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首页 名词性从句讲解及练习题

名词性从句讲解及练习题.doc

名词性从句讲解及练习题

家鱼的小胖
2017-09-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《名词性从句讲解及练习题doc》,可适用于考试题库领域

名词性从句讲解及练习题高考名词性从句讲解与练习题在复合句中起名词作用的从句叫做名词性从句。它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。名词性从句是中学阶段的一个重要语法项目在历年的高考中几乎都涉及到并且每年的命题各有变化。分析历届高考试题名词性从句考查的焦点主要有以下六个方面考查名词性从句的语序问题考查引导词that与what的区别(that在从句中不充当成分what在从句中作主语、宾语或表语)考查it在名词性从句中作形式主语或形式宾语的用法考查whether与if的区别考查名词性从句中的疑问词ever引导的名词性从句与nomatter疑问词引导的状语从句的区别考查名词性从句的虚拟语气问题语法要点剖析一、名词性从句主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句在整个句子中所起的作用相当于一个名词。因此这四种从句通称为名词性从句。引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:连接词:that,whether,if(不充当从句的任何成分)连接代词:what,whatever,who,whoever,whom,whose,which连接副词:when,where,how,why主语从句作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词thatwhetherif和连接代词whatwhowhichwhateverwhoever以及连接副词howwhenwherewhy等词引导。that在句中无词义只起连接作用连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又起连接作用在从句中充当从句的成分。例如:Whathewantstotellusisnotclear他要跟我们说什么还不清楚。Itisknowntoushowhebecameawriter我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。WheretheEnglisheveningwillbeheldhasnotyetbeenannounced英语晚会将在哪里举行还没有宣布。有时为避免句子头重脚轻常用形式主语it代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首而把主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下:()Itbe名词that从句()Itbe形容词that从句()Itbe动词的过去分词that()It不及物动词that从句另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时谓语动词要用虚拟语气“(should)do”常用的句型有:Itisnecessary(important,natural,strange,etc)that„Itisapity(ashame,nowonder,etc)that„Itissuggested(requested,proposed,desired,etc)that„宾语从句名词句用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。引导宾语从句的关联词与引导主语从句表语从句的关联词大致一样在句中可以作谓语动词或介词及非谓语动词的宾语。由连接词that引导的宾语从句由连接词that引导宾语从句时that在句中不担任任何成分在口语或非正式的文体中常被省去但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的that不可省。例如:HehastoldmethathewillgotoShanghaitomorrow他已经告诉我他明天要去上海。Wemustneverthink(that)wearegoodineverythingwhileothersaregoodinnothing我们决不能认为自己什么都好别人什么都不好。注意:在demand、order、suggest、decide、insist,desire,demand,request,command等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后宾语从句常用“(should)动词原形”。例如:Iinsistthatshe(should)doherworkalone我坚持要她自己工作。Thecommanderorderedthattroops(should)setoffatonce司令员命令部队马上出发。用whowhom,which,whose,what,when,where,why,how,whoever,whatever,whichever等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句应注意句子语序要用陈述语序。例如:Iwanttoknowwhathehastoldyou我想知道他告诉了你什么。Shealwaysthinksofhowshecanworkwell她总是在想怎样能把工作做好。Shewillgivewhoeverneedshelpawarmsupport凡需要帮助的人她都会给予热情的支持。用whether或if引导的宾语从句其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒仍保持陈述句语序。此外whether与if在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether不用if:a引导主语从句并在句首时b引导表语从句、同位语从句时c引导从句作介词宾语时d从句后有“ornot”时e后接动词不定式时。例如:Whetherthereislifeonthemoonisaninterestingquestion月球上有没有生命是个有趣的问题。Everythingdependsonwhetherwehaveenoughmoney一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。注意宾语从句中的时态呼应当主句动词是现在时从句根据自身的句子情况而使用不同时态。例如:hestudiesEnglisheveryday(从句用一般现在时)hestudiedEnglishlastterm(从句用一般过去时)Iknow(that)hewillstudyEnglishnextyear(从句用一般将来时)hehasstudiedEnglishsince(从句用现在完成时)当主句动词是过去时态(could,would除外)从句则要用相应的过去时态如一般过去时过去进行时过去将来时等当从句表示的是客观真理科学原理自然现象则从句仍用现在时态。例如:TheteachertoldusthatTomhadleftusforAmerica(think,believe,imagine,suppose等等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中要把上述主句中的动词变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。例如:Wedon’tthinkyouarehere我们认为你不在这。Idon’tbelievehewilldoso我相信他不会这样做。表语从句在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。引导表语从句的关联词与引导主语从句的关联词大致一样表语从句位于连系动词后有时用asif引导。其基本结构为:主语系动词that从句。例如:Thefactisthatwehavelostthegame事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。Thatiswhyhedidn’tcometothemeeting那就是他为什么不到会的原因。Itlooksasifitisgoingtorain看上去天要下雨了。需要注意的当主语是reason时表语从句要用that引导而不是because。例如:Thereasonwhyhewaslatewasthathemissedthetrainbyoneminutethismorning同位语从句同位语从句说明其前面的名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由that引导可用于同位语从句的名词有advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word(消息)等。例如:Thenewsthatwewonthegameisexciting我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。Ihavenoideawhenhewillcomebackhome我不知道他什么时候回来。ThethoughtcametohimthatMaryhadprobablyfallenill他想到可能玛丽生病了。同位语从句和定语从句的区别:that作为关系代词可以引导定语从句充当句子成分在从句中作宾语时可以省略that引导同位语从句时起连词的作用没有实际意义不充当句子成分一般不能省略。试比较下面两个例句:Ihadnoideathatyouwerehere((that引导同位语从句不能省略)Haveyougottheidea(that)thisbookgivesyouoflifeinancientGreece,(that引导定语从句作宾语可以省略)名词性从句高考题(全国)Couldn’tIspeaktoisinchargerofInternationalSalespleaseAwhoBwhatCwhoeverDwhatever(北京)AtfirsthehatedthenewjobbutdecidedtogivehimselfafewmonthstoseeitgotanybetterAwhenBhowCwhyDif(湖南)SheisverydeartousWehavebeenpreparedtodoittakestosaveherlifeAwhicheverBhoweverCwhateverDwhoever(陕西)ThehowtobookcanbeofhelptowantstodothejobAwhoBwhomeverCnomatterwhoDwhoever(重庆)Weshouldconsiderthestudents’requesttheschoollibraryprovidemorebooksonpopularscienceAthatBwhenCwhichDwhere(安徽)AgoodfriendofminefromIwasbornshowedupatmyhomerightbeforeIleftforBeijingAhowBwhomCwhenDwhich(天津)ItisobvioustothestudentstheyshouldgetwellpreparedfortheirfutureAasBwhichCwhetherDthat(江苏)ManyyoungpeopleinthWestareexpectedtoleavecouldbelife’smostimportantdecisionmarriagealmostentirelyuptoluckAasBthatCwhichDwhat(浙江)IsthereanypossibilityyoucouldpickmeupattheairportNoproblemAwhenBthatCwhetherDwhat(四川)NewscamefromtheschoolofficeWangLinhadbeenadmittedtoBeijingUniversityAwhichBwhatCthatDwhere(四川)Iwonderyou’llwaterthiskindofflowerEveryotherdayAhowoftenBhowlongChowsoonDhowmuch(江西)ThefacthasworriedmanyscientiststheearthisbecomingwarmerandwarmertheseyearsAwhatBwhichCthatDthough(上海)ItisnotimmediatelyclearthefinancialcrisiswillsoonbeoverAsinceBwhatCwhenDwhether(上海)Asanewdiplomat,heoftenthinksofhecanreactmoreappropriatelyonsuchoccasionsAwhatBwhichCthatDhow(江西)ThefacthasworriedmanyscientiststheearthisbecomingwarmerandwarmertheseyearsAwhatBwhichCthatDthoug()NoonewillbesureinamillionyearsAwhatmanwilllooklikeBwhatwillmanlooklikeCmanwilllooklikeDwhatlookwillmanlike()IdrovetoZhuhaifortheairshowlastweekIsthatyouhadafewdaysoffAWhyBWhenCWhatDWhere()ThesuitfittedhimwellthecolourwasalittlebrighterAexceptforBexceptthatCexceptwhenDbesides()Youaresayingthateveryoneshouldbeequal,andthisisIdisagreeAwhyBwhereCwhatDhow()MarywroteanarticleontheteamhadfailedtowinthegameAwhyBwhatCthatDwhat()ThepooryoungmanisreadytoaccepthelphecangetAwhicheverBhoweverCwhateverDwhenever()SeetheflagsontopofthebuildingThatwaswedidthismorningAwhenBwhichCwhereDwhat()WhatdidyourparentsthinkaboutyourdecisionTheyalwaysletmedoIthinkIshouldAwhenBthatChowDwhat()mattersmostinlearningEnglishisenoughpracticeAWhatBWhyCWhereDWhich()CouldIspeaktoisinchargeofInternationalSalespleaseAwhoBwhatCwhoeverDwhatever答案:CDCDACDDBCACDDCADBBACDDAC

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