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首页 博弈论论文(Game theory)

博弈论论文(Game theory).doc

博弈论论文(Game theory)

快乐的名侦探可烂
2018-11-11 0人阅读 举报 0 0 0 暂无简介

简介:本文档为《博弈论论文(Game theory)doc》,可适用于社会民生领域

博弈论论文(Gametheory)博弈论论文(Gametheory)Leninpointedout:"thesocalledclass,thisissomeofthebiggroup,thedifferentgrouplocatedinthehistoryofsocialproductionsysteminacertainposition,withthemeansofproduction(mostofthisrelationshipisthelegalregulationsofdifferent,different)insociallabororganizationsintheroleofthewayandsototheamountofsocialwealthattheirdisposalarealsodifferentThesocalledclass,issuchagroup,becausetheyareinacertainsocioeconomicstructureinthestatusofdifferent,oneofthegroupscanoccupythelaborofanothergroup"(class)causesThereasonofclassemergenceisthatthedevelopmentofproductiveforcesmakestheemergenceofclasspossible,whiletheappearanceofsurplusproductsbecomesthematerialpremiseofclassproductionThepoliticaleconomistsagingwaveinJulythe"Qilujournal"inthe"people'sselfishinstinctandthedevelopmentofhumansociety"inthearticle,suchastatement:"withthedevelopmentofproductiveforces,totheprimitivesociety(socialsurvival)attheendofthelevelofproductivityrelativetohumanneedshavethequalitativechange,peoplecrewnership,thesocialproductiveforcesdeveloped,andhumanbeingsweredividedintodifferentsocialgroupswhoseinterestswerefundamentallyopposedAmongthem,therichbecameslavestothemeansofsocialproductionthepoor,thepoorandprisonersofwar,becameslavesFromthenon,humanbeingsenteredtheclasssocietyWiththedevelopmentofsocialproductivity,humansocietyhasexperiencedtheslaverysociety,feudalsociety,capitalistsocietyandsocialistsocietyinfourdifferentsocialforms,theclasssituationandthusalsoconstantlyevolvinganddevelopingHowever,thedivisionofthisclassinhumansocietyisnoteternal,andwillbeeliminatedbythefulldevelopmentofmodernproductiveforces"()classisapoliticalsubjectwitheconomictiesasitslinkIncertainsocialclassstructureofsociety,thestateofexistenceanddevelopmentofirreconcilableclasscontradictions,anddominantpositionineconomyclasswiththehelpofcountriesandbecometherulingclass,whichhasbecomethesocialpublicpowerofthepoliticalsubjectBecauseoftheirdifferentstatusineconomicrelations,theotherclassesatthesametimeastherulingclassareindifferentpoliticalpositionsItisobviousthatclassemergedfromeconomicrelationsandbecamethepoliticalsubjectofpoliticalsocietywitheconomictiesasitslinkandparticipatedinthepoliticalprocessTheclassisconsistentwiththepoliticaltendencyofcommoneconomicstatusbasedonthesimilarityofmentalhabitshavethecommonwayoflifebasedonandthepolymerizationofthepursuitoftheidealbasedoncommondestinyExploitationisthesurpluslaborandsurplusproductsofsomepeopleorgroupswho,byvirtueoftheirpossessionormonopolyonthemeansofproduction,aregratisinpossessionofthosewhodonothaveorlackthemeansofproductionExploitationistheproductofthedevelopmentofhumansocietyTheemergenceofsurplusproductsinsocietyisthematerialprerequisiteforexploitation,ThedevelopmentofthesocialdivisionoflaborandtheemergenceofprivateownershipofthemeansofproductionandthedivisionofsocietyintoclassesaretherealisticbasisforexploitationThesocalled"meansofproduction"refersto:"peopleengagedintheproductionofmaterialinformationnecessaryforallthematerialconditions,thatis,thesumoflaborandlaborobjects"AlsoknownasthemeansofproductionIncludingland,machinery,equipment,plants,tools,fuel,rawmaterials,auxiliarymaterials,etc,,thenatureofexploitationisoppressionItisapartofpeopleorgroupsinthesocietywho,byvirtueoftheirpossessionandmonopolyofthemeansofproduction,freelyoccupythesurpluslaboroftheotherpeopleorgroupswithoutandwithoutthemeansofproductionThepremiseisthatsomepeoplehavecontroloverthemeansofproduction,whileothersdonothavemeansofproductionThelatter,inordertosurvive,hastosellthelaborforceforwardAstheformer,toshowthattheyhavetheadvantage,andmorepossessionofmeansofproduction,istoopenorhidden,sometimesevenismandatory,appropriationofsurpluslaboremploymentofworkersNonequivalenceproblemintheprocessofcommunicationbetweenpeopleandpeople,thisisdefinitelynotasimplegroupandthegroup,class,ethnicandnationalhumanbodyetcMarxthoughtthat,in"thelawofaverageprofit"undertheactionofthegeneralproductionprocessgeneratedvaluegrowth(ie,surplusvalue)andthevalueoftheinvestment(includingthetotalvalueandproductionvalueoflabor'squantityandproportional)Thiswillformanaturaldistributionofsurplusvalue:thevalueincrementgeneratedbytheproductionprocess(ie,surplusvalue)willhavetoallocateaccordingtothevalueoflaborquantityorproductionvalueofthemaininvestmentproportionThatistosay,themorepeoplewhoownandputintheproductionprocess,whowillallocatemoresurplusvalueAccordingtothe"laboristheonlysourceofvalue",anyincrementalvaluearecreatedbylaborers,arederivedfromthe"live"laborvalue,becauseofthemeansofproductionintheconnotationoflaborvalueisakindof"death"ofthevalueoflabor,anddoesnotcontributetothevalueincrementofproductionmaterialinputdoesnotpaylabor,butgetsurplusvalue,thisisa"freepossession",whichisakindofexploitation"()discourseonexploitationThesocalledexploitationreferstosomepeoplethroughtheexternalcompulsion,freepossessionoftheremaininglaborofothersphenomenonSo,howdoyouviewcapitalistexploitationMarxthinks:First,thebasisandstartingpointofcapitalistrelationsofexploitationistheexistinglaborproductivity,notthebountyofnature,butthegraceofseveralhundredthousandyearsofhistoryClassicaleconomicshadneverconsideredoriginofsurplusvalueandsurplusvalueastheirinherentinthecapitalistmodeofproduction,andthecapitalistmodeofproductionisanaturalformofsociety",alsothinkthatsinceancienttimesOnthecontrary,Marxbelievesthattheexploitationofcapitalism,notsinceancienttimes,itisthestartingpointofhumanlaborproductivity,improvelaborproductivitywhenhumanproductiontoacertainextentaftertheInaveryprimitiveperiod,humansocietywasnotexploitedItwasonlyinthelateperiodofprimitivesocietythatthepossibilityofexploitationemergedwhenproductionwasdevelopedintosurpluslaborFromthebeginningoftheslavesociety,thehumansocietyproducedanexploitativerelationshipThecapitalistexploitationrelationwasproducedaftertwoexploitationofsocietybyslavesocietyandfeudalsocietyItsemergenceistheresultoffurtherimprovementofhumanlaborproductivitySoitisablessinginthehundredsofthousandsofyearsofhistorySecond,fromthe"smallowners"oflabortothecapitalistswhohavebecomeexploited,thereisaprocessofquantitativechangetoqualitativechangeMarxsaidthatnotanyamountofmoneyorvaluecanbeconvertedintocapital,intothevalueofsurplusvalue,onlyafteracertainamount,ItispossibletobecomeatoolforexploitationofothersCapitalistsmustexploittheminimumamountofvariablecapitaltobuylabourgoods,andmustalsohavetheminimumcapitalrequirementsfortheproductionofthenecessarymeansofproductionfortheworkersInshort,thereisaminimumcapitallimit,itisnecessarytohaveaconsiderableamountofmoney,oraccumulatedtoacertainamountofmoney,themoneycanbetransformedintocapital,canbeconvertedintosurplusvalue,intoameansofexploitingpeopleInthethirdsectionof"DasKapital"thefirstvolumeofstpages,Marxassumedthattheworkingdayishours,thenecessarylabortimeishours,hoursoflaborsurplus,M'=,accumulationrate=,tomakelifebetterthanworkersincapitalisttimes,forsurpluslabortimeatotalofhours,thecapitalistconsumptionhours,hoursofcapitalaccumulationInthisway,workersmustbeemployedTherefore,capitalistsmusthavethevariablecapitaltobuyworkersandtheconstantcapitalforproducingthematerialsconsumedbyworkersTheminimumlimitistheeconomiclimitofthe"smallowners"transformedintocapitalistsWemustnotethattherearethreevariablesinthishypothesisAslongasthereisachangeinthenumberofvariables,thechangeinthequantityofthe"smalllandlord"intothecapitalisteconomywillchangeTherefore,wemustunderstandMarx'shypothesisthatitprovidesuswithacleartheoryandmethodoflaborandexploitation,ratherthandemonstratingabsoluteeconomiclimitsAsMarxsaidinthefirstvolumendpage,here,asinthenaturalsciences,toprovethecorrectnessofthefollowingrulesfoundbyHagelinhis"logic"in:thechangeofpurequantitytoacertainpointwhenitistransformedintoaqualitativedifferenceThird,thecapitalistfromcommand,supervision,management,labortocompletelyoutofproduction,tononlabor,andlaborhasnothingtodowithaprocessMarxexpoundedthecapitalistsupervisionandmanagementoflabor,andbelievedthatcapitalistmanagementwasdualOntheonehand,itisthespecialfunctionofthesociallaborprocess,andontheotherhanditisthefunctionofexploitingthesociallaborprocessAtfirst,capitalistswerefreedfrommanuallabour,butalsoengagedincommand,supervisionandmanagementofmentalworkLater,theygraduallyhandedoversupervisionandmanagementlabortospecialemployedworkersMarx(III,)saidthatanydirectproductionprocesshasasocialcombinationofform,itwillproducesupervision,labor,commandlabor(III)pointedoutthatthesocialdirectionandsupervisionoflabor,whenthecompanyreachedaconsiderablescale,enoughtopaythemanager(specialemployees)wages(skilledlaborwages),capitalistownershipandrighttousetheseparationofcapitalistproduction,itshallbepersonallyservedascapitalists,likeaconductorcompletelywilltheowneristheinstrumentband,"leavingonlymanagers,capitalistsasextrapeopledisappearedfromtheproductionprocess"Fourth,capitalistexploitationhasfivecharacteristics:First,theexploitationofcapitalismissurplusvalueItisvalue,notvalueBecausetheuseofvalueisqualitativedistinction,inacertainperiodislimitedbutthereisnoqualitativedistinctionbetweenvalues,onlythenumberofdifferencesTheultimateaimofcapitalistopursuetheprocessofunlimitedmultiplicationofvalueItisnotaprofit,butanendlessmovementtogainprofitsBecauseofthis,MarxcomparesthecapitalistswiththemoneystoreHolders:theyareallvaluechasing,butthemoneystoreisacrazycapitalist,andthecapitalistisarationalmoneystoreTwo,theexploitationofcapitalismtakestheformofcommoditybuyingandselling,voluntaryformandpaidform,whichisexploitationunderthecloakofequivalentcoatMarxpointedoutthat"slavesinRomeareboundbychains,andworkersarepaidbyinvisiblelinesintheirownhands""Comparedwiththefeudalcorveelaborforcedlabor,slavery,capitalistlaborismoredeceptive,buttheworkersarefreelaborersThethreeisthatthecapitalistswillcontinuetotransformpartoftheirsurplusvalueintocapitalTheconstantaccumulationofcapitalismandconstantinvestmentmaketheoriginalcapitalalmostdisappear,andtheinfinitesimalquantityinmathematicsTheintrinsiclawofpursuingsurplusvalueworksforeachcapitalistthroughthelawofexternalcompulsion,becauseofthesurplusvalueofproductionorthemakingofmoney,whichistheabsolutelawofthismodeofproduction"Four,thetwomethodsofexploitationofcapitalismgraduallyturnfromexploitationdominatedbyabsolutesurplusvaluetoexploitationwithrelativesurplusvalueTheexploitationofrelativesurplusvalue,acivilizedandingeniousmeansofexploitationTheproductionofrelativesurplusvalueleadstoaradicalrevolutioninthetechnologicalprocessandsocialorganizationoflabor"Itbringsthefollowingconsequences:AintegratesscienceandtechnologyintotheproductionprocessandappliesadvancedmanagementtotheproductionprocessB,whichleadstothetransformationoflabor,thechangeoffunctionsandtheoverallflowofworkers,therebyadmittingthatthedevelopmentofworkersinasmanyaspectsaspossibleistheuniversallawofsocietyWiththecontinuousimprovementofthequalityofworkers,theolddivisionoflaborwillgraduallydisappearCtheimprovementofworkers'workingconditionsandlivingconditionsIntheperiodofeconomicprosperity,workersnotonlynecessarylivingconsumptionincreased,theworkingclass(alltheirreservearmyarenowactivelyparticipateinvariousluxury),theyusuallyalsotemporarilycannotaffordtobuytheconsumerThus,Marxpointedoutthatmodernindustryneverputaproductionprocessoftheexistingformasthefinalform,therefore,thebasisofmodernindustrytechnologyisrevolutionary,andallpreviousbasicproductiontechnologyistheessenceofconservativeFive,capitalistexploitationistheexploitationofthecapitalistclassbyallthecapitalists,anddeterminestheextentofexploitationWhenprofitsareconvertedintoaverageprofits,equalcapitalgainsequalprofits"Wearelikeamathematicallyexactproofhere:whycapitalistsintheircompetitionshoweachotherarefalsebrothers,butinthefaceoftheworkingclasshasbecomerealMasonicgroups"Fifth,theeliminationanddisappearanceofcapitalistexploitationhasitsbasiccondition,thatis,theproductivityoflaborisgreatlyimprovedTheexistenceofcapitalistexploitationhasitshistoricalvalueandthetemporarynecessityofexistenceThedevelopmentofsocialproductiveforcesisthehistoricaltaskofcapitalandthereasonforitsexistenceTheextinctionanddisappearanceofexploitationisthebeginningoftherealmoffreedom"Infact,therealmoffreedombeginsonlywherethenecessaryandexternalpurposeoftheworkisterminatedtherefore,accordingtothenatureofthething,itexistsintheothersideoftherealmaterialdomain"Therefore,theshorteningofworkingdaysisthebasiccondition,andonlywhenthelaborproductivityhasbeengreatlyimprovedcanthebasicconditionsberealizedAccordingtoeconomistRomer,inordertoadapttothechangingsocialreality,theeconomicconceptofnineteenthCenturycannotbeusedtoanalyzetheclassandexploitationinthenewperiodForexample,itisobviousthattheproductionofthepresentexploitationcannotbeexplainedonlyonthebasisofthetheoryoflaborvalue,butshouldbeanalyzedanddemonstratedonthemainlineofthesocialsystem,theformofownershipandclassstruggleTheexploitationisnotmainlycausedbythecaptureofsurpluslabor,butfromtheimbalanceofpropertyrelationscausedbypowerandtheunfairdistributionofpropertyUnlimitedwealthfortheminoritywillinevitablyexpandexploitationandclassdifferentiationMarx'stheoryofexploitationshouldthereforeberecast,donothavetogotothedebatebetweenthepriceandthevalueoflaborrelationsnottoexchangegoodsandtheanalysisoflaborwagesdonothavetoadheretothelaborforceisakindofspecialcommoditynottoadheretotheexploitationoflaboristheonlysourceofprofitsRomerpointedoutthat,accordingtoMarx'stheoryofexploitation,thesystemofsinistheprivateownershipofthemeansofproduction,productionistheconcentrationofownershipinthehandsofafewpeople,soifproductiontrulyachievesocial,public,andtomastertheworkingclass,ratherthanturningitintoaninfinitepowerofthebureaucraticclassallof",ThenclassexploitationorcapitalistexploitationwilldisappearToday,however,thetaskistocreateatheoryofexploitationthatisequallyeffectiveevenwhenprivateownershipofthemeansofproductiondoesnotexistThetheoryincludesthatexploitationcanalsooccurinaneconomicmodelwithoutlabormarketswheretherichdeprivethepoorproduceroflabortimebytakingthecommoditymarketasanintermediaryInthelabormarketandcreditmarketconditions,duetoeconomicactorsaddmultiplechoice,eachpartycanchooseoptimalemployees,operatingindependentlyorborrowingcapitalaccordingtotheamountofwealth,sothatnotonlytheformationofclass,alsoenableittohavethecorrespondingwealth,thisisthe"classwealthcorrespondenceprinciple"Indifferentclasses,thoseemployeesandborrowersisbetrayedbythelivinglaboroftheexploitedclass,andtheemployeeandthelenderwillconstituterelyontheexploitationoflaborfortheexploitingclassstudents,thisisthe"classexploitationcorrespondenceprinciple"Undersocialism,poweriswealth,exploitationandeverythingThisistheprincipleofclasspowercorrespondence"Inanycase,therichareexploiters,andthepoorareexploitedAccordingly,Romerputforwardhistheoryofgeneralexploitationbeyondthevariousformsofexploitation,andexplainedthetheorybymeansofgametheoryIntheviewofRomer,inagameconsistingoftheeconomyofthepartiesinvolvedinthevariousgroups,ifagroupofSwithpercapitasocialassets"exit"oftheeconomycanmakeitsmembersbetter,soSintheeconomyisexploitedIncontrast,theS'groupthatcorrespondstotheSgroupintheeconomyisexploitersIfnogroupinaneconomycanfindalternativeoptionstoimproveitsmembership,thereisnocolonyinthiseconomyThus,Romeractuallydefinesthenatureofexploitationas"thepossibilityofabetteralternative""Accordingtovariousprinciplesof"withdrawal"andspecificprovisions,Romerexpoundedvariousconcreteformsofexploitation,suchasfeudalexploitation,exploitationofcapitalism,exploitationofsocialism,andexploitationofpowerandstatusFeudalexploitationreferstofeudalownershiprelationintheproductionandconsumptionofthepopulation,ifoneofthesegroupswiththeirwealthoutoftheeconomyandthecommunitycanimprovetheirowndestiny,thenproveitexploitedinthepopulation,andthecorrespondinggroupistheexploiterInthefeudalsociety,thetenantisstrippedbychipper,landlordistheexploiter,tenantwiththeirlandfromfeudalsocietywillbebetter,their"exit"istogetridoftheshacklesoffeudalismAndthosehandicraftsmenandfarmershavenotaffectedbyfeudalexploitationgroups,eveniftheywithdrawfromthefeudalsocietywillnotbebetter,unlessthedevelopmentofscientificandtechnologicalprogressandproductivity,establishabettersocialsystem,inordertoimprovetheirlivingconditionTheexploitationofcapitalismthatis,ifagroupcarryingsocialpercapitatransferableproductionfromeconomicrelationsunderthecapitalisteconomy,thegroupwillbecomebetter,sothatthegroupsarebeingexploited,andexploitativeRomerbelievesthathisconceptofexploitationisequivalenttothedefinitionofexploitationdefinedbyMarxaccordingtothesocialnecessarylabortimeandsurplusvalue"(P)andaccordingtothegamemethodofpropertyrelations,itismoreadvantageoustodetermineMarx'sexploitationcharacteristicsthanthesurplusvalueOntheonehand,peopletalkinexploitation,theconceptofpropertyrelationscanmoreclearlyrevealthemoralrequirementsontheotherhandcanusethisviewtorefutethoseattemptstojustifycapitalism,althoughnofeudalexploitationincapitalistsociety,butcannotdenythecapitalistsocietyhasitsuniqueformofcapitalistexploitationTheexploitationreferstotheabolitionofcapitalismexploitation,duetopersonalhavenottransferablepropertyordifferentskills,inequalityandprivilegesstillexist,sotheexploitationisthesocialistexploitationConcretelyspeaking,"Aftertheallocationofthetransferredassetsisequal,ifagroupcanchangeitsfatewiththewithdrawalofitsnontransferablepropertypercapita,itwillbesubjecttosocialistexploitation""(P)inaddition,thereisthedistributionofthepropertyunderthesocialistsystemofinjustice,theprincipleofdistributionisoftenbasedonthelevelofsocialstatusandthesizeofthepowergivendifferentrewards,especiallyprominentsocialistauthoritiesnotonlyhaveandcanmakeacutaboveothers,havevariousopportunitiestoseizethewealthIfthesepeoplewiththeirpowerandstatusofeconomyofsocialism,makehimbecomepowerless,theirlifewillbecomeverybad,thisisenoughtoprovethatheisagenuinesocialistexploiterRomercalledsuchexploitation"statusexploitation"Thus,Romerthoughtthatexploitationwasonlyahistoricalconcept,anditchangedwiththechangeofsocietyThebourgeoisrevolutiondestroyedtheexploitationoffeudalism,butproducedcapitalistexploitationthesocialistrevolutioneliminatedcapitalistexploitation,butbredsocialistexploitationandexploitationofstatusAlltheseexploitationarecausedbytheprivateformofpropertyandtheinequalityofpropertyrelationsTherefore,onlybyeliminatingprivatepropertyandenteringintoacompletelyCommunistsocietycantherealexploitationbeeliminatedHowever,theremustbeacomprehensiveunderstandingofexploitationSinceexploitationhasexistedforalongtimeinhumansociety,anditstillexistsatpresent,itprovesthatexploitationisnotabadthinginitselfIthasitsrationalityandrealityRomersaid,fromanempiricalpointofview,theexploitationofhumansocietyinacertainhistoricalstageisnecessaryforsocialandeconomicdevelopment,becauseinreality,exploitationandincentiveareofteninterrelatedandinteractwitheachother,mayalsodestroyakindofelementofproductionandproductionactivityintheeliminationofincentivesatthesametimeofexploitationIfagroupmovesawayfromtheeconomyandchangesitsincentivestomakeitworsethanwhatitusuallydoes,itcanbecalledexploitationofsocietyProducedbylaborskillsdifferenceofearlycapitalismexploitationandcontemporarysocialismsystemexploitationisthesociallynecessaryexploitation,prematurely,wipeouttheexploitationwilldamagetheinterestsofsocialgroups,reducetheincentivefactorsinthesocialproduction,thedevelopmentofproductivityimpactordisorderTheexploitationofanysocietybypowerandstatusistherootofthedestructionofproductiveforcesandthebreedingofcorruptionTherefore,thehistoricalmaterialismisnotabstractcondemnationofallexploitation,butlookatthehistoryofthedevelopmentofthemodeofproduction,thateachmodeofproductionanditgeneratedbytheexploitationmodehastheinevitabilityofitsexistence,theprocesshasitsoccurrence,developmentanddeclineTherefore,althoughMarxonceangrilydenouncedtheprimitiveaccumulationofcapitalismprofoundevil,butheisstillfairlysureofcapitalisminthedevelopmentofproductionandpromotingsocialprogressinhistory,andpointsoutthatintheinitialstageofcommunism,thereistalkaboutinequality,rightscannevergobeyondtheeconomicstructureofthesocietyandculturedevelopmentbyitsrestrictionsociet
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