicprinciplesandmethodsofexperimentshouldbecheckedinacertainsituationandprocess,soastoavoidisolated"special"examination,otherwisethereissuspicionofrotelearning()takethedemonstrationexperiment,thestudentexperimentorthesmallexperimentasthebackground,testseachkindofbasicexperimentability()naturalphenomenatothestudentsarefamiliarwiththesociallifeasthebackground,scienceandtechnology,theexperimentalprincipleandmethodbasedonstudents,embodytheconceptofscientificresearchandthinking,studentsexaminetheapplicationanddesignability,reflectthestudents'abilityofinnovationandpractice()theillustrationsofexperimentaloperationsshouldbestandardized,andtheexperimentaldatagivenshouldbetrueopenquestionsOpenquestionsusuallyhavethecharacteristicsofnotuniqueanswersTherearethreetypesofopenconditions,processesandmethods,andopenconclusions,suchaswritingobservation,questioningandinquiringreports,designingsolutionstophysicalproblems,etcThiskindofexaminationquestionsleavethestudentsawiderspaceofthinking,whichfocusesontheflexibility,fluency,sharpnessandprofundityofthestudents'thinking,Observationability,analysisability,expressionabilityofreadingcomprehensionteststudents,andcomprehensiveuseofknowledgeandskillsSuchquestionsoccurmorefrequentlyinrecentyearsintheexam,cantrainstudents'creativespirit,buildthedesireandpassionoflearning,improvethecomprehensivequalityofstudentsThepropositionalessentialsofopenquestions:()thecontentofthepropositionandtheobjectofstudymustbefamiliartothestudents,Theknowledgeinvolvedcannotbetoodeep,itisbettertolearntheknowledgecansolve()openingupshouldhaveadegree,cannotopen,sothatstudentscannotunderstandOpenoreasytoanswerOpenspaceisgoodforlearningItisalsobeneficialtotrainstudents'divergentthinkingandcreativeabilityClassificationandjudgmentofTeacherspropositiontechniqueprepareatwowaydetailedlistoftestquestionsWeknowthatthegoalofphysicalcurriculumincludesknowledgeandskills,processesandmethods,attitudesandvaluesofthethreedimensionaltarget"Toachievethegoalofprocessandmethod,isbasedonthe"knowledgeandskills"asthecarrier,throughtheprocessofscientificinquiryimplementationTherefore,thetestcannotbedivorcedfromtheknowledgeandskillstest,cannotbeseparatedfromtheprocessoftestmethodsandabilities"emotionalattitudeandvalues"intheprocessof"knowledgeandskills"and"processandmethod"intheformationofthehighestlevelofexperience,graduallyformedSointheexam,examthefirsttargetofbidirectionalbreakdownquestionsmaterialsource()closetotheteachingmaterialsandstudents'lives,fromwhichthecontentofthephysicsknowledgeandthebasicknowledgeandskillsofthestudentsshouldbeexaminedandconstructed()fromthesceneofphysicalphenomenaindailylifeandproductionpracticeandconsideration,letthestudentsdescribethemainfeaturesofasimplephysicalphenomenon,toexaminethestudents'abilitytodiscoverandsolvetheproblemsputforwardquestions,andguidestudentstoobservethelifeandproductionhabits()thecombinationoftechnologyandsocialfocusandlearntheknowledgeofthephysicsofcontactpoints,suchastherelationshipbetweenpeopleandsociety,nature,environment,energy,newmaterials,newtechnologyandotherissues,throughtheformofinformation,studentscollectinformation,theabilitytomakeasimplescientificresearchprogramandexperimentalscheme,andwritingabilityexpressionandexchangeofreflectionandevaluationoftheexperienceoftherelationshipbetweenpeopleandsociety,naturalandharmonious()canalsoproceedfromthedisciplinesofknowledgeandsystems,orfromthedisciplineandotherdisciplinesrelatedknowledge,attheintersectionofthem,wereobservedandanalyzedfromdifferentangles,digoutthefactorofscientificmethod,teststudents'comprehensiveabilityofapplyingknowledgecasesofbicycletothelifeofpeoplebroughttheconvenienceoftrafficAsshowninFigure,thebicyclewheelconsistsofwoodenwheel,ironwheelintheearlystageofdevelopmenttotheinflatablerubberwheeltodayIftheinflatablerubbertirereplacedbyironwheels,pleaseuseaphysicsknowledgelisttwowrongTheINCLUDEPICTURE"MERGEFORMATINET()()Comments:thematerialisfromthepeoplearoundthetooloflife,butalsostudentsaremostfamiliarwiththemeansoftransportation,FindinclosecontactwiththelocaljuniorhighschoolphysicsknowledgeThisisaseriesofquestionsandopenquestionsofthemechanicsoflife,throughthehistoryofthedevelopmentofabicyclewheel,whichleadstothetopic,throughreversethinking,canexaminestudents'thinkingagilityandflexibility,andaccordingtotheanalysis,judgmentabilityproblems,sciencereasonableimaginationcasesofexpresswayisthelifelineofnationaleconomicdevelopment,China'snationalhighwaydesignlifeofyears,asshowninFigureisputintouseafteryearsofnationalhighwayphotosPleasecarefullylookatthephotos,andthenlistthemaininformationoftheobservedtwoAndthroughtheobservation,asacorollaryofwhathappenedloveyouWhatistheexperienceorknowledgetomakethisinferencePredictwhatwillhappennextYourpredictionisbasedonwhatevidenceorexperienceTheMERGEFORMATINET"INCLUDEPICTUREComment:ThisisareflectionofsocialphenomenaFromthepictureintheroadfoundphenomenon,willcomeunderthewheelwasseverelydamaged,therelationshipbetweenapplicationofcausality,thereasonofthephenomenonofstudentsmakeappropriateinferences,andmadeapredictionofthefutureToexaminestudentobservationandexpressionability,andfoundtheproblemthatabilitytomakeinference,analysisandpredictionusingthecausalitymethod,showsthebasicelementsoftheprocessofscientificinquiryAtthesametime,theprofoundsocialsignificance,infiltrationofhumanandnature,harmoniousdevelopmentofsocietyconsciousnessExampleAsshowninFig,akettleisheateddirectlyontheflameThekettleisplacedonathicksheetofmetalandheatedontheflameWhenthetwopotsofwaterboilandwhistle,theyturnoffthefireatthesametime(A)astopsoundkettle,kettleBcancontinuetosoundTheINCLUDEPICTURE"MERGEFORMATINET(B)thekettlecontinuestosoundwhenthekettlestopssounding(C)afteralongperiodoftime,thetwopotscancontinuetosound(D)thetwokettlesimultaneouslystopsmakingsoundsThisisacomment:inspiredinthedish"Teppanyaki"compiledThisproblemisnotdirectlyconsiderthewaterboilingconditions,butsetupaphysicalscene,letthestudentthroughtheobservationandcomparisonofdifferentthinkingandLenovo,andthenanalyzetheinferencethat"cancontinuetovoice"istheessenceofwatercancontinueboiling,whileboilingconditionisreachedtheboilingpointandcontinuetoheat,beforetheconditionhasbeenreached,butthelatterconditioncanberealized,thekeyproblemoccurredinthethickmetalplate,themetalplateservesasaheatsourceTheexampleisshowninFigureinasuburbofHuaianforest,timbertreeshavebeencut,ontheground,leavingastumpThestudentsusetheweekendtotheforesttoparticipateinafforestationactivities,thereisagroupofgeesemigratingfromrighttoleft,todeterminethedirectionofflightofgeeseclassmateXiaoGangtookacompass,compasspointasshowninFigPleaseaccordingtotheinformationprovidedinfigureAisdeterminedtohelpsmallneedleend,thisseasonfortheseasonINCLUDEPICTURE""cnandfanzengjpg"*mergeformatinet评析:大雁迁徙、树木年轮是学生所知的自然现象,以此为素材,结合植树造林活动的背景活动,编制了这道多学科知识综合渗透的信息题不少学校有考什么,就教什么的现象,因而就轻视非考试科目的教学工作例积雪对公路行车的危害主要表现在路况的改变路面积雪经车辆压实后,车轮与路面间的摩擦力减小,汽车易左右滑摆同时,汽车的制动距离也难以控制,一旦车速过快、转弯太急,都可能发生交通事故专家研究表明,气温不同,积雪的厚薄不同,对行车的危害也不一样当积雪厚度在~cm,气温在左右时,汽车最容易发生事故因为在这种条件下,路面上的冰雪常会呈"夜冻昼化"状态此时,护路工人常在路面上撒大量的盐,可以避免"夜冻昼化"现象,即在相同气温条件下,融化了的冰雪不再结冰,从而减少了交通事故的发生提出问题:在相同气温条件下,为什么撒了盐的"雪水"不易结冰猜想与假设:请你用学过的物理知识,针对这一现象产生的原因提出一个合理的猜想,并说出你猜想的理由:猜想:理由:设计实验方案:针对你的猜想,设计一个实验方案,验证猜想的正确性实验方案及主要步骤:分析与交流:除了在路面上撒盐外,你还有什么常用的办法,可以避免或减少交通事故,这样做的道理是什么方法:道理:评析:本题从学生比较熟悉的自然与社会现象出发,背景设置自然,这是一道综合应用与实验设计题体现了新课程的教学理念,突出实验探究的过程考查了学生科学的猜想能力(要求说出理由,而不是乱猜)、应用物理知识与技能和物理方法(隐型的控制变量法)进行实验方案设计的能力和阅读理解能力,通过"分析与交流"又拓展了学生的思维和解决问题的方法编制试题的方法试题编制,通常是根据所学科学知识内容及相关生活、生产实际、科技与社会热点中的问题情景,寻找有价值考查问题,确定考查目标和命题指导思想,通过简明的文字、图表等方式表述,以适当的题型呈现出寻找考点有两种方法:方法一,根据素材找考点,即首先挖掘生活、生产实际、科技与社会热点中,Thephysicalproblemsassociatedwiththestudents'knowledge,andthenfindoutthescientificknowledge,scientificprocessesandscientificmethodsthatcanreflectthephysicalproblemsmethodstwo,startingfromthetestsitetofindthematerial,thatis,todeterminewhatkindoftestScientificknowledge,scientificprocessandscientificmethod,andthenfindthecorrespondingphysicalproblemstestpaperprincipleanddifficultycontrolIsthepreparationofagoodtestquestions,requestfactorsaccordingtotheexamination,theexaminationtargetproperties,etc,combinedintoacompletetestprocessHaveagreatrelationshipwithapapertestpaperofhighqualityquality,goodproblemmaynotformagoodpaperprinciplesandrequirementsoftestpapergeneration()accordingtotheexamination,examinationquestionstodeterminethenatureandtargetitemtypesandquantitydistributionproportionAstheacademicexaminationquestions,subjectiveandobjectivescoresthanin:,theexaminationtimeofminutes,intheamountofaboutitems()theexaminationpapershouldbemorethan~inthethreedimensionaltarget'smanifestationandtheknowledgespotcoverage()thearrangementofthequestionsshouldbeinlinewiththestudents'psychologicalcharacteristics,anditisbeneficialtothestudents'answersAsawhole,theyareeasyanddifficult,andeachkindofquestionarrangementshouldbeeasyanddifficultafterwardsdifficultyandcontroloftestpaperThedifficultyofcontroltestisoneofthekeyfactorsoftheproposition,thereisaverysignificantroleinguidingtheteaching,oneofthemostdifficulttograspisthepropositionintheprocessDuetothenatureoftheexamination,theexaminationofthedifferentdegreeofdifficultywillhavedifferentrequirements,controlthegeneralacademicdifficultyofexamataround,thecoefficientofdifficultythetestpapersevengreaterThecontrolfactorsanddifficultytoconsidermanyaspects,suchasstudyobjectives,students,teachingeffect,thequestionsitselftherearemanyfactors,suchashowmuchtheamountofreading,textsize,writingvolume,novelquestions,thinkingofqualityandquantityofthinkinganswersizeSolvingcomplexity,testarrangementandorder,strictstandardforevaluationandsoonEspeciallyanovel,thedifficultymaybefarmorethanthesocalled"highdifficultystudentsarefamiliarwiththethinking"questionsThesemustbefullytakenintoaccount,inordertoeffectivelycontrolthedegreeofdifficulty***JimiSoft:,Unregistered,Software,Convert,Part,Of,File,Read,Help,To,Know,ONLY,How,To,Register***

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常德市初中物理试卷命题设计的探讨 [字体大中小](Discussion on proposition design of physics examination paper in junior high school in Changde)

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