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钻机手册

荒原飘雨
2012-07-26 0人阅读 0 0 0 暂无简介 举报

简介:本文档为《钻机手册pdf》,可适用于工程科技领域

USDepartmentofLaborOccupationalSafetyHealthAdministrationwwwoshagovskipnavigationallinksSearchAdvancedSearch|AZIndexIllustratedGlossaryDrillingRigComponentsClickonthenamebeloworanumberonthegraphictoseeadefinitionandamoredetailedphotooftheobjectCrownBlockandWaterTableCatlineBoomandHoistLineDrillingLineMonkeyboardTravelingBlockTopDriveMastDrillPipeDoghouseBlowoutPreventerWaterTankElectricCableTrayEngineGeneratorSetsFuelTankElectricalControlHouseMudPumpsBulkMudComponentTanksMudTanks(Pits)ReservePitMudGasSeparatorShaleShakersChokeManifoldPipeRampPipeRacksAccumulatorAdditionalrigcomponentsnotillustratedatrightAnnulusBrakeCasingHeadCatheadCatwalkCellarConductorPipeDegasserDesanderDesilterDrawworksEquipmentusedindrillingRamBOPRatholeRotaryHoseHomeGeneralSafetySitePreparationDrillingWellCompletionServicingPlugandAbandontheWellDrillBitDrillCollarsDriller'sConsoleElevatorsHoistingLineHookKellyKellyBushingKellySpinnerMouseholeMudReturnLineRotaryTableSlipsSpinningchainStairwaysStandpipeSurfaceCasingSubstructureSwivelTongsWalkwaysWeightIndicatoreToolHome|SitePreparation|Drilling|WellCompletion|Servicing|PlugAbandonWellGeneralSafety|AdditionalReferences|ViewingPrintingInstructions|Credits|JSASafetyandHealthTopic|SiteMap|IllustratedGlossary|GlossaryofTermsBacktoTopwwwoshagovwwwdolgovContactUs|FreedomofInformationAct|InformationQuality|CustomerSurveyPrivacyandSecurityStatement|DisclaimersOccupationalSafetyHealthAdministrationConstitutionAvenue,NWWashington,DCUSDepartmentofLaborOccupationalSafetyHealthAdministrationwwwoshagovskipnavigationallinksSearchAdvancedSearch|AZIndexIllustratedGlossaryAccumulatorThestoragedevicefornitrogenpressurizedhydraulicfluid,whichisusedinoperatingtheblowoutpreventersAnnularBlowoutPreventerAlargevalve,usuallyinstalledabovetherampreventers,thatformsasealintheannularspacebetweenthepipeandwellboreIfnopipeispresent,itformsasealonthewellboreitselfAnnulusThespacearoundapipeinawellbore,theouterwallofwhichmaybethewallofeithertheboreholeorthecasingsometimestermedtheannularspaceHomeGeneralSafetySitePreparationDrillingWellCompletionServicingPlugandAbandontheWellBlowoutPreventerAlargevalve,usuallyinstalledabovetherampreventers,thatformsasealintheannularspacebetweenthepipeandwellboreor,ifnopipeispresent,onthewellboreitselfBrakeThebrakingdeviceonthedrawworkstostopaloadbeingliftedBulkMudComponentsinStorageHoppertypetanksforstorageofdrillingfluidcomponentsCasingHeadAheavy,flangedsteelfittingconnectedtothefirststringofcasingItprovidesahousingforslipsandpackingassemblies,allowssuspensionofintermediateandproductionstringsofcasing,andsuppliesthemeansfortheannulustobesealedoffAlsocalledaspoolCatheadAspoolshapedattachmentonawincharoundwhichropeforhoistingandpullingiswoundCatlineBoomandHoistLineAstructuralframeworkerectednearthetopofthederrickforliftingmaterialCatwalkTherampatthesideofthedrillingrigwherepipeislaidtobeliftedtothederrickfloorbythecatlineorbyanairhoistCellarApitinthegroundtoprovideadditionalheightbetweentherigfloorandthewellheadtoaccommodatetheinstallationofblowoutpreventers,ratholes,mouseholes,andsoforthItalsocollectsdrainagewaterandotherfluidsfordisposalChokeManifoldThearrangementofpipingandspecialvalves,calledchokes,throughwhichdrillingmudiscirculatedwhentheblowoutpreventersareclosedtocontrolthepressuresencounteredduringakickConductorPipeThelargestdiametercasingandthetopmostlengthofcasingItisrelativelyshortandencasesthetopmoststringofcasingAnassemblyofsheavesorpulleysmountedonbeamsatthetopofthederrickThedrillinglineisrunoverthesheavesdowntothehoistingdrumDegasserTheequipmentusedtoremoveunwantedgasfromaliquid,especiallyfromdrillingfluidDesanderAcentrifugaldeviceforremovingsandfromdrillingfluidtopreventabrasionofthepumpsItmaybeoperatedmechanicallyorbyafastmovingstreamoffluidinsideaspecialconeshapedvessel,inwhichcaseitissometimescalledahydrocycloneDesilterAcentrifugaldevice,similartoadesander,usedtoremoveveryfineparticles,orsilt,fromdrillingfluidThiskeepstheamountofsolidsinthefluidtothelowestpossiblelevelCrownBlockandWaterTableDoghouseAsmallenclosureontherigfloorusedasanofficeforthedrillerorasastorehouseforsmallobjectsAlso,anysmallbuildingusedasanofficeorforstorageDrawworksThehoistingmechanismonadrillingrigItisessentiallyalargewinchthatspoolsoffortakesinthedrillinglineandthusraisesorlowersthedrillstemandbitDrillBitThecuttingorboringelementusedindrillingoilandgaswellsMostbitsusedinrotarydrillingarerollerconebitsThebitconsistsofthecuttingelementsandthecirculatingelementThecirculatingelementpermitsthepassageofdrillingfluidandusesthehydraulicforceofthefluidstreamtoimprovedrillingratesDrillCollarAheavy,thickwalledtube,usuallysteel,usedbetweenthedrillpipeandthebitinthedrillstemItisusedtoputweightonthebitsothatthebitcandrillDrillPipeTheheavyseamlesstubingusedtorotatethebitandcirculatethedrillingfluidJointsofpipefeetlongarecoupledtogetherwithtooljointsDriller'sConsoleThecontrolpanel,locatedontheplatform,wherethedrillercontrolsdrillingoperationsDrillingLineAwireropehoistingline,reevedonsheavesofthecrownblockandtravelingblock(ineffectablockandtackle)ItsprimarypurposeistohoistorlowerdrillpipeorcasingfromorintoawellAlso,awireropeusedtosupportthedrillingtoolsElectricControlHouseOndieselelectricrigs,powerfuldieselenginesdrivelargeelectricgeneratorsThegeneratorsproduceelectricitythatflowsthroughcablestoelectricswitchesandcontrolequipmentenclosedinacontrolcabinetorpanelElectricityisfedtoelectricmotorsviathepanelElectricCableTraySupportstheheavyelectricalcablesthatfeedthepowerfromthecontrolpaneltotherigmotorsElevatorsAsetofclampsthatgripsastand,orcolumn,ofcasing,tubing,drillpipe,orsuckerrods,sothestandcanberaisedorloweredintotheholeEngineGeneratorSetsAdiesel,LiquefiedPetroleumGas(LPG),naturalgas,orgasolineengine,alongwithamechanicaltransmissionandgeneratorforproducingpowerforthedrillingrigNewerrigsuseelectricgeneratorstopowerelectricmotorsontheotherpartsoftherigFuelTanksFuelstoragetanksforthepowergeneratingsystemHoistingLineAwireropeusedinhoistingoperationsMustconformtotheAPIstandardsforitsintendedusesHookAlarge,hookshapeddevicefromwhichtheelevatorbailsortheswivelissuspendedItisdesignedtocarrymaximumloadsrangingfromtotonsandturnsonbearingsinitssupportinghousingKellyTheheavysquareorhexagonalsteelmembersuspendedfromtheswivelthroughtherotarytableItisconnectedtothetopmostjointofdrillpipetoturnthedrillstemastherotarytableturnsKellyBushingAdevicefittedtotherotarytablethroughwhichthekellypassesItisthemeansbywhichthetorqueoftherotarytableistransmittedtothekellyandtothedrillstemAlsocalledthedrivebushingKellySpinnerAdeviceforspinningthedrillpipeReplacesthespinningchainMastAportablederrickcapableofbeingerectedasaunit,asdistinguishedfromastandardderrick,whichcannotberaisedtoaworkingpositionasaunitMonkeyboardThederrickman'sworkingplatformDoubleboard,tribbleboard,fourableboardamonkeyboardlocatedataheightinthederrickormastequaltotwo,three,orfourlengthsofpiperespectivelyMouseholeShallowboresundertherigfloor,usuallylinedwithpipe,inwhichjointsofdrillpipearetemporarilysuspendedforlaterconnectiontothedrillstringMudGasSeparatorAdevicethatremovesgasfromthemudcomingoutofawellwhenakickisbeingcirculatedoutMudPitsAseriesofopentanks,usuallymadeofsteelplates,throughwhichthedrillingmudiscycledtoallowsandandsedimentstosettleoutAdditivesaremixedwiththemudinthepit,andthefluidistemporarilystoredtherebeforebeingpumpedbackintothewellMudpitcompartmentsarealsocalledshakerpits,settlingpits,andsuctionpits,dependingontheirmainpurposeMudPumpAlargereciprocatingpumpusedtocirculatethemud(drillingfluid)onadrillingrigMudReturnLineAtroughorpipe,placedbetweenthesurfaceconnectionsatthewellboreandtheshaleshakerDrillingmudflowsthroughituponitsreturntothesurfacefromtheholePipeRacksAhorizontalsupportfortubulargoodsPipeRampAnangledrampfordraggingdrillpipeuptothedrillingplatformorbringingpipedownoffthedrillplatformAblowoutpreventerthatusesramstosealoffpressureonaholethatiswithorwithoutpipeItisalsocalledarampreventerRamtypepreventershaveinterchangeableramblockstoaccommodatedifferentODdrillpipe,casing,ortubingRatholeAholeintherigfloortofeetdeep,linedwithcasingthatprojectsabovethefloorThekellyisplacedintheratholewhenhoistingoperationsareinprogressReservePitsAmudpitinwhichasupplyofdrillingfluidhasbeenstoredAlso,awastepit,usuallyanexcavated,earthenwalledpitItmaybelinedwithplastictopreventsoilcontaminationRotaryHoseThehoseonarotarydrillingrigthatconductsthedrillingfluidfromthemudpumpandstandpipetotheswivelandkellyalsocalledthemudhoseorthekellyhoseRamBlowoutPreventerRotaryTableTheprincipalcomponentofarotary,orrotarymachine,usedtoturnthedrillstemandsupportthedrillingassemblyIthasabeveledgeararrangementtocreatetherotationalmotionandanopeningintowhichbushingsarefittedtodriveandsupportthedrillingassemblyNotethepipespinner(inred)onthesideoftheswivelShaleShakerAseriesoftrayswithsievesorscreensthatvibratetoremovecuttingsfromcirculatingfluidinrotarydrillingoperationsThesizeoftheopeningsinthesieveisselectedtomatchthesizeofthesolidsinthedrillingfluidandtheanticipatedsizeofcuttingsAlsocalledashakerSlipsWedgeshapedpiecesofmetalwithteethorothergrippingelementsthatareusedtopreventpipefromslippingdownintotheholeortoholdpipeinplaceRotaryslipsfitaroundthedrillpipeandwedgeagainstthemasterbushingtosupportthepipePowerslipsarepneumaticallyorhydraulicallyactuateddevicesthatallowthecrewtodispensewiththemanualhandlingofslipswhenmakingaconnectionPackersandotherdownholeequipmentaresecuredinpositionbyslipsthatengagethepipebyactiondirectedatthesurfaceSpinningChainArelativelyshortlengthofchainattachedtothetongpullchainonthemanualtongsusedtomakeupdrillpipeThespinningchainisattachedtothepullchainsothatacrewmembercanwrapthespinningchainseveraltimesaroundthetooljointboxofajointofdrillpipesuspendedintherotarytableAftercrewmembersstabthepinofanothertooljointintotheboxend,oneofthemthengraspstheendofthespinningchainandwitharapidupwardmotionofthewrist"throwsthespinningchain"thatis,causesittounwrapfromtheboxandcoilupwardontothebodyofthejointstabbedintotheboxThedrillerthenactuatesthemakeupcatheadtopullthechainoffofthepipebody,whichcausesthepipetospinandthusthepinthreadstospinintotheboxStairwaysStairsleadingfromoneleveltoanotherProtectedwithhandrailsStandpipeAverticalpiperisingalongthesideofthederrickormastItjoinsthedischargelineleadingfromthemudpumptotherotaryhoseandthroughwhichmudispumpedgoingintotheholeSubstructureThefoundationonwhichthederrickormastandusuallythedrawworkssitcontainsspaceforstorageandwellcontrolequipmentSurfaceCasingUsuallythefirstcasingtoberuninawellThisisdoneafterspuddinginsoablowoutpreventercanbeinstalledbeforedrillingisstartedSwivelArotarytoolthatishungfromtherotaryhookandtravelingblocktosuspendandpermitfreerotationofthedrillstemItalsoprovidesaconnectionfortherotaryhoseandapassagewayfortheflowofdrillingfluidintothedrillstemTongsThelargewrenchesusedforturningwhenmakinguporbreakingoutdrillpipe,casing,tubing,orotherpipevariouslycalledcasingtongs,rotarytongs,andsoforthaccordingtothespecificusePowertongsarepneumaticallyorhydraulicallyoperatedtoolsthatspinthepipeupand,insomeinstances,applythefinalmakeuptorqueTopDriveThetopdriverotatesthedrillstringendbitwithouttheuseofakellyandrotarytableThetopdriveisoperatedfromacontrolconsoleontherigfloorTravelingBlockAnarrangementofpulleysorsheavesthroughwhichdrillingcableisreeved,whichmovesupordowninthederrickormastWalkwaysAnareaclearedformovingthroughbypersonnelandprotectedwithahandrailWaterTankIsusedtostorewaterthatisusedformudmixing,cementing,andrigcleaningWeightIndicatorAdeviceformeasuringtheweightofthedrillstringMonthlycalibrationtocalculateddrillstringweightisrequiredbyAPIeToolsPage|eToolHome|SitePreparation|Drilling|WellCompletion|Servicing|PlugAbandonWellGeneralSafety|AdditionalReferences|ViewingPrintingInstructions|Credits|JSASafetyandHealthTopic|SiteMap|IllustratedGlossary|GlossaryofTermsBacktoTopwwwoshagovwwwdolgovContactUs|FreedomofInformationAct|InformationQuality|CustomerSurveyPrivacyandSecurityStatement|DisclaimersOccupationalSafetyHealthAdministrationConstitutionAvenue,NWWashington,DCeToolHome|SitePreparation|Drilling|PlugAbandonWellGeneralSafety|Additional|Credits|SiteMapeToolHome|SitePreparation|Drilling|WellCompletion|Servicing|PlugAbandonWellGeneralSafety|AdditionalReferences|ViewingPrintingInstructions|Credits|JSASafetyandHealthTopic|SiteMap|IllustratedGlossary|GlossaryofTermsUSDepartmentofLaborOccupationalSafetyHealthAdministrationwwwoshagovskipnavigationallinksSearchAdvancedSearch|AZIndexGlossaryofTermsABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRSTUVW*ThisisanabridgedversionoftheDictionaryofPetroleumTermsprovidedbyPetexandtheUniversityofTexasAustin©PetexAabandonv:totemporarilyorpermanentlyceaseproductionfromawellortoceasefurtherdrillingoperationsabnormalpressuren:pressureoutsidethenormalorexpectedrangeabrasionn:wearingawaybyfrictionaccumulatorn:thestoragedevicefornitrogenpressurizedhydraulicfluid,whichisusedinoperatingtheblowoutpreventersaceticacidn:anorganicacidcompoundsometimesusedtoacidizeoilwellsacidfracturev:topartoropenfracturesinlimestoneformationsbyusingfluidunderhydraulicpressureacidizev:totreatformationswithacidforthepurposeofincreasingproductionacidstimulationn:awellstimulationmethodusingacidSeeacidizeaerationn:theintroductionofairorgasintoaliquidAESCAssociationofEnergyServiceCompaniesn:atradeassociationthatrepresentstheinterestsofmembersoftheenergyservicesegmentoftheoilandgasindustryItofferspublicationsregardingrecommendedindustrypracticesandtrainingmaterialsAddress:RichmondAve,#Houston,TX()airhoistn:ahoistoperatedbycompressedairapneumatichoistAirhoistsareoftenmountedontherigfloorandmaybeusedtoliftjointsofpipeandotherheavyobjectsANSIAmericanNationalStandardsInstituten:anonprofitorganization((c))thatadministersandcoordinatesvoluntarystandardizationandconformityassessmentsystemGeneralInquiries:Telephone:()Headquarters:LStreet,NW,Washington,DC,Telephone:()Fax:()HomeGeneralSafetySitePreparationDrillingWellCompletionServicingPlugandAbandontheWellNewYorkOffice:WestrdStreet,NewYork,NYTelephone:()Fax:()APIAmericanPetroleumInstituten:atradeassociationandstandardsorganizationthatrepresentstheinterestsoftheoilandgasindustryItofferspublicationsregardingstandards,recommendedpractices,andotherindustryrelatedinformationAddress:LStreetNWWashington,DC()IADCInternationalAssociationofDrillingContractorsn:atradeassociationthatrepresentstheinterestsofmembersofthedrillingsegmentoftheoilandgasindustryItofferspublicationsregardingrecommendedindustrypracticesandtrainingmaterialsAddress:ParkTenPlace,#Houston,TX()annularblowoutpreventern:awellcontroldevice,usuallyinstalledabovetherampreventers,thatformsasealintheannularspacebetweenthepipeandwellboreor,ifnopipeispresent,overthewellboreitselfannularpressuren:pressureinanannularspaceannulusn:thespacearoundapipeinawellbore,sometimestermedtheannularspaceAPImonagramadjthelogooftheAmericanPetroleumInstitute(API)thatisplacedoncertainpiecesofoilfieldequipmentbytheequipmentmanufacturerAPIlicensestheuseofthemonogramonequipmentthatmeetstheAPI'sminimumstandardsItofferspublicationsregardingstandards,recommendedpractices,andotherindustryrelatedinformationAddress:LStreetNWWashington,DC()artificialliftn:anymethodusedtoraiseoiltothesurfaceafterawellceasestoflowTOPeToolHome|S

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