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首页 华中师范大学2003年城环学院自然地理专业硕士研究生复试试题

华中师范大学2003年城环学院自然地理专业硕士研究生复试试题.doc

华中师范大学2003年城环学院自然地理专业硕士研究生复试试题

盘古开苞闯天涯
2019-05-31 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《华中师范大学2003年城环学院自然地理专业硕士研究生复试试题doc》,可适用于综合领域

华中师范大学城环学院自然地理专业年硕士研究生复试试题华中师范大学城环学院自然地理专业年硕士研究生复试试题一、地球运动有哪些地理意义(分)二、季风对我国东部降水有何影响(分)三、地球水循环与人类水资源供应有何联系(分)四、生态因子怎样影响生物种群增长(分)五、人类活动对地理环境变化有何影响(分)六、英译汉(分)*注意:括号中系有下划线的词或短语对应的中文含义人名(黑体)不必译成中文。EcologicalEconomicsandSustainabilityPerhapsthemostsalient(突出的,显著的)contributionofecologicaleconomicsisitschallengetomanyofthefundamentalprecepts(戒律,格言)ofneoclassical(新古典主义的)economictheoryIntheviewadvocatedbyecologicaleconomists,aneconomyisa‘onewayentropicthroughputofenergyandmaterials(耗散过程)’asopposedtotheneoclassicalviewofacircularflowofexchangevaluewithoutanyexplicitlinkstothebiophysicalworldThecentralaimofecologicaleconomicsinvolvesdescribingtherelationshipbetween‘dynamichumaneconomicsystemsandlargerdynamic,butnormallyslowerchangingecologicalsystems’。Initsnormative(标准的,规范的)sense,thisrelationshipenvisionsasocioecologicalcontextwherein‘()humanlifecancontinueindefinitely,()humanindividualscanflourish(充分发展),and()humanculturescandevelopbutinwhicheffectsofhumanactivitiesremainwithinbounds,soasnottodestroythediversity,complexity,andfunctionoftheecologicallifesupportsystem’。Withfewvariants(变体,变种),thethemesimplicitinthisdefinition–intergenerationalequity,meetingbasichumanneedsandintegratingconcernforecologicalprocessesintoeconomiccalculations–haveremainedthefundamentalbuildingblocksofecologicaleconomicsThenotionofintergenerationalequitychallengessomeofthecentralassumptionsofconventionaleconomicthinkingAsaresultofecologicaleconomists‘efforts’tounderstandhowtoapproachgrowthpolicyinawaythatwouldnotimpoverishthefuture‘,sometimetestedtoolsofeconomicshavecomeunderfireForexample,theideaofintergenerationalequityconfrontstheuseofdiscountratesineconomicanalysesMakingintergenerationalequityaprimarygoalalsocarriessalientnormativeimplicationsOnepathtowardsoperationalizingsustainabilityisaconstructedsocialorderconsistingofan’intertemporalcontract‘basedonthepreceptsofregency(摄政)andsocialbequests(遗产)。Ecologicaleconomists‘dialogonintergenerationalequityisabetted(煽动,支持)byargumentsforintragenerationalequityandmeetingthebasicneedsofcurrenthumansocietiesOnemanifestationofthisconcernisGoodlandandDaly’scallforacleardistinctionbetweeneconomicgrowthandeconomicdevelopmentAlongtheselines,reformingeconomicprocessesandreducingthesocioeconomicillsassociatedwithunevendevelopmentwouldentail(vt必需)ashiftawayfromneoliberalvisionsofglobaleconomicintegrationtoafocusondomesticproductiontodevelopinternalmarketsThereisalsoanemergingchallengetohowmainstreamenvironmentalandresourceeconomicstreattheenvironmentpovertynexus(关系)。Theassumptionthatonlyrichcountriesexhibitenvironmentalawarenessignoresan‘environmentalismofthepoor’whichseekstomaintainaccesstocommunal(公共的)resourcesunderthreatfromstatedevelopmentprogramsandmarketprocessesAnotherbroadthrustinecologicaleconomicsistheargumentthatoperationalizingsustainabilitydemandsredirectingeconomicandenvironmentalpoliciestoensureanondepletingstockofnaturalcapitalEnvironmentalvaluationhasemergedastheprimarymethodofaccomplishingsuchatransitionbyinsertingawarenessoverecologicalentitiesandservicesintothecalculus(计算)ofeconomicwellbeing(福利)。Costanzaadvocatesa‘biophysicalbasisforvalue’thatarguessocietalvaluesshouldbebasedonthedegreetowhichaparticularevolutionaryproductisorganizedintermsofavailabilityforhumanuseCarryingthisargumenttoitslogicalconclusion,oneinterdisciplinaryteamofresearchersusesvaluationtechniquestoplacethetotalvalueoftheplanet‘secosystemgoodsintheneighborhoodofUS$trillion(兆万亿)peryearAsimilarlogiccouldbeappliedtothevalueof’sustainingservices‘withintheoverallproductionprocessInadditiontoenvironmentalvaluation,ecologicaleconomistsofferseveralrelatedpolicyrecommendationsaimedprimarilyatgovernmentalandmultilateral(多边的)developmentinstitutionsTheseincludereformofnationalaccountingsystemstoincludenaturalcapitalineconomiccalculationsgreentaxesonecologicallyharmfuleconomicactivitieslinkedtolowertaxesonlaborandincomeinvestmentstrategiestomaintainnaturalcapitalatcurrentlevelsandendorsementofthe’precautionaryprinciple‘ascentraltenet(宗旨)ofenvironmentalpolicy

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华中师范大学2003年城环学院自然地理专业硕士研究生复试试题

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