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首页 动物学2(Zoology 2)

动物学2(Zoology 2).doc

动物学2(Zoology 2)

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2018-05-02 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《动物学2(Zoology 2)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

动物学(Zoology)动物学(Zoology)Amnioticegg:anembryoniccavitysurroundedbyamnioticmembranegraduallyformedaroundtheembryobodyduringthegastrulastageoftheembryoThecavityisfilledwithamnioticfluid,whichcreatesawaterenvironmentforembryonicdevelopmentThezygotedevelopsinthematernaloviduct,andtheembryoenterstheorganformationstageatthetimeoflayingeggsThefetuswilldevelopandbebornsoonorshortlyaftertheeggisbornNewbrainskin:thebraincortex,whichstartsfromreptiles,iscalledneocortexIthasthefunctionofanalyzingandsynthesizinginformation,andcansenseallthesensesexceptsmellItisanadvancednerveactivitycenterMolting:duetothekeratinizationoftheepidermis,thescalesofreptilesmustberegularlyreplacedtoadapttothegrowthofthebody,formingregularpeelingruleTemporalforamen:atemporalarchformedbyabonyplatearoundtheheadoftheskullThetemporalmuscleisattachedtothetemporalmuscletoformthetemporalfossaThetemporalfossa,temporalismuscleandmasticatorymusclearerelatedtotheeffectivemasticationThoracicandabdominalbreathingBasedonexternalintercoleofthesaltglandofthereptile:locatedonthehead(dependingonthetypeofanimalsinthespecificposition),performingthefunctionofremovingsaltfromthekidneyThetongueglandsofcrocodilesalsohavethefunctionofsecretingsaltandsecretingmucusThelogarithmoftheneocortexandthecranialnervebeginswithpairsofcranialnervesThereareonlypairsofsnakesandlizardsReptiliacanbedividedintothebasicformofthelizard,snakeandturtleshapedformofspecialization,aresuitableforterrestrial,arboreal,terrestrial,burrowinganddifferentwaysoflifeReptiliasurfacebycutinflakeitwasdividedintohead,neck,trunkandtail,limbscanbeReptiliabodyactivitieseyelid(excepthouselizard),inthedepthsofthecanalunderthetympanicmembraneReptiliaanimal()arborealorclimbingspeciesareoftendevelopedattheedgeofthescales()crocodilesareofteninhornyscaleplates,abdominalpleural(dermalderivatives)()developingintoturtleterrapinDryskin,lackofglands,onlyfemoralglandsorfoetor,helpThesecondarypalateconsistsofthepalatineprocessofthemaxilla,maxilla,andpalatineboneTheappearanceofthesecondarypalatedividestheoralcavityandthenasalcavity,andtheinnernostrilmovesbackward,sothattherespiratorytractisunblocked,therespiratoryefficiencyisimproved,andthecontradictionthattheanimalcannotbreathewhenswallowedissolvedCrocodileshavecompletesecondarypalateThethoracic,ribandsternalstructuresofsomereptilesformthethoraxThethoraxisuniquetotheamnion,whichhastheabilitytoprotectthevisceraandenhancetheventilatorfunctionRibandintercostalmuscles,skinandabdominalbreathingmodeThetonguehasthefunctionofawarningdevice,orasenseorgan,orapredatorTheteethaccordingtotheirpositiontoendthepopulation,sidepopulation,thecodont,mostreptileshomodont,onlycrocodilesandlizardsdifferentiatedintoshapedteethThetoothtypeismorethanonetoothReptiliaanimalisdividedintoitems:sphenodontia,testudinata,Lacertilia,snakesandcrocodilesAlligatoristhemostadvancedanimalgroupinreptilesMainlyinthecirculatorysystem,thehearthascompletelyseparatedfromtheventricle,skullhasdevelopedsecondarypalate,twojawbornthecodontSnaketooth:groovetooth:shorter,theteethhavepoisonchannelcanalteeth:longer,insidethelumenSnakevenom:neurotoxicbloodpoisonNodeciduaplacenta:fetalplacentaandmaternalplacentaisnottight,whenthefetusisborn,fetalplacentaandmaternalplacentaeasytofalloff,willnotcauseuterinewallbleedingDiffuseplacentaandlobedplacentaareplacentawithoutdeciduaDeciduateplacenta:placentacombinedwithplacenta,fetalbirth,fetalplacentaandplacentacannotbeseparatedfrom,resultinginthematernalfetalplacentatogetherwithendometrialtearoutputcausedbymaternaluterinewallbleedingAnnularplacentaanddiscoidplacentabelongtodeciduaplacentaSexualmaturation:infemales,theovariescanexpelfertileeggs,andbegintoshowsexualbehavior(sexualbehavioristoacceptmating)inthemalefingercancompletethematingbehavior,theejaculatedspermcanmakethefemaleconceiveBodymaturity:referstotheperiodwhenthelivestockhasbasicallyreachedthegrowthstageandreachedtooftheadultweightEstruscycle:thetimeintervalfromthebeginningofaestrustothebeginningofthenextestrusEstrus:afemalemammalreachingtheageofsexualmaturity,regularlyenteringestrusduringthebreedingseason,calledestrusAccordingtothedistributionofplacentalvilli,theplacentacanbedividedintotypes:diffuseplacenta,phyllodesplacenta,ringshapedplacentaanddiscoidplacentaThreetheconception,pregnancyanddeliveryofembryonicdevelopmentimportantcharacteristicsofmammals:viviparous,suckling,andconstanttemperatureBreastfeedingisachievedthroughmammaryglandactivity,andthemammaryglandistheuniqueorganofmammalsThehornofthemammalianhead:aspecializedproductoftheheadepidermisanddermisWeaponofdefenseCourtshiptraitsButrhinohornsaretheproductofwoolspecializationAnglehashole,angledoesnotbifurcate,lifetimedoesnotchangeSkullprotrudingbagwithangleaftertherealangle:hornysheathbifurcation,usuallyreplacedonceayearMammalsaredividedintoparts:head,neck,trunk,tailandlimbsHead:fleshylipsofmammalsisunique,suckingthemilkandfeedingstructureaeartocollectsoundtorso:includingthechestandabdomencervicalvertebraisacommonfeatureofmammalssacral,generalhealingisapieceofbonetailnumberofuncertaintyanddegradationThemammalianmandibleconsistsofasingletoothedbone,andisahallmarkofthemammalianskullThecharacteristicsofthezygomaticarchareoftenclassifiedasoneofthebasesofclassificationInordertoadapttodifferentlifestyles,terrestrialmammalsdevelopedthreewaysoffoot,toeandhoofinfoottypeAderivativeofmammalianskinhairsskinglandsclawshoofnailsandhornsThereisaspecialdiaphragminthethoraxofthemammal,whichseparatesthethoraciccavityfromtheabdominalcavityThelungislocatedinthethoraciccavity,andthethoraciccavityisuniquetothemammalsItisthebodycavitythatholdsthelungsandtheheartMassetermuscleisdividedintotemporalmuscle,massetermuscle,andtwobodymuscleMammalsheterodontmammalsteethdifferentiateintoincisors,canines,premolarsandmolarsThelastpremolarofthecarnivorousupperjawandthefirstmolarofthelowerjawareparticularlyenlarged,withasharptoothtip,whichisusedtoteartheflesh,calledthesplittoothFormoftoothout:toothout,toothoutMostmammalsaresinglestomachs,whereasherbivorousruminants(cattle,sheep,deer,etc)arerestomachsThecomplexstomachfromtherumen,reticulum,OmasumandabomasumoffourpartsThethreepartisthedeformationoftheesophagus,abomasumasabomasum,withthesecretionofdigestivefunction,isalsocalledtherumenofruminantstomach,stomachgrass,Themammaliannoseandmouthhasbeencompletelyseparatedfromthenasalturbinateshavedeveloped,onthenasalmucosa,withsensoryfunctionandpurification,thewarmandmoistairsuctionfunctionThemammaliannoseandmouthhasbeencompletelyseparatedfromthenasalturbinateshavedeveloped,onthenasalmucosa,withsensoryfunctionandpurification,thewarmandmoistairsuctionfunctionMammalianbreathingmode:thoracicbreathingabdominalbreathingMammalshavethethorax,lungs,andheartlocatedinthethoraciccavityThechestthroughthediaphragm(diaphragm)andintraperitonealvolumeseparateddiaphragmbackandforthmovementcanchangethechest(calledabdominalbreathing),ribliftingcanenlargeorreducethevolumeofthethoraciccavity(Xiongshihuxi),themammalianlungpassiveexpansionandretraction,completeexhalationandinhalationAboutofthebodyfluidisdistributedinthecell,calledtheintracellularfluidtherestoftheextracellularfluid,includingintercellularfluid,plasma,lymphandcerebrospinalfluid,etcExtracellularfluidisoftenreferredtoastheinternalenvironmentoftheorganismTheheartisdividedintofour:two,twowithatrialventricular,threetricuspidvalveontherightsideoftheroom,theleftatriumandtheleftventriclewithmitralvalveTherearethreesemilunarvalvesinthebaseofthegreatarteryThesevalveshavethefunctionofpreventingbloodfromflowingbackwardsThebasicstructureofthekidneyisthenephron,andthenephronisthebasicunitoftheurinarysystemEachrenalunitconsistsofarenalcorpuscleandasegmentofrenaltubuleRenalcorpuscleincludingglomus(glomerulus)andrenalsacculeRenalproximaltubule,includingmedullaryloop,distalconvolutedtubule,distaltubulegatheredmanycollectingtubules,collectingtubulesintherenalpapillarycollectingductconfluence,manymanifoldHuichengcalyces,throughtheholesonthenippleopeningsintherenalpelvisMammalshavethecentralnervoussystem,theperipheralnervoussystem,andtheautonomicnervoussystemThebrainconsistsofapairofhemispheres,withthelateralventriclesThetwohemispheresareconnectedbythecorpuscallosum,whosestructureisnervefibers,andthecorpuscallosumisamammalianstructureAttheendofthebrainstriatumhasbeensignificantlydegradedintobasalganglia,asmodulatethemovementofsubcorticalcenterarchipalliumformationandatrophyofhippocampus,piriformlobe(intheloweranimalcalledtheancientcerebralcortex)witholfactorycenterThecerebellumisverydeveloped,anditisthebalancecenterofmovementcoordinationandmaintenanceofbodynormalpostureThecerebellarcortex,calledthecerebellum,isauniquestructureofmammalsCerebellarbellyconnectingthecerebralcortexandcerebellumofthepons,istheuniquestructureofmammalsThenervenucleiinthebrainofthemedullaoblongataareconnectedwiththesensoryandmotororgans,andarethecenterofvisceralactivityTheycontroltherespiration,digestion,circulation,secretionofsweatglandsandvariousdefensivereflexes,sotheyarealsocalledthevitalcentersSympatheticnervestimulationcausesrapidheartbeat,vasoconstriction,increasedbloodpressure,acceleratedrespiration,dilatedpupils,verticalhaircontraction,anddecreasedperistalsisofthedigestivetractMakethebodyinthe"stress"stateTheparasympatheticnerveganglionisveryclosetotheeffector,orontheeffector,sothepostganglionicnervefiberisveryshortSignificantlydifferentfromsympatheticnerveTheendocrineglandsofmammalsmainlyincludepituitarygland,thyroidgland,parathyroidgland,pancreasislet,adrenalgland,gonadandthymusglandThepituitaryglandsecretestwohormones:vasopressin(promotingreabsorptionofwaterbythekidneys)Oxytocin(promotingcontractionsandlactationoftheuterusduringchildbirth)Inordertospreadthecellsinthepancreas,therearetwokindsofcells:alphaandbetaAlphacellsecretionofglucagon(promotingglycogenolysis,elevatedbloodglucose)betacellinsulinsecretion(promotebloodglucoseintoliverglycogenandmuscleglycogen,reducebloodsugarlevels)Themalereproductiveorgansarecomposedoftestis,epididymis,vasdeferens,penisandsomeimportantaccessoryglandsTheepididymisisnotonlytheplacewherethespermisstored,butalsowherethespermmaturesThefemalereproductiveorgansconsistoftheovary,fallopiantube,uterus,vaginaandvulvaTherearetypesofmammalsinthewomb,doubleuterus,doubleuterus,doublehornuterus,singleuterusMammalshaveprogressivefeatureshasahighlydevelopednervoussystemandsenses,Abletocoordinatecomplexfunctionalactivitiesandadapttochangingenvironmentsoralcavityhasthefunctionofchewinganddigestion,whichgreatlyimprovestheenergyintakehasahighandconstantbodytemperature,reducingthedependenceontheenvironmentfastmovementabilitythesurvivalrateofoffspringisguaranteedbyviviparousandlactatingThemeaningofviviparous()providesconstanttemperatureprotection,nutritionandstabledevelopmentconditionsforthedevelopmentoftheembryo,andthethermostatistoensurethefavorablefactorsofenzymeactivitiesnormallycarriedout,sothattheenvironmentconditionofadverseeffectsonembryonicdevelopmentisreducedtotheminimumdegree()theviviparousbeasthasaprotectiveeffectonProbreeding,sotheoffspringsurvivalrateisincreased()theevolutionprovidesabroadprospectforthesurvivalanddevelopmentofmammalswayformation,withtheparentoffspringcanmigratetoanynewplacestoliveWhycan'tthebloodintheanimal'sbloodflowbackThebloodinthearterialbloodcomesfromtheheart,withpressure,thearterialwallhaswelldevelopedconnectivetissueandsmoothmusclefiberscontainingcollagenfibersandelasticfibers,sothesizeofthearterialbloodvesselscanbeadjustedwiththeflowofblood,thereisavalve(venousvalve)ontheinnerwalloftheveintube,whichcanpreventbloodflowbackwards,intheheart,theheartofeachroom,room,thereisavalve,topreventbloodrefluxTheclassificationofmammaliasubclassPrototheriaIImetatheriaEutheria,mammaliaanimalaccountedformorethanPrototheriaonlyoneeyeexistinganimalMonotremata,somelivinginAustraliaandnearbyislandsAtypicalanimal:platypusandechidnaEutheriasubhead()Insectivora()Scandentia()Chiroptera()primates()Edentata()andLinJiamu()Lagomorpha()Rodentia()Carnivora()finangle()ordersPerissodactyla(Proboscidea())"()CetaceaProtectwildlifehabitatforwildlifeconservationTheregulationsofPeople'sRepublicofChinaWildlifeNatureReservestipulatesthattherearekindsofwildanimalsandspeciesofwildlifeGiantpanda,RedCrownedCrane,SiberiantigerinChinaThreethereareanimals:NationalConservationofuseful,orhasimportanteconomicvalue,scientificresearchvalueofwildanimalsAvesNormalfoottoeinfront,toedhindtoeinsmaller,higherposition,nottotreadornohindtoeHavewebbedfeetforwardthreetoedhindtoein,aftertotipalmationconnected,smaller,higherpositionnottotreadornohindtoeDoublebreathing:inhalebirds,aportionoftheairintothepulmonarygasexchange,anotherpartoftheairintotheairstoragewhenthebirdsinthelungsexhale,dischargegas,gasstoragebagintothepulmonarygasexchange,sothebirdsbothininspiratoryandexpiratory,lungswerefreshairintothegaslinethisexchange,calleddualrespirationThebiggestcharacteristicoftheavianvisualisa"doubleregulation":theregulationofmusclebirdeyecrystalsintostriatedmuscle,itcanflexionbyrapidlychangingtheshapeofthelensandthecorneaoftheeye,theeyeinaninstantby"hyperopia"to"myopia"Syrinx:fromthetrachealintospecializedvocalorgans,islocatedatthejunctionoftracheaandbronchus,medialandlateralwallwerechangedtofilmforMing,MingmuscleIt'stheorganwherebirdscanmakeamusicalsoundOpenpelvis:thesymphysispubisandthepubicbonedonothealintheventralline,formingauniqueopenpelvisofbirds"LearningCenter:thenewbrainskinofthebirdbrainisstillundeveloped,theparietalwallofthebrainisthinbutthebottomofthebrainisdeveloped,calledthestriatum,whichisthecomplexinstinctandlearningcenterofbirdsFixednumberofeggs:ineachbreedingcycle,onlyafixednumberofnesteggs,iflost,doesnotsupplementproductionSuchasthemagpies,swallows,duckThenumberofeggslaidintheeggisnotequaltothenumberofeggsbeforetheeggisreachedSuchaspenguins,quail,duck,chickenandsoonPrecocialism:youngnestlingshatchedwhenfullydeveloped,Thesurfacedenselycoveredwithfeathers,eyeshavebeenopen,powerfullegs,downtodry,thenwiththeparentbirdsforagingbirdsSuchaschicken,duckAltricialyoungchicks:whenashellhypoplasia,theeyecannotopen,thewholebodysurfacebareoronlyslightlywithsparsefeathersforbirdsinthenesttolongtermfeeding,completedinlatedevelopmentalcanliveindependentlySuchaspasserine,albatrossandsoonMigration(migration):theregularandregularbehaviorofbirdsflyingbetweenbreedinggroundsandwinteringsiteseveryyearMigrationischaracterizedbyregular,directionalandintegratedgroupsResident(resident):referstotheyearroundhabitatinthebreedinggroundandnotmigratorybirdsSuchassparrows,magpiesandsoonMigratorybirds(migrant):birdsthatmigratebetweenbreedingandwinteringsiteseachyear,dependingontheseasonSummermigratorybirds:fliesinsummer,andgoessouthinwinterWintermigratorybirds:winteringinwinterandwinteringbirdsinthenorthofspringOthers:(passingmigrantbirds):summerinthenorthofourcountrybreedinginourcountrytothesouthinwinter,winter,springandautumninthenorthandsouthmigration,travelingthroughChina,asthehabitatofbirdsinashortStraybirds:Nowadaystherearemanytypesofbirds,intheautumnandwinterthenatureofwanderingorroaming,toobtainappropriatefoodsupply,knownasstraybirdsTypesofbirdtoes()normalfoot()offtoefoot()pairsoftoefoot()toefoot()andtoefoot()toeshapefootThetypesofpalamawebbedfeetsemiwebbedfeetlobedfootandwebbedfeetWingwingtipsidewingsofBirdParkAvianskinderivatives:feathers,tailfatglands,hornybeak,hornyscales,clawsanddistanceTherearethreetypesofbirdsofafeatherispoints,thetailfeatherfeatherfeatherfeathercoverts,Thefeathersofbirdsliveinacertainareaofthebodysurface,wherethefeatheriscalledthefeatherareatheplacewherethefeathersarenotiscalledthebareareaBirdsbycervical,thoracicandlumbarspine,sacrumandcoccyxcervicalnumberchanges,rangingfromgold,anemocoeloustypeofvertebralbodyThemostimportantistheaxialbonehealingsynsacrum,alsoknownasthesynsacrum,thoracic,lumbar,allbyahandfulofsacralandpartweizhuihealingandistheuniquestructureofthebirdsThelastfewpiecesofthecaudalfusedpygostyle,theirtailfeathers,playstheroleoftherudderThe"V"shapedforkistheuniquestructureofthebirdwiththerightclavicleanddegeneratedclavicleintheabdomenSternum:welldeveloped,platelike,centralkeelprotuberanceEnlargetheattachmentsurfaceofbreastmuscleSomebirdsforesophagealspecializedcrop,hasthefunctionofstorageandsofteningoffoodThestomachofbirds:dividedintoglandularstomachandmuscularstomachAlsocalledthegizzardgizzardwallmusclelayer,strong,leatherywallhardlayer,themainroleistogrindfoodgizzardTherelativesizeoftheheartofthebirdsisthefirstinvertebrates,aboutofthebodyweightThevalvesbetweentherightatriumandtherightventricleofthebirdsarecomposedofmuscle,whichisdifferentfromotherterrestrialvertebratesOneofthecharacteristicsofthevascularsystemofbirdsisthatthearterialarchoftheheartretainsonlytherightcoronaryarteryarchLeftventriculararteryarchdegenerationThekidneystructureofbirdsisclosertothatofreptiles,andtherelativevolumeofkidneyishigherthanthatofmammals,accountingforofthebodyweightTheformofnitrogencontainingwasteisuricacidIntheformationofovarianyolk,eggwhite,eggandeggshellmembraneisdifferentinfallopiantubeformationBirdsaredividedintosubclasses:Archaeornithesneornithes()ratitae()impennes()suddenchestheadRatitaevestigialwings,sternumkeelless,suitableforwalkingonthegroundDividedintoorders,theostrich(struthioniformes),rheiformes,casuariiformes,item,wingshapedheadImpennes()forelimbfin,suitableforwater()heavyboneisnotinflatedThesternumhaswelldevelopedkeelsHeadwingdevelopedwithsuddenchest,sternalkeel,goodatflyingImadeaboutheadbirdsuddenchestordersandfamiliesAccordingtothewayoflife,isdividedintoecologicalgroups:swimming,wadingbirds,raptors,songbirds,andlandfowlHeadpelecaniform(suddenchestpelicans,cormorants)Ciconiiformes(egretstork)Anseriformes(ducks,goose)Falconiformes(Eaglevultures)Galliformes(whitechickenTragopan)CuculiformesanestparasitismBreedingbirdshaveobviousseasonal,withcomplexbehaviorsduringreproductiveperiod:courtship,occupyingareasandnesting,hatchingandbroodingThebird'snesthas"nest"and"nest"Progressivecharacteristicsofbirds:()ahighandconstantbodytemperature(~),whichreducesthedependenceontheenvironment()ithastheabilitytofly,andcanactivelymigratetoadapttochangeableenvironmentalconditions()thenervoussystemandsensoryorgansaremoredeveloped,thusproducingmorecomplexbehaviorsandharmonizingtheunityoftheenvironmentinandoutofthebody()theheartisdividedintotwoatriaandtwoventricles,andthebloodcirculationbecomesacompletedoublecycle,whichensuresthevigorousmetabolism()ithasbetterbreedingmethodsandbehavior,whichensuresthehighersurvivalrateofoffspringTherealizationmechanismofconstanttemperature:()throughthehighlydevelopedcommandofthecentralnervoussystem()coordinationthroughtheneuralactivityandendocrineactivitiesofthethermoregulationcenter()developedsurfaceheatradiatingorgansThemaincharacteristicsofbirdsadaptingtoflyinglifespindlebody,surfacecoating(streamlineoutline)feathers(reducedraginflight),longneck,trunk,flexibletaildegeneration,tightsolidintopowerfulhindforelimbwingtheskeletonismostlyhollowtemperamentbone,theboneisfilledwithgascavity,withlight,thinandstrongcharacteristicsthehealingofthespinalskeletonandthedegenerationofthetailofthebirds,sothatthebodyfocusinthecenter,helpstomaintainbalanceinflighttheremarkablefeatureofthebirdrespiratorysystemisthatthedevelopedairsacsystem(airsacs)enablesthebirdstoproduceauniquedoublebreathing,ensuringtheneedforlargeamountsofoxygenforthebirdstoflythelungofbirdsisadensereticularductsystemthatiscontinuouslybranchingandanastomosingwitheachotherThevolumeissmall,buttheareaofcontactgasislarge,whichisfavorableforgasexchangethedoubleregulationofbirdvisionisessentialtotheflyinglifeofbirdsConstanttemperaturesignificance()thehighandconstantbodytemperaturepromotesandmaintainsthemetabolicactivitiesofvariousenzymesinthebody,greatlyincreasingthemetaboliclevelandtheburstofenergy,()highenergyconcentrationsignificantlyimprovedtherapidmovementabilityoftheconstanttemperatureanimals,whichwasbeneficialtopredationandavoidanceofenemy()reducethedependenceofanimalsontheenvironment,expandthedistributionandlivingrangeAnimalworldlandareaisdividedintosixcircles:Australiacircle,circle,circle,tropicaltropicalNewOriental,Palaearctic,nearcti
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