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首页 第5课 其他生物电测量及仪器(Fifth class other bioelectricity …

第5课 其他生物电测量及仪器(Fifth class other bioelectricity measurements and instruments).doc

第5课 其他生物电测量及仪器(Fifth class othe…

陈功立
2018-12-25 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《第5课 其他生物电测量及仪器(Fifth class other bioelectricity measurements and instruments)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

第课其他生物电测量及仪器(Fifthclassotherbioelectricitymeasurementsandinstruments)第课其他生物电测量及仪器(Fifthclassotherbioelectricitymeasurementsandinstruments)BioelectricalmeasurementandinstrumentationotherbioelectricitymeasurementsLouisLiuQianliumailhusteducnSchooloflifescienceandtechnology,HuazhongUniversityofScienceandTechnologyBIoMedical,Measurements,and,Instrumentation(BMI)ReferencebooksandresourcesBiomedicalmeasurementandinstrumentation,WangBaohua,FudanUniversitypress,OpenEEGproject,,contentERG,ERG,andengGastricelectrogramMultichannelelectrophysiologicalrecorderBiologicalmagneticmeasurement:MCGandMegVisualelectrophysiologyVisualelectrophysiologicalexaminationistheapplicationofvisualelectrophysiologyinstrumentdeterminationofretinalbioelectricactivitywasgeneratedinthevisualsysteminlightorimagestimulation,toexplorethemechanismofvisualformandvisualdiagnosisofrelateddiseasesandrelatedsensorynervediseases,theresearchcanalsobeusedfordiseasesurveillance,identificationandassessmentofprognosis,efficacypathogenesisElectroretinogram(Electroretinogram)ElectrooculogramNystagmus(Electronystagmogram)OcularstructurePhotoreceptorcellsandelectrodesThedevelopmentofultramicroelectrode(tiplessthanmicrons)allowselectrodestopenetrateintovertebratephotoreceptors(diametersrangingfromafewmicronstotensofmicrons),recordingandanalyzingthebioelectricactivityofindividualphotoreceptorsInthedark,becausetheflowofsodiumionsintothecellfromtheflowcell,photoreceptorcellmembranerestingpotentialislow,intracellularrecordingisaboutmV,light,sodiumchannelisclosed,sodiumconductancedecreased,themembranepotentialclosetotheequilibriumpotentialofpotassiumions,photoreceptorintracellularpotentialbecomesmorenegativetheformationofhyperpolarizationThisisanimportantfeatureoftheelectricalresponseofphotoreceptorsInaddition,itisagradedpotentialthatincreaseswithincreasinglightintensityanddoesnotproducethemostcommonformofbioelectricityinnervecellsactionpotentialERGWhentheretinaisstimulatedbyaflash,theuppersurfaceoftheretina(orcornea)hasatransientpotentialchangebetweentheelectrodeandthereferenceelectrodeoftheforehead(orearlobe),andthesumofthesechangesbecomestheERGERGElectroretinogramwaveformAwaveismainlyderivedfromphotoreceptorcellpotentialBwaveamplitudeislarge,mainlyrelatedtobipolarcellandothercellactivitiesCwaveisgentleandlongduration,andmayberelatedtotheactivityofthepigmentcelllayerThethreewavesofA,B,andCreflectthecharacteristicsofthenormalretina,whereBwavesaremostclinicallyvaluablebecausetheyoriginateintheretina,andinpatientswithretinitispigmentosa,thereisnoBwaveintheelectroretinogramFERGandPERGFlashERG(FlashERG)FERGisabioelectricresponserecordedfromthecornealsurfaceafterflashstimulationoftheretina,mainlyreflectingthefunctionsofthefirstandsecondneuronsoftheretinaGraphicalERG(PatternERG)Aphotoelectricresponserecordedfromthecornealsurfacebygratingorcheckerboardstimulatedbyperiodicallychangingthebrightnessoftheretina,whichmainlyreflectsthefunctionofthethirdneuronsintheretinaCombineduseofFERGandPERGmayreflectthefunctionofthewholeretinaclinicalapplicationOpticnerveandoptictractdiseasesOpticneuritissecondarytodemyelinatingdiseasesThetherapeuticeffectofamblyopiawasdetectedVisionofinfantsandchildrenwithoutlanguageabilityDifferentialblindingPostoperativevisualfunctioninpatientswithrefractiveopacityofthemediaExample:whentheintraocularpressurereachesorexceedsthediastolicarterialpressureoftheeye,theamplitudesofaandBwavesofERGareobviouslydecreasedorevendisappearedERGElectroretinogramisarecordingofpotentialchangescausedbyeyemovementsThereisarestingpotentialacrosstheomentum,thecornealsideispositive,andthesclerasideisnegative,whichcanbeseenastheexistenceofacertainelectricdipoleInordertodetecthorizontalmovementofeyeball,apairofelectrodeswereplacedintheeyeandeyeangleangle,Whentheverticalmotionisdetected,theeyelidisplacedontheeyelidtorecordthepotentialdifferencebetweenthetwoWhenthepositionoftheeyeisatafixedpointofreference,thepotentialoftheeyeisdefinedaszero,andthepotentialoftheeyechangeswhentheeyemoveshorizontallyItprovideseyeorientation,angularvelocity,andangularaccelerationEyepotentialchangesandvisualangleEngENGistherecordingofcornealandretinalpotentialchangesduringeyemovementsRecordingofnystagmusBecausetheENGsignalisveryweak,itisoftendisturbedbythestrongalternatingcurrentandtheEMGsignalTherefore,whentheENGsignalisrecorded,thelowpassfilterLPFisoftenusedtofiltertheinterferenceofHzorHzInadditiontoENG,therecordedsignalcanbeobtainedbydifferentialmethodCalculationandanalysissystemofnystagmusGastricelectrogramEGG(Electrogastrogram)isthesignalofgastricmyoelectricactivityrecordedbyplacingtheelectrodesintheabdomenTheelectrocardiogram(usuallyincludingtheelectrogram,referredtoasthegastrointestinalelectrogram)isusedforthedetectionofgastrointestinalmotility,suchasnonulcerdyspepsia,irritablebowelsyndrome,andotherdiseasesGastrointestinalelectricalsignalisVmagnitude,frequencyrange:therangeofnormalgastricelectrical~min(CPM),~minrangeisabnormaltachygastriasinthe~minrangeisabnormalbradygastrianormalcolonicelectricityis~min,thenormalrangeofelectricityis~minGastricelectrogramGastrointestinalmyoelectricactivityismodulatedbynerves,hormones,andotherfactorsGastricelectricalactivityisbasic::slowwaveisthebasicelectricrhythmofstomachsmoothmuscle,thenormalvalueofbeatsperminute(CPM)Thefast:peakpotentialoractionpotential,istheelectricalactivityofcircularmusclecontractionNormally,onlyslowwavecomponentsaremeasuredonthesurfaceofthestomachDuetogastrointestinalweaksignalamplitude,frequencyrangeclosetoDC,withrandomcharacteristics,sotheneedforhighperformanceamplifier,whichrequirestheamplifierwithhighgain,lownoise,lowdrift,highstabilityandhighsensitivitycharacteristicsThedevelopmentoftheelectrogramFromto,itwastheinitialexplorationstageofgastrointestinalelectrogramTheUnitedStatesAavaLietz(AivarezW)inbythestringgalvanometerandelectrontubeECGequipmentinacanceroftheolderwomenrecordedtheworld'sfirstpieceofElectrogastrogramTompa(TumpeerH)recordedanelectrocardiograminfromanelderlywomanwithanobstructionofthepylorusandayearoldboyTheinstrumentusesastandardECGIIIleadtorecordaweakgastricelectricalsignalsubmergedintheECGsignalinterferenceThedevelopmentoftheelectrogramFifty~sisanindepthstudyofgastrointestinalelectrogramScholarsfromallovertheworldhavemadepioneeringachievementsintheelectrophysiologicalpropertiesofthesmoothmuscleofgastrointestinaltract,theoriginoffastandslowwave,andthephysiologicalandpathologicalfieldsIn,theGermanscholarsformallyputforwardthenameofgastricelectrogramFromstothepresent,itisthedevelopmentandapplicationstageoftheelectrogramIn,theAmericanConferenceonInternationalElectrostomachconferencewasheldinCalifornia,USAin,Stenpublishedhisfirstmonograph,"electrotomography""XiamenelectrogastrographicconferenceNovemberwillbeheldbyShenhuamedicine,formulatedthediagnosticcriteriaofelectrogastrograminChinaTheprincipleandstructureofelectrogramPrincipleandstructureblockdiagramofanewtypeofdoubleguidedintelligentgastrointestinalelectrograminstrumentElectrodelocation,ingastricbodyandsmallcurve,,,thegreatercurvatureofantrum,ascendinganddescendingcolon,transversecolonrectumstomachcolonInstrumentparameterAverageamplitudeofwaveform(andsegmenttheamplitude)MagnitudeofwaveformamplitudeThemagnitudeofitswaveformindirectlyreflectsthemagnitudeofitsgastricelectricalpowerinacertainsenseTheaveragehealthypersonbeforemealis~OmuV,aftermealmaybe~OmuV<muVmaybegastritis,>OVbeforemeal,Postprandial>OmuVmayhaveanulcerateddiseaseAveragefrequencyofwaveform(andfrequencydivision)ReflectthespeedofgastrointestinalelectricalrhythmThegastricelectricalrhythminnormaladultsrangedfromtoCPM<CPMwasgastricmotility(gastricelectricalrhythmwastooslow)>CPMwasgastrictachycardia(gastricelectricalrhythmwastoofast)Percentageofgastric(intestinal)electricalrhythmdisorderTheirregularordiscretenatureofthegastrointestinalelectricalrhythmGeneral<isnormal,>isrhythmdisorder,~ismilddisorderInstrumentparameterWaveformresponseareaItreflectsthepowerofthegastricelectrogram,andinacertainsense,itexpressestheindexesofgastrointestinalrelaxationandcontractionNormaladultsrangedfromtoOmuVSLeadtimedifference(conductionrate)Thetimerequiredtospreadtherateofgastricelectricalexpansion,thatis,fromthegastricpointofthestomach(theupperpartofthestomach)toothersitesThemaximumtimeofspreadingthewholestomachislessthanseconds,otherwise,thedisorderofgastricelectricspreadingcanleadtogastricdysfunctionorpathologicalchangesDominantfrequencyThemainharmonicfrequencycomponentsthatreflectthewaveformsynthesisofthegastrointestinaltractTheharmonicfrequencyofnormaladultsisfromtoCPMInstrumentparameterMainpowerratioTheratioofthepoweroftheharmonicprimaryfrequencywaveformtothetotalharmonicwaveformpower()PercentageofnormalslowwaveWithinnormalrange,thewaveformofgastrointestinalelectrogramaccountedforpercentofthewholegastrointestinalelectricalwaveform,generallygreaterthanfornormal,andviceversaInstabilitycoefficientofslowwavefrequencyItreflectsthechangeoftheunstablefactorsoftheslowwavefrequencyGenerallylessthan,otherwisetheremaybeabnormalrhythmwaveform,andcanbecombinedwithgastricelectricalrhythmdisorderpercentageparameterscomprehensivejudgmentGastrointestinalelectricalsignalanalysisGastrointestinalelectricityisarandomsignal,asinglewaveformismeaningless,cannotbedirectlyanalyzedbythenakedeye,mustbethroughthecomputerforgastrointestinalelectricalsignalstatistics,analysis,processingFuLiyespectrumanalysisisthemosteffectivemethodforgastrointestinalelectricalanalysisThecommonfrequencyspectrum(abscissa,frequency,ordinate,powerintensity)andoperationspectrum(Xaxis,frequency,Yaxis,time,Zaxis,powerintensity)areanalyzedPdpeakpowerspectrummeasurementandthecorrespondingfrequencyofFpo(alsocalledfundamental)measurementinthegastrointestinalwavecharttheaveragepeakamplitudeoftheApsignalandtheaveragezerofrequencyFz,theseparametersareimportantfordiagnosisGastrointestinalelectricalsignalanalysisBiologicalmagnetismStudyonthebiobioelectrical,magneticbeganinmoderntimes,althoughthetwinrelationshipknownaselectricityandmagnetism,andpredictedthebiologicalmagneticsignaliscertainlythere,butnotuntilbytheUniversityofSyracuseBaocolumnandMcpheeforthefirsttimefromthehumanbodytodetectsmallmagneticfieldThefirstrecordofbiologicalsignals()andforthefirsttimecomparedtorecordingbiologicalmagneticsignalwhichismainlyduetobackwardbiologicalmagneticsignalisextremelyweak,andoftendeeplyburiedintheenvironmentalmagneticnoisemeasuringinstrument,thelongtermresolutionisnotuptotherequirements,withthegradualdevelopmentofscienceandtechnology,theproblemhasbeengraduallytosolveThebiologicalmagneticfield,themagneticfield,thelungmagneticfield,themagneticfield,thelivermagneticfield,themagneticfield,andthemagneticfieldofthebrainhavebeendetectedsofarCausesAmagneticfieldproducedbyalargebiologicalcurrentThehumanbodyissmalltocells,largetoorgansandsystems,andisalwaysaccompaniedbybioelectriccurrentsThechargeofmotionproducesamagneticfieldInthissense,whereverbiologicalactivitiesareconcerned,biologicalmagneticfieldsmustbeproducedatthesametime,suchastheheart,magneticfield,brainmagneticfield,andthemagneticfieldofthemuscleAninducedfieldmadeofbiologicalmaterialThematerialthatmakesupbiologicaltissuehasacertainmagnetismTheyproduceaninducedfieldundertheactionoftheearth'smagneticfieldandotherexternalmagneticfieldsThemagneticfieldspresentbytheliver,spleen,etcbelongtothiscategoryTheresidualmagneticfieldproducedbyastrongmagneticsubstancethatinvadesthebodyAworkerwhoworksunderthedustcontainingferromagneticmaterial,Respiratoryandpulmonary,esophageal,andgastrointestinalsystemsareoftencontaminatedThedustintrudedintothebodyismagnetizedbyanexternalmagneticfield,resultinginaresidualmagneticfieldBoththelungmagneticfieldandtheabdominalmagneticfieldbelongtothisclassBiologicalmagneticmeasurementT=Gs,Gs=^()TBiologicalmagnetismThesourceofthehumanbiologicalmagneticfieldAmagneticfieldproducedbybiologicalcurrents(heart,brain,magneticfield)Thebiologicalmagneticmaterialproduces(theliver,spleenandothermagneticfields)Aferromagneticsubstancethatinvadesthebodyproducesaresidualmagneticfield(FeOpowderinhalationintothelungs)MagneticfieldintensityLungmagneticfieldstrength:^()^()GaussCardiacmagneticfieldstrength:^()GsSpontaneousbrainmagneticfield:^()GsAmbientmagneticfieldstrength:geomagnetic:*^()GsACmagneticfield^()GsBiologicalmagneticmeasurementBiologicalmagnetismThesourceofthehumanbiologicalmagneticfieldAmagneticfieldproducedbybiologicalcurrents(heart,brain,magneticfield)Thebiologicalmagneticmaterialproduces(theliver,spleenandothermagneticfields)Aferromagneticsubstancethatinvadesthebodyproducesaresidualmagneticfield(FeOpowderinhalationintothelungs)MagneticfieldintensityLungmagneticfieldstrength:^()^()GaussCardiacmagneticfieldstrength:^()GsSpontaneousbrainmagneticfield:^()GsAmbientmagneticfieldstrength:geomagnetic:*^()GsACmagneticfield^()GsT=Gs,Gs=^()TSQUIDInthebackgroundofstrongmagneticfield(magneticfieldandmagneticfield)biologicalweakmagneticsignalmeasurement,usuallyusingsuperconductingquantuminterferencedevice(supercoductinquantuminterferencedevice,SQUID)tocomplete,thesensitivityofSQUIDcanbeashighas^()~^()Tmagnitude,isusuallythefluxmeter,fluxgateincomparabletheevenferriteHughelectricinductioncoil,thedetectionsensitivityislowerthanthatofSQUIDandordersDCsuperconductingquantuminterferencedeviceRFSQUIDMCG(MCG)ThemagneticfieldwasdetectedforthefirsttimeinTheMCGsignalisatthe^()Gsmagnitude,anditiseasiertomeasurewithSQUIDMagnetocardiography(McG)andelectrocardiogram(EcG),alsoFwave,QRswavegroupandTphi,thisisbecausetheMcGandEcGoftheioncurrentgeneratedfromthesodiumpotassiumpumpthesodiumandpotassiumionconcentrationofcellmembranechangescausedbyMCGprovidesmoreinformationthanECGExample:theMCGofthefetuscanbeseparatedfromthemother'sbody,butitisdifficulttomeasureECGSignalprocessingtechnologyisneededMCG(MCG)TherearemanymethodsformeasuringMCG,andthenumberandlocationofthemeasuredpointsaredifferentMCG(MCG)Magnetoencephalography(MEG)Thebrainmagneticfield(MEGMEG)wasdetectedforthefirsttimein,andtherewasacloseassociationbetweenEEGandMEGMagnetoencephalographycanbeusedtostudybrainandbrainnerveactivityMEGsourcesinthebrainelectricalactivityoftheoriginal,becausetheskullisanonferromagneticmaterial,theinvitrotestofmagnetoencephalographycanaccuratelyreflectbrainactivityandbrainelectricalactivityoftheskullmayproducewaveformdistortionAdvantagesofMEG:MEGrequiresnoskincontactItcandirectlyreflecttheactivitystateofthebraininternalsourceHasastrongspecificityOtherbiologicalmagneticfieldsLungmagneticfieldFirstdiscoveredinTheremanentmagneticfieldproducedbystrongmagneticcontaminationDetectingmethod:Thechestiscompletelyerasedbyusinganeraser,andthefirstlungmagneticchartisobtainedThemagnetizationfieldisappliedtomagnetizethemagneticmaterial,andsecondlungmagneticdiagramsareobtainedSubtractsecondfromthefirstandgetthirdMegpurposeOccupationaldiseaseexaminationMagnetictracingOthermagneticfieldsRetinalmagneticfieldHepaticmagneticfield

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