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首页 o.henry 欧亨利的英文介绍

o.henry 欧亨利的英文介绍.doc

o.henry 欧亨利的英文介绍

邱邱的QQjlujl
2017-09-26 0人阅读 举报 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《o.henry 欧亨利的英文介绍doc》,可适用于综合领域

ohenry欧亨利的英文介绍OHenryOHenryPortraitofOHenry,byWMVanderweyde,BornWilliamSidneyPorterSeptember,Greensboro,NorthCarolinaDiedJune,(aged)NewYorkCityPennameOHenry,OlivierHenry,OliverHenryOccupationWriterNationalityAmericanWilliamSydneyPorter(September,–June,),knownbyhispennameOHenry,wasanAmericanwriterOHenry'sshortstoriesareknownfortheirwit,wordplay,warmcharacterizationandclevertwistendingsContentshide,BiographyoEarlylifeoMovetoTexasoFlightandreturnoLaterlife,Stories,Penname,Legacy,Bidforposthumouspardon,Seealso,Notes,Furtherreading,ExternallinksBiographyeditThissectionneedsadditionalcitationsforverificationPleasehelpimprovethisarticlebyaddingcitationstoreliablesourcesUnsourcedmaterialmaybechallengedandremoved(March)EarlylifeeditWilliamSidneyPorterwasbornonSeptember,,inGreensboro,NorthCarolinaHechangedthespellingofhismiddlenametoSydneyinHisparentswereDrAlgernonSidneyPorter(–),aphysician,andMaryJaneVirginiaSwaimPorter(–)TheyweremarriedonApril,WhenWilliamwasthree,hismotherdiedfromtuberculosis,andheandhisfathermovedintothehomeofhispaternalgrandmotherAsachild,Porterwasalwaysreading,everythingfromclassicstodimenovelshisfavoriteworkswereLane'stranslationofOneThousandandOneNights,andBurton'sAnatomyofMelancholyPortergraduatedfromhisauntEvelinaMariaPorter'selementaryschoolinHethenenrolledattheLindseyStreetHighSchoolHisauntcontinuedtotutorhimuntilhewasfifteenIn,hestartedworkinginhisuncle'sdrugstoreandin,attheageofnineteen,hewaslicensedasapharmacistAtthedrugstore,healsoshowedoffhisnaturalartistictalentsbysketchingthetownsfolkMovetoTexaseditPorterinAustinasayoungmanPortertraveledwithDrJamesKHalltoTexasinMarch,hopingthatachangeofairwouldhelpalleviateapersistentcoughhehaddevelopedHetookupresidenceonthesheepranchofRichardHall,James'son,inLaSalleCountyandhelpedoutasashepherd,ranchhand,cookandbabysitterWhileontheranch,helearnedbitsofSpanishandGermanfromthemixofimmigrantranchhandsHealsospenttimereadingclassicliteraturePorter'shealthdidimproveandhetraveledwithRichardtoAustinin,wherehedecidedtoremainandwaswelcomedintothehomeoftheHarrells,whowerefriendsofRichard'sPortertookanumberofdifferentjobsoverthenextseveralyears,firstaspharmacistthenasadraftsman,banktellerandjournalistHealsobeganwritingasasidelinePorterledanactivesociallifeinAustin,includingmembershipinsinginganddramagroupsHewasagoodsingerandmusicianHeplayedboththeguitarandmandolinHebecameamemberofthe"HillCityQuartet,"agroupofyoungmenwhosangatgatheringsandserenadedyoungwomenofthetownPortermetandbegancourtingAtholEstes,thenseventeenyearsoldandfromawealthyfamilyHermotherobjectedtothematchbecauseAtholwasill,sufferingfromtuberculosisOnJuly,,PorterelopedwithAtholtothehomeofReverendRKSmoot,wheretheyweremarriedPorterfamilyinearlysAthol,daughterMargaret,WilliamThecouplecontinuedtoparticipateinmusicalandtheatergroups,andAtholencouragedherhusbandtopursuehiswritingAtholgavebirthtoasonin,whodiedhoursafterbirth,andthenadaughter,MargaretWorthPorter,inSeptemberPorter'sfriendRichardHallbecameTexasLandCommissionerandofferedPorterajobPorterstartedasadraftsmanattheTexasGeneralLandOffice(GLO)inatasalaryof$amonth,drawingmapsfromsurveysandfieldnotesThesalarywasenoughtosupporthisfamily,buthecontinuedhiscontributionstomagazinesandnewspapersPorterasaclerkattheFirstNationalBank,AustinIntheGLObuilding,hebegandevelopingcharactersandplotsforsuchstoriesas"Georgia'sRuling"(),and"BuriedTreasure"()Thecastlelikebuildingheworkedinwasevenwovenintosomeofhistalessuchas"BexarScripNo"()HisjobattheGLOwasapoliticalappointmentbyHallHallranforgovernorintheelectionofbutlostPorterresignedinearlywhenthenewgovernor,JimHogg,wassworninThesameyear,PorterbeganworkingattheFirstNationalBankofAustinasatellerandbookkeeperatthesamesalaryhehadmadeattheGLOThebankwasoperatedinformallyandPorterwasapparentlycarelessinkeepinghisbooksandmayhaveembezzledfundsIn,hewasaccusedbythebankofembezzlementandlosthisjobbutwasnotindictedHethenworkedfulltimeonhishumorousweeklycalledTheRollingStone,whichhestartedwhileworkingatthebankTheRollingStonefeaturedsatireonlife,peopleandpoliticsandincludedPorter'sshortstoriesandsketchesAlthougheventuallyreachingatopcirculationof,TheRollingStonefailedinAprilsincethepaperneverprovidedanadequateincomeHowever,hiswritinganddrawingshadcaughttheattentionoftheeditorattheHoustonPostPorterandhisfamilymovedtoHoustonin,wherehestartedwritingforthePostHissalarywasonly$amonth,butitrosesteadilyashispopularityincreasedPortergatheredideasforhiscolumnbyloiteringinhotellobbiesandobservingandtalkingtopeoplethereThiswasatechniqueheusedthroughouthiswritingcareerWhilehewasinHouston,theFirstNationalBankofAustinwasauditedbyfederalauditorsandtheyfoundtheembezzlementshortagesthathadledtohisfiringAfederalindictmentfollowedandhewasarrestedonchargesofembezzlementFlightandreturneditPorterinhissPorter'sfatherinlawpostedbailtokeephimoutofjailHewasduetostandtrialonJuly,,butthedaybefore,ashewaschangingtrainstogettothecourthouse,animpulsehithimHefled,firsttoNewOrleansandlatertoHondurasWhileholedupinaTrujillohotelforseveralmonths,hewroteCabbagesandKings,inwhichhecoinedtheterm"bananarepublic"todescribethecountry,aphrasesubsequentlyusedwidelytodescribeasmall,unstabletropicalnationinLatinAmericawithanarrowlyfocused,agrarianeconomyPorterhadsentAtholandMargaretbacktoAustintolivewithAthol'sparentsUnfortunately,AtholbecametooilltomeetPorterinHondurasasPorterhadplannedWhenhelearnedthathiswifewasdying,PorterreturnedtoAustininFebruaryandsurrenderedtothecourt,pendinganappealOnceagain,Porter'sfatherinlawpostedbailsoPortercouldstaywithAtholandMargaretAtholEstesPorterdiedonJuly,,fromtuberculosis(thenknownasconsumption)Porter,havinglittletosayinhisowndefense,wasfoundguiltyofembezzlementinFebruary,sentencedtofiveyearsinprison,andimprisonedonMarch,attheOhioPenitentiaryinColumbus,OhioWhileinprison,Porter,asalicensedpharmacist,workedintheprisonhospitalasthenightdruggistPorterwasgivenhisownroominthehospitalwing,andthereisnorecordthatheactuallyspenttimeinthecellblockoftheprisonHehadfourteenstoriespublishedundervariouspseudonymswhilehewasinprison,butwasbecomingbestknownas"OHenry",apseudonymthatfirstappearedoverthestory"WhistlingDick'sChristmasStocking"intheDecemberissueofMcClure'sMagazineAfriendofhisinNewOrleanswouldforwardhisstoriestopublishers,sotheyhadnoideathewriterwasimprisonedPorterwasreleasedonJuly,,forgoodbehaviorafterservingthreeyearsPorterreunitedwithhisdaughterMargaret,nowage,inPittsburgh,Pennsylvania,whereAthol'sparentshadmovedafterPorter'sconvictionMargaretwasnevertoldthatherfatherhadbeeninprisonjustthathehadbeenawayonbusinessLaterlifeeditPorter'smostprolificwritingperiodstartedin,whenhemovedtoNewYorkCitytobenearhispublishersWhilethere,hewroteshortstoriesHewroteastoryaweekforoverayearfortheNewYorkWorldSundayMagazineHiswit,characterization,andplottwistswereadoredbyhisreaders,butoftenpannedbycriticsPortermarriedagainin,tochildhoodsweetheartSarah(Sallie)LindseyColeman,whomhemetagainafterrevisitinghisnativestateofNorthCarolinaPorterwasaheavydrinker,andhishealthdeterioratedmarkedlyin,whichaffectedhiswritingIn,Sarahlefthim,andhediedonJune,,ofcirrhosisoftheliver,complicationsofdiabetes,andanenlargedheartAfterfuneralservicesinNewYorkCity,hewasburiedintheRiversideCemeteryinAsheville,NorthCarolinaHisdaughter,MargaretWorthPorter,whodiedin,wasburiednexttoherfatherStorieseditPortraitofPorterfromfrontispieceinhiscollectionofshortstoriesWaifsandStraysOHenry'sstoriesfrequentlyhavesurpriseendingsInhisday,hewascalledtheAmericananswertoGuydeMaupassantBothauthorswroteplottwistendings,butOHenrystoriesweremuchmoreplayfulHisstoriesarealsoknownforwittynarrationMostofOHenry'sstoriesaresetinhisowntime,theearlythcenturyManytakeplaceinNewYorkCityanddealforthemostpartwithordinarypeople:clerks,policemen,waitresses,etcOHenry'sworkiswideranging,andhischaracterscanbefoundroamingthecattlelandsofTexas,exploringtheartoftheconman,orinvestigatingthetensionsofclassandwealthinturnofthecenturyNewYorkOHenryhadaninimitablehandforisolatingsomeelementofsocietyanddescribingitwithanincredibleeconomyandgraceoflanguageSomeofhisbestandleastknownworkiscontainedinCabbagesandKings,aseriesofstorieseachofwhichexploressomeindividualaspectoflifeinaparalyticallysleepyCentralAmericantown,whileadvancingsomeaspectofthelargerplotandrelatingbackonetoanotherCabbagesandKingswashisfirstcollectionofstories,followedbyTheFourMillionThesecondcollectionopenswithareferencetoWardMcAllister's"assertionthattherewereonly'FourHundred'peopleinNewYorkCitywhowerereallyworthnoticingButawisermanhasarisenthecensustakerandhislargerestimateofhumaninteresthasbeenpreferredinmarkingoutthefieldoftheselittlestoriesofthe'FourMillion'"ToOHenry,everyoneinNewYorkcountedHehadanobviousaffectionforthecity,whichhecalled"BagdadontheSubway,"andmanyofhisstoriesaresettherewhileothersaresetinsmalltownsorinothercitiesAmonghismostfamousstoriesare:,"TheGiftoftheMagi"aboutayoungcouplewhoareshortofmoneybutdesperatelywanttobuyeachotherChristmasgiftsUnbeknownsttoJim,Dellasellshermostvaluablepossession,herbeautifulhair,inordertobuyaplatinumfobchainforJim'swatchwhileunbeknownsttoDella,Jimsellshisownmostvaluablepossession,hiswatch,tobuyjeweledcombsforDella'shairTheessentialpremiseofthisstoryhasbeencopied,reworked,parodied,andotherwiseretoldcountlesstimesinthecenturysinceitwaswritten,"TheRansomofRedChief",inwhichtwomenkidnapaboyoftenTheboyturnsouttobesobrattyandobnoxiousthatthedesperatemenultimatelypaytheboy'sfather$totakehimback,"TheCopandtheAnthem"aboutaNewYorkCityhobonamedSoapy,whosetsouttogetarrestedsothathecanbeaguestofthecityjailinsteadofsleepingoutinthecoldwinterDespiteeffortsatpettytheft,vandalism,disorderlyconduct,and"mashing"withayoungprostitute,SoapyfailstodrawtheattentionofthepoliceDisconsolate,hepausesinfrontofachurch,whereanorganantheminspireshimtocleanuphislifeandisironicallychargedforloiteringandsentencedtothreemonthsinprison,"ARetrievedReformation",whichtellsthetaleofsafecrackerJimmyValentine,recentlyfreedfromprisonHegoestoatownbanktocaseitbeforeherobsitAshewalkstothedoor,hecatchestheeyeofthebanker'sbeautifuldaughterTheyimmediatelyfallinloveandValentinedecidestogiveuphiscriminalcareerHemovesintothetown,takinguptheidentityofRalphSpencer,ashoemakerJustasheisabouttoleavetodeliverhisspecializedtoolstoanoldassociate,alawmanwhorecognizeshimarrivesatthebankJimmyandhisfiancéeandherfamilyareatthebank,inspectinganewsafe,whenachildaccidentallygetslockedinsidetheairtightvaultKnowingitwillsealhisfate,ValentineopensthesafetorescuethechildHowever,muchtoValentine'ssurprise,thelawmandeniesrecognizinghimandletshimgo,"TheDuplicityofHargraves"Ashortstoryaboutanearlydestitutefatheranddaughter'striptoWashington,DCPennameeditPortergavevariousexplanationsfortheoriginofhispennameInhegaveaninterviewtoTheNewYorkTimes,inwhichhegaveanaccountofit:ItwasduringtheseNewOrleansdaysthatIadoptedmypennameofOHenryIsaidtoafriend:"I'mgoingtosendoutsomestuffIdon'tknowifitamountstomuch,soIwanttogetaliteraryaliasHelpmepickoutagoodone"HesuggestedthatwegetanewspaperandpickanamefromthefirstlistofnotablesthatwefoundinitInthesocietycolumnswefoundtheaccountofafashionableball"Herewehaveournotables,"saidheWelookeddownthelistandmyeyelightedonthenameHenry,"That'lldoforalastname,"saidI"NowforafirstnameIwantsomethingshortNoneofyourthreesyllablenamesforme""Whydon’tyouuseaplaininitialletter,then"askedmyfriend"Good,"saidI,"Oisabouttheeasiestletterwritten,andOitis"AnewspaperoncewroteandaskedmewhattheOstandsforIreplied,"OstandsforOlivier,theFrenchforOliver"AndseveralofmystoriesaccordinglyappearedinthatpaperunderthenameOlivierHenryIntheintroductiontoTheWorldofOHenry:RoadsofDestinyandOtherStories(HodderStoughton,),WilliamTrevorwritesthatwhenPorterwasintheOhioStatePenitentiary"therewasaprisonguardnamedOrrinHenry,whomWilliamSydneyPorterimmortalisedasOHenry"ThewriterandscholarGuyDavenportoffersanotherexplanation:"ThepseudonymthathebegantowriteunderinprisonisconstructedfromthefirsttwolettersofOhioandthesecondandlasttwoofpenitentiaryboldadded"LegacyeditTheOHenryAwardisaprestigiousannualprizenamedafterPorterandgiventooutstandingshortstoriesSeveralschoolsaroundthecountrybearPorter'spseudonymIn,afilmfeaturingfivestories,calledOHenry'sFullHouse,wasmadeTheepisodecitationneededgarneringthemostcriticalacclaimwas"TheCopandtheAnthem"starringCharlesLaughtonandMarilynMonroeTheotherstoriesare"TheClarionCall","TheLastLeaf","TheRansomofRedChief"(starringFredAllenandOscarLevant),and"TheGiftoftheMagi"TheOHenryHouseandOHenryHall,bothinAustin,Texas,arenamedforhimOHenryHall,nowownedbytheUniversityofTexas,previouslyservedasthefederalcourthouseinwhichOHenrywasconvictedofembezzlementPorterhaselementaryschoolsnamedforhiminGreensboro,NorthCarolina(WilliamSydneyPorterElementary)andGarland,Texas(OHenryElementary),aswellasamiddleschoolinAustin,Texas(OHenryMiddleSchool)TheOHenryHotelinGreensboroisalsonamedforPorterOnSeptember,,theUSPostalServiceissuedastampcommemoratingthethanniversaryofOHenry'sbirthBidforposthumouspardoneditOnNovember,,BarackObamaquotedOHenrywhilegrantingpardonstotwoturkeysnamedLibertyandPeaceInresponse,politicalscienceprofessorPSRuckman,Jr,andTexasattorneyScottHensonfiledaformalapplicationforaposthumouspardoninSeptemberof,thesamemonththeUSPostalServiceissueditsOHenrystampPreviousattemptsweremadetoobtainsuchapardonforPorterintheadministrationsofWoodrowWilson,DwightEisenhowerandRonaldReagan,butnoonehadeverbotheredtofileaformalapplicationRuckmanandHensonarguedthatPorterdeservedapardonbecause()hewasalawabidingcitizenprevioustohisconviction,()hisoffensewasminor,()hehadanexemplaryprisonrecord,()hispostprisonlifeclearlyindicatedrehabilitation,()hewouldhavebeenanexcellentcandidateforclemencyinhistime,hadhebutappliedforpardon,()bytoday'sstandardsheremainsanexcellentcandidateforclemency,and()hispardonwouldbeawelldeservedsymbolicgestureandmore

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